# Apparatus for processing panchromatic images (versions)

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a panchromatic optical-electronic unit and a hyperspectral reducer connected in series to an improved device, as well as an improved reconstruction unit in the versions, and within the hyperspectral reducer, series-connected unit for generating spectral zone FRT, unit for orthogonalisation of spectral zone FRT and unit for improved separation of spectrozonal images.

EFFECT: more spectrozontal channels, high spectral selectivity of the channels, spectral resolution of the apparatus and linear resolution of elements of spectrozonal and panchromatic images, obtaining pixel by pixel superposition of images of different spectrozonal channels, reduced complexity of the apparatus.

4 cl, 3 dwg

The proposed device relates to the field of processing panchromatic images (broadband spectrum shaping their electromagnetic radiation) for perfect extraction contained spectral component and, primarily, to the field of signal processing to improve spectral resolution and linear (spatial) resolution elements in multispectral and panchromatic channels, including for efficient transmission and storage of data.

Known [1, 2] the device for processing panchromatic images containing single-channel opto-electronic module (om), which forms at its output an image of the observed scene in one panchromatic spectral range (DM). To form the image in any of the specified LEDs composition ABOUT can be used interchangeable filters (SCF) on these ranges. The disadvantage of these devices is sequential in time obtaining a given set of multispectral images.

Known [3] the device for processing panchromatic images with multichannel ABOUT providing simultaneous formation of the group of images of the observed scene in a different DM. To obtain images in a larger number of led in each channel ABOUT use SCF to these ranges. what dostatkom these devices is an insufficient number (from strength, tens) simultaneously forming a multispectral images.

The common disadvantage of the devices [1], [2] and [3] is a high complexity (large size and weight), is proportional to the number of concurrent diabetes, and low spectral resolution.

These shortcomings are free devices [4] to handle panchromatic images containing hyperspectral ABOUT and forming at its output at the same time hundreds of DM (hundreds of multispectral images) due to the decomposition of the panchromatic radiation (e.g., an optical prism or a diffraction grating) and irradiation narrow plots laid out their range of rows of photosensitive elements, each of which efficiently performs the role of independent channel hyperspectral device.

However, these devices have drawbacks consisting in a low linear resolution elements multispectral images, insufficient spectral resolution and number of spectral channels in the pixel nesovmestnoi images of different channels low selectivity of spectral channels (low degree of Squareness of the characteristics of spectral sensitivity spectral channels), the problematic nature of increasing the resolution elements of the panchromatic image as a whole, in excessive of what JaME data (compared to the minimum required to represent images using multispectral channels, in high complexity, due to the principle of the decomposition of the spectrum panchromatic optical radiation and binding to the spectrum of their populations apparatus of assets at low energy signal and the corresponding low signal-to-noise ratio in a narrow spectral channels, and in part to the difficulty of increasing the resolution elements of the panchromatic image, and the impossibility of the separation of their spectral component.

At the same time well-known [5] the method of RBC (method of reduction to the perfect device; a perfect device is the device with impulse response in the form of a δ-function) high-precision solution of the inverse problem, which can be adapted to the problem of allocation of multispectral images from the pan without the use of optical decomposition panchromatic radiation without radiation narrow plots laid out their range of rows of photosensitive elements, without the use of this set of rows of photosensitive elements and related equipment.

The invention aims at simplifying the device due to the exclusion from ABOUT physical (hardware) means forming portions of the spectrum and reduce the number of transmission channels to a single panchromatic, that is based on the allocation of panchromatic shows the I contained (integrated) it multispectral images and was made possible with the advent of RBC method [5] high-precision solution of the inverse problem.

The solution to this problem provides:

- increased spectral resolution;

- improve the spectral selectivity of the channels;

- increase in multispectral channels linear (spatial) resolution of the signal elements;

- increasing the number of spectral channels;

- pixel integrity of images of different spectral channels between themselves and with the original panchromatic;

- increase in linear resolution of the signal elements in the panchromatic channel;

- reducing the amount of data representing the image multispectral channels;

- simplification of the device.

(In the first variant of the proposed device) in the device for processing panchromatic images containing single panchromatic ABOUT, the entrance of which is an input device, additionally introduced hyperspectral gear to the perfect device (hyperspectral reducer, GRSP), an input connected with the output ON, and the output is an output device. This allows you to form output ABOUT the image in electronic form (as a set of quantized pixel counts of electrical signals), and in GRSP to allocate (using precision solution of the inverse problem on the basis of differences of the optical transfer functions (MTF) ABOUT different SD) below about what atom from the input device panchromatic image advanced (equivalent to convolution in this spectral area of the input spectral signal with δ-function as impulse response of a perfect device) evaluation of samples integrated in it images of different spectral bands and give them to the output device.

At this spectral resolution and spatial resolution limited only by the imperfection ABOUT, the accuracy of his knowledge of the functions of the scattering point (TRF) in different DM and noise.

The input device signal from the L_{2}- panchromatic scene f(x,y) in the used parts panchromatic band ABOUT is described by the expression

and when dividing the wavelength range of the panchromatic channel at the I parts (spectral plots) can be represented by a sum of

I desired spectral component

where s(λ,x,y) is the spectral component of the input signal with the wavelength λ of the radiation;

λ_{n}, λ_{in}respectively the lower and upper values of the wavelengths used in the device part of the panchromatic channel ABOUT;

i - number spectral plot (spectral zone, spectral range, spectral channel);

- the width of each spectral plot, providing coverage of wavelengths panchromatic band with no gaps and overlaps.

With these notations, the input signal may be at each point (x,y) described praml is my (design tolerance of view) his assessment as a superposition

I compactly supported basis signals α(i,x,y) with weights p(i,x,y). To minimize the error of the estimatenext, we will determine the weight p(i,x,y) by the method of Fourier, therefore, expression (4), (5) considered as a Fourier series with areas of A_{i}the existence of the underlying signals α(i,x,y).

When discrete representation of signals as the reference signals α(i,x,y) it is natural to take a single pulse u_{0}(·) - similar to the δ-function for the discrete case. Then the expression (5) takes the form

where u_{0}(a,b,C)=1/0 if (a,b,C)=(0,0,0)/ otherwise;

j, η, ξ - free variables.

The problem with this definition of estimatesthe desired spectral component is based weights p(i,x,y) from available on the system output signal f(x,y).

But the output response of the system for evaluationwould be equal to

where h(i,x,y) - FRT (impulse response) in the i-th spectral area.

Therefore, the weights p(i,x,y) are the weighting coefficients in the approximation of the output signal isABOUT a superposition of basis signals, meaning they can be identified by the system. Consideration of the circumstances makes the task (4) is correctly solvable.

In accordance with (4) and (5), (4) and (6), the weights p(i,x,y) are defined as the coefficients of the Fourier series, and therefore linearly independent reactionson the basis of the signals α(i,x,y) in each spectral zone orthogonalities:

where {•} is the designation of many elements,

〈•〉 - operation orthogonalization.

Then the coefficients k(i,x,y) decomposition reactiondevice at each point (x,y) in the Fourier series (orthogonalization reactionson finite basis signals) will be defined as

whereA - scope signal β(x,y) and γ(x,y).

The integral nature of the calculation of the Fourier coefficients of (9), the finiteness of the number (4), (5) Fourier (one Fourier coefficient for each spectral channel) determine samostojnost, high accuracy of calculation of spectral components of an image applied method.

Evaluationcompletely restored spectral component S(i,x,y) of the input signal f(x,y) is defined as (5) or (6)

where s_{i}- weight coefficients (relative levels) signalsspecific their views.

Expression (8)are most easily specified for option (6) determine estimates of the spectral component of the input signal.

In this case, the reaction ABOUT the underlying signals are defined as point spread function (PSF h(i,x,y) and calculates the inverse Fourier transform [6] OPF H(i,ν,µ) with regard to its parity on both spatial coordinates, for example, in the form

where k_{ν}, k_{µ}- number of values of the spatial frequency ν, µ (x, y);

Δν, Δµ - steps sample values H(i,ν,µ) for spatial frequencies ν, µ.

Orthogonalization (8) reactions ABOUT the underlying signal is produced, for example, by the method of gram-Schmidt [6]:

;

i=2,3,..., I.

BPA H(i,ν,µ) spectral zones ABOUT specified by their different band values and boundary values of the spatial frequencies (determined by the minimum wavelength spectral zones). This is enough to separate and perfect recovery GRSP multispectral image receiving their assessmentsbased on the solution of the inverse problem by the method described RBC modification.

The second version of the proposed device is that the device for processing the panchromatic image in the first embodiment GRSP contains connected in series node formation TRF spectral zones (site of formation of the point spread function (PSF), the node orthogonalization TRF spectral zones (the green orthogonalization TRF), host the perfect selection of panchromatic images using multispectral images (perfect site selection), the second input and output which are respectively the input and output GRSP. This allows the above-described manner to form at the entrance GRSP counts panchromatic image, the site of formation of the point spread function (PSF based on the known spectral transmission characteristics of the channels, for example, the inverse Fourier transform [6], (11) to calculate the FRT, the node orthogonalization TRF, for example, is known [6] (12) a way to make their orthogonalization, and host the perfect selection of high-precision solution of the inverse problem on the basis of the calculation of the coefficients of the Fourier transform to produce((6), (8), (9), (10)) the allocation of multispectral images with simultaneous determination of the calculation) estimates the samples completely restored multispectral images and give them to the exit GRSP, which is the output device.

The third version of the proposed device is that the device for processing panchromatic images with panchromatic ABOUT, the entrance of which is an input device, additionally introduced successively United GRSP, an input connected with the output ON, and the output is an output device, and a unit of perfect recovery (BSV), the output is otorongo is the second output device. This allows the above-described solution of the inverse problem to form output GRP (output device) evaluation samples completely restored multispectral images, and in BSV, in accordance with the expression

pixel-by-pixel sum of the product of estimatescounts pre-set (the set of values {IR, IK}) is completely restored (i.e., precision) multispectral images and individual weights q_{i}and thereby to form estimates of counts predefined completely restored (linear combination of perfectly restored values gives a completely restored value) over broadband (compared with estimates) the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation (fixed-width) multispectral images (in particular, the component of color, false-color images), and including (when IR=0, IK=I-1, q_{i}=1) estimates completely restored counts panchromatic image and throw them on the second output device.

The fourth version of the proposed device is that the device according to the third variant GRSP contains connected in series node of the formation of PDGF, the node orthogonalization TRF, site perfect selection, the second input and output of which are the two who are respectively the input and output GRSP. This allows the above-described manner to form at the entrance GRSP counts panchromatic image, GRSP described above to calculate the point spread function (PSF spectral channels to make their orthogonalization, to make the allocation of multispectral images with simultaneous determination of estimated times completely restored multispectral images and give them to the exit GRSP, which is the output device, in BSV to form estimates of counts specified completely restored over a broadband spectrum of electromagnetic radiation multispectral images, including, if necessary, the panchromatic image and throw them on the second output device.

In figure 1, figure 2 presents the block diagram of the proposed device according to paragraphs 1, 3 claims.

Figure 3 presents the block diagram GRSP proposed device according to paragraphs 2 and 4 of the claims.

The first version of the device contains the opto-electronic unit 1, hyperspectral reducer 2.

The third variant of the device contains the opto-electronic unit 1, hyperspectral reducer 2, block perfect recovery 3.

In the second and fourth embodiments, the device GRSP 2 contains the node 4 formation TRF, node 5 orthogonalization TRF, node 6 is the perfect selection.

ABOUT 1 represents, for example, the R, panchromatic optical-electronic part of the system [1] remote sensing or optical-electronic part of the panchromatic (black and white) camera [2].

BSV 3 is implemented, for example, on the basis of the signal processor 1879 WM (NM6404) [7], containing the vector coprocessor high performance on key (13) the operations of multiplication with accumulation.

The input devices:

7 - information.

Output device:

8 - information and exit

9 - second informational output.

The inputs and outputs of the component parts, which inputs and outputs an integral part of a higher level, have the numbers of inputs and outputs integral part of a higher level.

Other inputs hyperspectral gear 2, block 3 of a perfect recovery, node 5 orthogonalization TRF, node 6 perfect selection:

10 - input GRSP 2, the second input node 6 perfect selection

11 - input BSV 3,

12 - input node 5 orthogonalization TRF,

13 - the first input node 6 perfect selection.

Other outputs ABOUT 1, node 4 formation TRF, node 5 orthogonalization TRF:

14 - exit ABOUT 1,

15 output node 4 of the formation of TRF,

16 - output node 5 orthogonalization TRF.

In the initial state, all variants of the device on their information input 7 no signal (valid signal is equal to the zero), the device processes a zero input signal, forming a zero signal in all informational sections and their outputs 8 and 9, that is, the device is in the dynamic state of readiness for signal processing.

The first variant of the device for processing panchromatic images is as follows.

With the arrival of the signal at the input 7 of the device 1 converts it, forming at its output 14 panchromatic image in electronic form (in the form of a set of binary pixel values of the samples of the electrical signals). From exit 14 ON 1 binary codes of the samples of the signal received at the input 10 GRSP 2, which is the solution of the inverse problem on the basis of differences point spread function (PSF h(i,x,y) of different spectral channels are allocated, respectively, the expressions(9), (10), (6), from the panchromatic image perfect assessment of the integrated therein images of different spectral channels and displays them on its output, which is the output 8 of the device.

The second variant of the device is as follows.

With the arrival of an input signal to the input 7 of the device 1 as described above generates at its output 14, which is the entrance 10 GRP 2 and the second input node 6 perfect selection panchromatic image in electronic form. Site 4 the formation of PDGF inverse Fourier transform (11) the world is different transfer characteristics H(i,ν,µ) ABOUT 1 in the i-th spectral zones, i=0, 1, 2,..., I-1, computes the counts TRF and its output 15 outputs them to the input 12 of node 5 orthogonalization TRF. Node 5 orthogonalization TRF in accordance with (8), (12) produces the orthogonalization TRF and orthogonalization form gives through its output 16 to the first input 13 of the node 6 a perfect selection. Site 6, in accordance with (9), (10) and (5) or (6), determines the assessment of the committed values of the samples multispectral images and outputs them to the output 8 of the device.

The third variant of the device is as follows.

With the arrival of an input signal to the input 7 of the device ABOUT 1 and GRP 2 as described above is formed at the output 8 of the device, which is also the entrance BSV 3, ADU completely dedicated multispectral images. BSV 3, in accordance with the expression (13), pixel summarizes the works of evaluations received at its input samples, given by the sets of values {IR, IK}) completely restored multispectral images, and individual weights q_{i}and thereby forms of assessment counts preset to a perfect restoration of more broadband (compared to multispectral images) on the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation (fixed-width) multispectral images, including, if necessary, panchromatic images and displays them on the second output device 9.

The fourth variant of the device is as follows.

With the arrival of an input signal to the input 7 of the device 1 as described above generates at its output 14, which is the entrance 10 GRP 2 and the second input node 6 perfect selection panchromatic image in electronic form. Site 4 the formation of PDGF inverse Fourier transform of (11) is known transmission characteristics H(i,ν,µ) ABOUT 1 in the i-th spectral zones, i=0, 1, 2, ..., I-1, computes the counts TRF and its output 15 outputs them to the input 12 of node 5 orthogonalization TRF. Node 5 orthogonalization TRF in accordance with (8), (12) produces the orthogonalization TRF and orthogonalization form gives through its output 16 to the first input 13 of the node 6 a perfect selection. Site 6, in accordance with (9), (10) and (5) or (6), determines the assessment of the committed values of the samples multispectral images and outputs them to the output 8 of the device and to the input 11 BSV 3. The latest data from the output node 6 of the perfect selection as described above generates estimates of counts specified completely restored over broadband (compared to multispectral images) on the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation (fixed-width) multispectral images, including, if necessary, panchromatic images and displays them on the second output device 9.

The operational the functioning of each option device is provided at the adequacy of the point spread function (PSF h(i,ν,µ) real hardware.

The essence of the invention does not change when the redistribution of functions between components of the device, when using multispectral channels with different spectral width of forming them of electromagnetic radiation, when included in the composition of additional funds, including, to zoom, to implement the calibration mode TRF multispectral channels for input into the device parameters determining the number and width of spectral channels. The essence of the invention does not change in case, if the constancy of the characteristics of the emitted spectral channels calculation reactions ABOUT the underlying signals in the spectral channels and the orthogonalization of these reactions are replaced by storing pre-calculated by (11), (12) orthogonalizing reactions of the underlying signals in the storage node, the input instead of node 4 formation of PDGF and node 5 orthogonalization TRF.

The greatest effect of the proposed device provides when used in systems with a need for storage and/or transmission of data, where, in addition to the improved spectral and linear resolution, an important simplification of the device and reducing the amount of data representing the processed signals.

The rate of increase of the spectral and linear resolution multispectral images, the spectral and bertellotti channels (compared to devices-analogues), providing the analysis of the processed signals, as well as the simplification factor devices have a value not smaller multiple units.

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3. Cormorants AI surveillance and monitoring: a manual. - M.: BINOM. Knowledge laboratory, 2009, str-216.

4. Saario, Soumarokov, Vasilikos. Hyperspectral instrument and spacecraft "Resurs-P". Proceedings of the VI scientific and technical conference "System of surveillance, monitoring and remote sensing of the Earth." - M, MENTORES them. Popov A.S., 2009.

5. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2385489, IPC G06F 17/17, priority from 28.08.2008.

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1. A device for processing panchromatic images with panchromatic optical-electronic unit, the inlet of which is an input device, characterized in that it additionally introduced hyperspectral gear to the perfect device designed for perfect selection (by the decision of the Oia inverse problem on the basis of differences of the optical transfer functions of optical-electronic unit in different spectral ranges) of the input device panchromatic images integrated in it multispectral images, and the input hyperspectral gear to the perfect device connected to the output of the opto-electronic unit, and the output is the output device.

2. A device for processing panchromatic images with panchromatic optical-electronic unit, the inlet of which is an input device, characterized in that it additionally introduced hyperspectral gear to the perfect device designed for perfect selection (by solving the inverse problem on the basis of differences of the optical transfer functions of optical-electronic unit in different spectral ranges) of the input device panchromatic images integrated in it multispectral images, and the input hyperspectral gear to the perfect device connected to the output of the opto-electronic unit, and the output is an output device, and hyperspectral gear to perfect the device contains a serial connected the site of formation of the functions of the scattering point spectral zones, site orthogonalization functions of the scattering point spectral zones, site perfect selection multispectral images, the second input and output which are respectively the input and output hyperspectral gear.

3. Device is about to process panchromatic images, containing panchromatic optical-electronic unit, the inlet of which is an input device, characterized in that it additionally introduced successively United hyperspectral gear to the perfect device designed for perfect selection (by solving the inverse problem on the basis of differences of the optical transfer functions of optical-electronic unit in different spectral ranges) from the input panchromatic images integrated in it multispectral images, the input connected to the output of the opto-electronic unit, and the output is the output of the device, and the perfect block recovery for building completely restored over a broadband spectrum of electromagnetic radiation multispectral images the number of panchromatic images from the set completely restored multispectral images by pixel-by-pixel summation of the products of their estimates of the timing and set individual weights, and the output unit perfect recovery is the second output device.

4. A device for processing panchromatic images with panchromatic optical-electronic unit, the inlet of which is an input device, otlichayas the same time, that it was additionally introduced successively United hyperspectral gear to the perfect device designed for perfect selection (by solving the inverse problem on the basis of differences of the optical transfer functions of optical-electronic unit in different spectral ranges) from the input panchromatic images integrated in it multispectral images, the input connected to the output of the opto-electronic unit, and the output is the output of the device, and the perfect block recovery for building completely restored over a broadband spectrum of electromagnetic radiation multispectral images, including panchromatic image from the set completely restored multispectral images by pixel-by-pixel summation of the products of their estimates samples and set individual weights, and the output unit perfect recovery is the second output device, and hyperspectral gear to perfect the device contains a serial connected node forming functions of the scattering point spectral zones, site orthogonalization functions of the scattering point spectral zones, site perfect selection multispectral images, the second is th input and output of which are respectively the input and output hyperspectral gear.

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4 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises unit of input realization storage, clock oscillator, control unit, unit of useful signal extraction, unit of storage of five last values of useful component assessment, unit of approximation with polynom of the first degree, unit of approximation with polynom of the second degree, unit of output realization storage. In device end values of assessment are approximated with the help of method of least squares with polynom of the first or second degree, then produced equation of assessment is used to calculate values in forecast points.

EFFECT: forecasting measurement results on the basis of useful signal extraction without end effects, under conditions of limited a priori information about useful and accidental component.

1 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises serially connected frequency filter, digitiser and unit of reduction to perfect instrument (RPI), intended for interpolation of counts supplied to its inlet, detection of weight of basic final duration of signals in inlet signal on the basis of interpolated counts decomposition into Fourier series by orthogonalised reactions of frequency filter into basic signals and for formation of outlet signal as a superposition of basic signals with account of their weight in inlet signal, besides versions of device include connection of noise suppression unit or serialy connected unit of signal growth speed assessment and normalisation unit between digitiser and RPI unit.

EFFECT: improved resolution and sensitivity to elements of signal, increased efficiency and simplification of device for signals processing.

4 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device has a unit for storing input realisation, switches, approximation units, estimation storage units, arithmetic adder, a unit for storing useful component estimates, a control unit, a delay unit, a clock-pulse generator, two units for breaking down into intervals, each having a random number generator, a unit for averaging related values, a ranging unit and a register for storing random number samples. The control unit has a shift register for sampling column random numbers, a shift register for sampling row random numbers, a delay unit for sampling column random numbers, a delay unit for sampling row random numbers, a counter and a unit for checking conditions.

EFFECT: two dimensional estimation of the useful component in conditions with insufficient prior information on statistical characteristics of additive noise and useful component function.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: function codes are rounded-off to the nearest level and the obtained codes are stored. The optimality criterion code is calculated and stored. Starting with a certain initial number L of the function code, the direction of rounding-off this code is changed and the optimality criterion code is calculated. If the optimality criterion code falls, the changed value of the code is stored and a new value of the optimality criterion code is calculated and stored, otherwise the initial L-th function code and the initial optimality criterion code are stored, and calculation is moved on to the next number of the function code L+1, where it is checked whether the optimality criterion code falls in the same way as that when the L-th function code was changed. Further, the process is continued until the optimality criterion code does not fall in a sequence of n function codes, read from the code value in which the last fall in the optimality criterion code took place.

EFFECT: reduced absolute error in the amplitude of the reproduced sinusoidal signal.