Pulsed laser radiation source
SUBSTANCE: pulsed laser radiation source has at least one pulsed laser, an optical means for summation of radiation and a focusing system. The source further includes a driving generator whose output is connected to the input of the pulsed laser, and the output of the pulsed laser is optically connected in series to an optical switch, a matching unit, an optical delay means and the optical means for summation of radiation and then further with the focusing system, wherein the output of the driving generator is connected to the control input of the optical switch.
EFFECT: high output optical power of laser radiation pulses.
The invention relates to laser technology, namely the adders of optical radiation, for example, semiconductor lasers, and can be used for power amplification of laser radiation in the fiber-optical communication lines, networks, information-measuring systems, process equipment, household appliances, medicine, systems identification and guidance, to protect objects from unauthorized and fire laser weapons, etc.
Known for high power fiber laser (Svetcov VI Optical and quantum electronics: textbook. Ivanovo: Ivanovo state chem.-technical University, 2010 (RIS on p.51), consisting of several single-mode fiber lasers, the radiation which is collected in a single fiber. Total radiation transmitted by the fiber to the focusing system.
The disadvantage of this device is the low level of the output power of laser radiation at relatively high cost of power from the power source.
Also known radiation sources based on laser diodes, the radiation of which is summed up by the optical system, for example, in the form of a set of prisms (RF patent No. 2172972, "Radiating adder" IPC7G02B 27/09 H01S 5/40; US Patent No. 5463534. Light source high power. F21V 7/04) to form a common beam radiation. Such systems can achieve very high values of the s intensities due to special arrangement of diodes and optical elements.
For example, a known light source high power (United States Patent No. 5463534. Light source high power. F21V 7/04,), which contains the number of emitting sources. To increase radiated power optical system colliery, focuses through the lens and summarizes using prisms laser beams of the individual lasers in the combined output beam of optical radiation.
A disadvantage of the known devices is the low output pulse (peak) optical radiation power, which is determined by the number of connected emitting sources.
The closest device to the technical nature of the claimed technical solution is the radiation source based on laser diodes (RF patent No. 2163048. The radiation source based on laser diodes. IPC7H01S 3/09, H01S 3/091. Publ.: 10.02.2001). The optical system of the device includes display means placed between the radiating source and the focus area, which includes means forming radiation and a means of focusing the radiation.
The tool includes forming tool callmerobbie radiation and a means to create a sum beam. Laser radiation from each laser diode after callmerobbie is transmitted to the prismatic means the sum and total collimating tool (cylindrical Lin is a). The result is a single homogeneous beam, which is focused by a spherical lens on the end face of the core of the optical fiber.
A disadvantage of the known device is the low output pulse (peak) optical radiation power, depending on the number of laser diodes.
The objective of the invention is to increase the output pulse (peak) optical radiation power at a much lower optical power of the source of pulsed laser radiation.
The technical result is to increase the output optical power of the laser radiation pulses due to the possibility of energy storage in the device when the same sources of power (energy) as in the prototype and in the proposed device.
This object is achieved in that the source of pulsed laser radiation contains at least one pulsed laser, optical means summation radiation and a focusing system. Additionally entered the master oscillator, the output of which is connected to the input of a pulse laser, and the output of the pulsed laser optically connected in series with the optical switch unit approval, by means of an optical delay and optical means for summing the radiation and forth with the focusing system, and the output for the surrounding of the generator is connected with the control input of the optical switch.
The source of pulsed laser radiation is shown in the block diagram - figure 1. The figure 2 shows the timing chart explaining the operation of the source of pulsed laser radiation.
The source of pulsed laser radiation contains connected in series master oscillator 1, the pulse laser 2, 3 optical switch unit 4 alignment with the optical means of the delay means 5 of the optical delay, made for example of segments of optical fiber and having a discrete time delay of the optical pulse. The radiation source includes optical means 6 summation radiation and focusing 7 system for forming a predetermined pattern of the beam at the output end of the optical means 6 summation of radiation.
Blocks 2-7 optically interconnected. The output of the master oscillator 1 is connected with the control input of the optical switch 3.
The signals generated at the outputs of the units of the scheme: J0k- 1, 2, ... N-1, N-th optical pulse laser 2 (T - period pulse); J'01...J'0Noptical pulses at the output of the optical switch 3; J1...JNoptical pulses at the output of the block alignment with the tool optical delay 4; J'1...J'Noptical pulses at the input of the optical means are summarized what I radiation 6; Jo- the radiation output device.
The figure 2 shows the following timing chart (vertical axis) deferred intensity J of the optical pulses, the abscissa shows the time t), where J0ksignals of the optical pulses (1, 2, ... N-1, N) of the pulse laser 2 (N is the number of pulses emitted by the laser, for a complete cycle of operation of the switch 3); J1I , J2, ... JN-1first, second, N-1 signals of the optical pulses at the output of the block alignment with the tool optical delay 4; JNsignal of the N-th optical pulse at the output of the block alignment with the tool optical delay 4, J'Nsignal of the N-th optical pulse at the output means of the optical delay 5 (this signal passes without delay; J'N-1...J'2, J'1signals N-1, the second and first optical pulses at the input of the optical means summation radiation 6; J'Jthe output signal of the optical means summation radiation 6.
The source of pulsed laser radiation works in the following way. The pulse signal from the oscillator 1 is fed to the input of the pulse laser 2 and manages its work. Pulses of optical radiation from the laser 2 is fed to the input of the optical switch 3. At the control input of the optical switch 3 receives the electrical pulses from the output specifies the GE is erator 1 frequency (1/T), equal to the frequency emitted by the laser 2 pulse of optical radiation. Upon receipt of the first control pulse from the master oscillator 1 optical switch 3 sends a pulse of optical radiation through the block matching tool optical delay 4 on the first element of the optical delay 5. On the second pulse from the master oscillator 1 optical switch 3 sends the optical radiation at the second element means of the optical delay 5 etc. Means optical delay comprises N-1 element. The N-th pulse laser 2 passes to the input of the optical means summation radiation 6 without delay. Outputs means of an optical delay 5 are connected with N-1 inputs optical means summation radiation 6. The N-th pulse of laser radiation is supplied to the N-th input optical means summation radiation directly. Elements of the medium optical delay 5 is designed so that all detainees pulses of laser radiation are received at the inputs of the optical means summation radiation 6 simultaneously with the N-th pulse. The output of the optical means of the summation of the radiation 6 is formed impulse J'Jequal to the sum of the intensities of the pulses of laser radiation.
Next, the resulting laser beam is focused focusing system 7. As a result, the output of the proposed device is istwa formed pulsed laser radiation J ofar superior to the intensity of the pulses of the laser radiation of the laser 2. Thus the repetition rate of the pulses at the output of the device is N times lower than the frequency (1/T) emitted by the laser pulse.
Thus, compared to known the closest analogue to the proposed technical solution is achieved a substantial increase in the output pulse (peak) optical power pulses of laser radiation due to the possibility of accumulation of energy at the same power sources as in the prototype and in the proposed device.
For example, if one source of laser radiation due to the possibility of energy storage in the proposed device can be obtained at the output is approximately N times more power pulses of laser radiation with the exception of optical radiation loss compared to power pulsed radiation of a single source with a pulse repetition frequency N times less than the pulse frequency of the laser.
Taking into account losses in the optical elements of the device, the intensity of the optical radiation Jothe output of the proposed device can be written in the following form:
where J0k- intensity pulsed radiation output of a pulsed laser;
δi- loss of intensity of the radiation is ment for each pulse when it passes through the optical system of the device.
The number N is determined by the set intensity of optical radiation Jo. Reduction of Jodue to the attenuation coefficient of the radiation in the optical elements of the medium delay.
The advantage of the proposed invention is the fact that to obtain pulses of high-intensity optical radiation requires a low power laser and power supply.
The source of pulsed laser radiation containing at least one pulsed laser, optical means summation radiation and a focusing system, wherein the inputs of the master oscillator, the output of which is connected to the input of a pulse laser, and the output of the pulsed laser optically connected in series with the optical switch unit approval, by means of an optical delay and optical means for summing the radiation and forth with the focusing system, and the output of the master oscillator is connected with the control input of the optical switch.
SUBSTANCE: device includes an optical amplifier which includes an optical amplifying medium (11) which optically amplifies light to be amplified, and a transparent medium (12), through which the light to be amplified passes multiple times; and an energy source (30) which supplies energy for exciting the optical amplifying medium (11). The set of components, including the optical amplifying medium (11) and the transparent medium (12) of the optical amplifier, are combined. The transparent medium (12) has the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped or a polygonal column having five or more sides, and light (11) incident on the transparent medium (12) is completely reflected by surfaces of the walls of the transparent medium (12), moving and rotating inside the transparent medium (12).
EFFECT: smaller size, high power and stabilisation of the device.
20 cl, 33 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented in the following way. Owing to selection of curvature radii of completely reflecting and output resonator mirrors and distances between resonator mirrors, laser emission beam parameters are adjusted by setting the specified ratio between width of resonator stability zone and focal power value of thermal lens, which is induced in active element by pumping radiation. Then, laser emission beam is focused on the processed material. When it is necessary to change the material processing mode, pumping power is changed at maintaining the specified ratio between width of resonator stability zone and focal power value of thermal lens. In order to maintain the specified value of the ratio, curvature radius of completely reflecting mirror is changed and it is installed at the specified distance from active element.
EFFECT: improvement of operating characteristics of laser processing of materials with various properties.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes, arranged in series on an optical axis, a mutual polarisation rotator which rotates the polarisation plane of transmitted radiation by an angle φ and a compensating optical element placed behind an absorbing optical element. The compensating element is an optical element having, for the same parameters of laser radiation, thermally induced depolarisation γ1 approximately equal to γ0: γ1 (P1, Q1, k1, ξ1, α1, L1, W) ≈ γ0 (P0, Q0, k0, ξ0, α0, L0, W), where P and Q are thermo-optical parameters of the element, k0 is the thermal conductivity coefficient of the element, ξ0 is the optical anisotropy parameter of the material of the element, α0 is the absorption coefficient of the material of the element, L0 is the length of the element, W is the laser radiation power. At least one of said parameters, from which γ1 depends, is not equal to the corresponding parameter γ0, and angle φ of the mutual polarisation rotator and the distinctive parameters of the compensating element are determined by the selection of the material of the compensating element and the condition for minimum total thermally induced depolarisation in the absorbing element-mutual polarisation rotator-compensating element system.
EFFECT: possibility of compensating for thermally induced depolarisation in any predetermined laser absorbing optical element.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: source has a laser diode (LD) mounted on a wide optical resonator (30, 82), lying between two reflecting surfaces (92, 48) and a filter (44, 86) for selecting modes on the optical path in the resonator. The wide resonator (82) has the following devices arranged on the optical path: an optical device (94) having a polariser (100) which transits 100% linear polarisation of the beam Fd generated by the laser diode, having an initial polarisation angle θ0 equal to 0°, a device (102) for turning the polarisation plane, which turns the polarisation plane of the beam (Fcl) coming out of the polariser by a given angle θ1, a polarisation divider (104) for dividing the beam (Frt) coming out of the device for turning the polarisation plane, an optical device which prevents the return of the reflected beam (Freturn), specifically the reflected useful beam (Fu) to the laser diode (LD). Said polarisation divider lies in the resonator at such an angle that its transmission axis (tt') is directed at an angle (-θ1) of opposite sign and the same value as the polarisation angle of the beam (Frt) coming out of the device (102) for turning the polarisation plane.
EFFECT: reduced width of the spectral line and reduced load on the laser diode while maintaining power at the output of the source.
11 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment and can be used for treatment of tuberculosis, open wounds, ETN diseases and in gynecology. Multiwave laser system contains laser emitter with radiation wavelength 1.06 mcm, with pump system, power source, control system, converter of radiation into visible and ultraviolet region of spectrum on linear crystals, system of isolation of spectrum sections and fiber-optic system of laser radiation transport. Laser emitter is made in form of solid-state driving oscillator with longitudinal pump by semiconductor diode 21, which contains active element 25, made with possibility to generate radiation with σ-polarisation, and passive Q-switching.
EFFECT: application of the invention will make it possible to increase radiation output in IR, visible and ultraviolet ranges of wavelength, ensure small weight and size characteristics and high degree of safety for servicing personnel and patients, ensure stable output parameters of radiation.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating dissipation discrete cells with a controlled shape and size lying according to a given transmission profile of the diaphragm. A tangential cuvette is used, said cuvette being filled with a colloidal mixture of a liquid with absorbing carbonaceous nanomaterials which are pumped by hydraulic pump through the cuvette, placed coaxially with the direction of propagation of light. The colloidal mixture in the tangential cuvette can be a hydrosol of alkali-halide crystals with colour centres and absorbing carbonaceous nanomaterials.
EFFECT: possibility of varying transmission characteristics of the soft diaphragm when used in a wide range of wavelength and intensity of laser radiation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a controller connected with its output to an input of a stabilised laser, and a generator, and also the first beam splitter arranged in a bundle of radiation of the stabilised laser. Downstream the beam splitter there are the following serially installed components: a reference, the first photodetector and the first detector. The device comprises the second beam splitter, having two channels, and installed in the radiation bundle of the stabilised laser downstream the first beam splitter. The modulator is installed between the first and the second beam splitters, and is connected with its input to the generator's output. The second photodetector is installed serially, as well as the second detector and a differential amplifier. The output of the first photodetector and the output of the second photodetector are connected via a differential amplifier with the controller's input. The input of the second channel of the second beam splitter is connected to the output of the first beam splitter, and output of each of channels of the second beam splitter is optically connected with the input of one photodetector directly, and via the reference to the input of the other photodetector.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of medium radiation frequency stabilisation without rise in high-frequency deviations of this frequency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: emission from slot-type discharge gap of laser is directed to one of resonator mirrors through additional passive optic forwarding section. At that, pulse generation of emission is performed by periodic interlocking of resonator emission amplification in this passive section. Device for implementation of the above method includes tight chamber filled with active gaseous medium and having an emission outlet opening and optic resonator with output mirror. Two opposite lying extended metal electrodes connected to HF generator and forming a slot-type discharge gap are installed in the chamber. Optic resonator is equipped with external passive section - optic retranslator with possibility of retranslation of distribution of intensity and phase of light beam in plane of edges of electrodes on plane of output resonator mirror installed outside the chamber, and with emission modulator installed on passive section.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of modulated change of losses in resonator of slot-type laser.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system has series-arranged laser, a polarisation light-splitting unit, after which two anisotropic acousto-optical cells turned 90° relative each other, two prisms and a pair of optical wedge are placed in series in each channel. Further, an adder prism and a beam-splitter prism are placed in series. The system also has a telescope, a measurement channel, which includes a polarisation light-splitting unit, two pairs of optical wedges, a telescopic system and a position-sensitive photodetector. The measurement channel uses a second position-sensitive photodetector. Also, the position-sensitive photodetectors are electrically connected to a computer which is connected to acousto-optical cell control units. In the second version, the system has in each channel, series-arranged anisotropic acousto-optical cells, a prism and a pair of optical wedges, where there are phase half-wave plates (λ/2) in one channel before and after the anisotropic acousto-optical cell.
EFFECT: capacity for fast and accurate control of a laser beam without increase in its divergence.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tunable frequency selector has a Fabry-Perot resonator with variable optical length between mirrors. The size of constriction of the Fabry-Perot resonator mode is several times the radiation wavelength. A waveguide with mode size of several wavelengths is placed in front of the Fabry-Perot resonator. Waveguide and Fabry-Perot modes partially coincide such that the modulus of the waveguide coupling coefficient of the Fabry-Perot resonator mode is higher than the waveguide coupling coefficient of the waveguide mode reflected from the front mirror of the Fabry-Perot resonator.
EFFECT: providing the least possible optical length of an active resonator which includes a frequency selector for operation in a mode for generating one longitudinal mode of the active resonator.
9 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: image display system includes an array of microstructured pictogram elements made for combined formation of an image or information, and structured coating material applied on at least part of the surface of a layer of microstructured pictograms. Observation or reading using a magnifying device is possible. The array of microstructured pictogram elements is embedded in a pictogram layer. Structuring of the coating material makes up a region where there is coating material and regions where there is no coating material. The artificial imaging system includes an array of focusing elements and an imaging system which includes an array of microstructured pictogram elements which is embedded in the pictogram layer. The array of focusing elements and the imaging system interact in order to form at least one artificial optical image. Structured coating material is used, which is applied on at least part of the surface of the microstructured pictogram layer. Structuring of the coating material makes up a region where there is coating material and regions where there is no coating material.
EFFECT: enabling open authentication of currency, documents, industrial articles and products, and visual magnification of industrial articles, products and packaging.
45 cl, 52 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a laser radiation splitter. The splitter splits polarised radiation from an external source into basic and reference radiation. Basic radiation is directed onto a second splitter where it is split into N channels and amplified by amplifiers in each channel. Part of the radiation is collected by a semitransparent mirror(s). A control beam is formed, compared with reference radiation and then converted to an electric signal. The control signal for phase adjustment modules is calculated based on the signal parameters using a computation unit. Phase adjustment is carried out using N phase adjustment modules lying after amplifiers which perform phase shift in each channel using cyclic control signals. The value of each control signal in each of the N channels is determined separately via summation of the signal which is determined from shift of interference fringes in the plane of the array of a multichannel photodetector with the signal determined from the results of measuring intensity of the resultant radiation. Beams of control and reference radiation fall on the multichannel photodetector at a small angle with respect to each other. Resultant radiation is obtained when all beams of control radiation are focused on a one-channel photodetector using a lens.
EFFECT: obtaining high-power monochromatic coherent radiation.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medical equipment, namely, to laser probes and their combinations, applied in ophthalmology. Probe contains irradiating optic fibre for light beam irradiation, optic system, located on the irradiation side of irradiating optic fibre, and two or more receiving optic fibres, located opposite to irradiating optic fibre. Optic system contains diffractive surface. Light beam, irradiated by irradiating optic fibre, is diffracted into two or more diffracted light beams, focused in plane, parallel to diffraction surface. Receiving ends of each of two or more receiving optic fibres, are intended for reception of light beam, diffracted by optic system, are located in plane, parallel to diffraction surface. Another version of implementation is ophthalmologic laser probe, containing irradiating optic fibre and optic system, located on irradiation side of irradiating optic fibre. Optic system is made in the same way as in the previous version. Connection for laser probe contains case, optic system, located in case, first connecting link, located on one side of optic system; and second connecting link, located on the other side of optic system. Optic system contains diffraction surface, each of two or more diffracted light beams is focused in plane, parallel to said surface.
EFFECT: application of group of inventions will make it possible to reduce operation time due to probe construction which makes it possible to form multipoint laser beam.
27 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protective coating has a layer of polymer material with shape memory, having a surface made of microlenses, where each microlens is associated with one of a plurality of images on the protective coating. The layer of polymer material with shape memory is sensitive to external stimulating effect, for example to temperature, a solvent or moisture, owing to transition from a first state in which the optical property of the microlens has a first value to a second state in which the optical property of the microlens has a second value. The microlenses have refracting surfaces which transmit light to positions in the protective coating, yielding a composite image from images formed on the protective coating when the layer of polymer material with shape memory is in one of a first or second state.
EFFECT: invention provides change in optical properties of the article as a result of the external effect.
9 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed microoptical systems for artificial magnification include a pictogram matrix; and a matrix of pictogram focusing elements (microlens); where the matrix of pictogram focusing elements and the pictogram matrix arranged relative each other in such a way that at least one artificially magnified image having a motion effect is provided. Each of the said pictogram matrices and matrices of pictogram focusing elements have their own separate design features, for example the matrix of pictogram focusing elements can have thickness less than 50 micrometres and/or the effective diametre of the base of pictogram focusing elements can be less than 50 micrometres.
EFFECT: possibility of using disclosed engineering solutions on objects for everyday use, which are subjected to multiple mechanical effects and deformations without breaking down and deterioration of characteristics of microoptical system for artificial magnification with provision for high magnification and obtaining a clear image of protective micro-structured elements.
103 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has at least one display apparatus, a total internal reflection (TIR) optical element connected to a drive and at least one optical path distributing optical element. The TIR optical element can form an optical path for transmitting an image of the environment directly from the environment to at least one optical path distributing optical element. The optical path distributing element has a surface with controlled TIR and can form an optical path for transmitting the image of the environment from the TIR optical element to at least one eye of an observer, and can also form an optical path for transmitting a virtual image from the display apparatus to at least one eye of an observer.
EFFECT: reproduction of a virtual image and an image of the environment, low power consumption and weight.
22 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mirrors/filters are placed in space so as to create a collinear matrix group of rectangular beams through successive reflections and/or transmissions from several optical frequencies emitted by a defined number of radiation sources. The top step consists of matrix of mirrors/filters with size m x n in p items superimposed with each other. The bottom step is a matrix from m mirrors/filters built into p rows with possibility of addressing outgoing beams to columns of matrices of the top step. The mirrors/filters of the matrices have characteristics which enable transmission of spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it and/or transmission of the spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it to the next mirror/filter.
EFFECT: optimisation of the process of frequency-address light beam routing.
5 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves image preprocessing using a video processor 13 to eliminate geometric distortions, resulting from the geometry of the optical system; formation of an image of the cabin space on a monitor screen 1 and projection using a reproduction lens 2 onto a holographic diffuser 3, which is an assembly of two diffusers (4, 6), turned about each other and joined by a layer of immersion transparent substance 5, and which forms a scattering indicatrix so as to provide a given viewing area with the required image contrast. Principal beams are directed near the optical axis of the system using a collective lens 7, placed in front of the holographic diffuser. The image is then directed to the viewing area of the driver 12 using a holographic beam splitter 9, placed on the windscreen 10.
EFFECT: increased reliability and provision for safe driving conditions.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has a laser and, optically connected to the laser, a system for dividing the initial beam, a beam convergence system, galvano scanner with a focus lens and a telescope-radiation homogeniser, fitted on the beam path in front of the system for dividing the initial beam. The system for dividing the initial beam and the beam convergence system are in form of mirror matrices. The mirrors in the matrices have equal surface area and can independently rotate and move in two mutually perpendicular planes. Mirrors in the matrix of the beam convergence system can additionally move in the plane of the matrix.
EFFECT: multiple increase in efficiency of laser beam machines and reduced power consumption at high quality of the product.
FIELD: technological processes, metal working.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of laser processing of materials, in particular, to device of multiway laser processing and may be used in production of large number of products at single laser complex, also in process of laser cutting, welding, pad welding and selective sintering. Device comprises N+1 lasers of initial beam division system and system of beam convergence, which is arranged in the form of set of N+1 telescopes, every of which is optically connected to laser. Telescopes are arranged with the possibility of independent rotation and displacement in two mutually perpendicular planes.
EFFECT: provision of multiple rise of efficiency of laser technological complexes, reduced power inputs at high quality of product.
SUBSTANCE: device has circular metallic plate, in which a periodic matrix of rectangular slits is cut. Plate is positioned in such a way, that a falling beam of millimeter-long waves falls at an angle of 45° relatively to plate surface. Polarization of falling beam is parallel to plate surface. When direction of plate is such, that electric field is perpendicular to slits (i.e. electric field is directed transversely to lesser dimension of slits), plate transfers almost 100% of falling power. If the plate rotates around its axis for 90° (while keeping angle between falling beam and plate equal to 45°) in such a way, that falling electric field is parallel to slits, then plate transfers 0% and reflects almost 100% of falling power at an angle of 90° relatively to falling beam. By changing rotation angle between 0° and 90° both reflected and passed power can be continuously varied between values 0% and 100% from falling power. Light divider has cooling device for taking heat, absorbed from magnetic waves, away from edge of metallic plate.
EFFECT: continuous variation of reflected and passed power.
11 cl, 15 dwg