Apparatus for determining characteristics of material of analysed object and method of inspecting object

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for determining characteristics of material of analysed object has a first and a second bogie, each having a source of penetrating X-rays, having a collimator for forming a narrow beam directed onto the analysed object, at least one motor which is configured to move each bogie relative the analysed object so as to move the narrow beam relative the object in a direction having a vertical component and at least one sensor for detecting radiation back-scattered from the analysed object and generated by at least one of the radiation sources.

EFFECT: enabling design of a scanning system which combines high quality of images formed with high efficiency.

16 cl, 17 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to the field of x-ray screening of people who Packed Luggage or other objects to detect concealed objects.

The level of technology

Existing imaging system which uses the effect of backscattering in the millimeter wavelength range, can form an image of the surface of the scanned object, but because of the small penetration depth of the radiation does not allow the detection of objects of search, located on the opposite side of the object and the subject of the search that returns a signal similar to the signal from the background, or cleverly hidden in the examined object.

In order to increase the efficiency of detecting concealed objects in introscope may require additional scanning, often requiring reinstallation of the investigated object in the scan area. These additional activities increase, it is possible, the efficiency of the search, but obviously lower bandwidth search engines, whose main purpose is to explore the large flows of goods and people.

For many practically important applications require scanning system, which would combine the high quality of the formed image with high performance, p is Durga while the analyzed objects only small doses of radiation.

Accordingly, the invention provides a device, method of examination, which are able to achieve the desired goals.

Disclosure of inventions

In a preferred embodiment, the invention features a device that detects the characteristics of the materials from which may be manufactured objects, and objects of search, and in certain embodiments may form at least one image of the object. The device includes a first carriage, a second carriage, at least one vertical positioning mechanism and at least one sensor. Each carriage includes a source of penetrating radiation, emitting a beam of radiation directed to the object under examination. Positioning mechanism provides synchronous movement of the carriage relative to the examined object in a direction having a vertical component. Radiation of at least one of the sources after interaction with the object under study adopts at least one of the sensors. The sensor can be located on the first carriage. The object of study can be human.

Penetrating radiation produced by each source may be x-rays. Each source can be designed so that the flux had the form of a highly directional beam. Each source is IR may have the scanner, adapted to move the beam of penetrating radiation produced by the source, perpendicular to the direction of movement of the carriage. Each scan may take the form of a skirt that is able to provide an interlaced order beams (scanning in interlaced mode).

Each carriage may include a group of sensors. Each group of sensors may include at least one scattered radiation sensor and one sensor through radiation.

Rays of penetrating radiation emitted from the first and second carriages are mostly opposite to the direction of propagation.

The sensor penetrating radiation of the first carriage can be located at the same height as the source of penetrating radiation of the second carriage.

In one of the embodiments of the present invention the first and second carriage can be combined. Both carriages can be located on the same mechanical platform, and at least one positioning mechanism can be made with the possibility of movement of the platform in a direction having a vertical component.

In another embodiment of the present invention, each source of penetrating radiation may be included in a pulse mode that forms a cross pattern of scanning.

In particular the x the implementation of the present invention, the device may include a sensor offset.

The positioning mechanism may include at least one rotary motor, is connected to the guide screw rack gear transmission, Electromechanical actuator, a hydraulic piston or a belt drive, depending on the destination of the respective variant implementation.

The device may include a processor for receiving the signal from at least one sensor for image formation, through at least the signal can also include a processor, software combines the images based on the signals from all sensors used in the corresponding embodiment.

It is also possible implementation of the device in which the carriage and at least one positioning mechanism during the work put into the case. On the device can be installed at least one stationary sensor. The parameters of the environment inside the enclosure can be controlled so that the inner space of the case can be isolated from the environment.

Perhaps this implementation of the present invention, in which each source of penetrating radiation operates in pulsed mode, scanning the object under examination periodically.

In another implementation of the present invention for determining the characteristics of the material to the showing made the subject of search, the equipment includes a first carriage, the second carriage and at least one positioning mechanism. The first carriage includes a source of penetrating radiation directed to the object under examination, and the first sensor for receiving scattered by the object radiation. The second carriage includes a second sensor for receiving the penetrating radiation from a source located on the first carriage, i.e. the radiation transmitted through the object. For synchronous change the position of the two carriages about the examined object in a direction having a vertical component, is used at least one positioning mechanism. The positioning mechanism can act on the first carriage to vary the relative position of the source of penetrating radiation at the first carriage in accordance with the purpose of the research object.

In another implementation of the present invention, designed to determine the material characteristics of the research object, the device includes two vertically oriented matrix of radiation sources, at least one sensor for recording the radiation from at least one source after interaction of radiation with the object, and the controller to activate at least one source of penetrating radiation of at the ore one matrix sources independently of other sources of the same matrix.

In another embodiment, at least one sensor includes two vertically oriented matrix of sensors and a processor for processing data fluoroscopic x-ray obtained from each of the sensors at timed intervals.

Another option is to incorporate a scanner that controls the movement of at least one beam of penetrating radiation from at least one source.

In accordance with another possible implementation of the present invention, a method of inspection of the test object. The method includes: moving the first carriage, containing the first source beam of penetrating radiation directed at the object of study, synchronous with the first carriage, the movement of the second carriage containing the second source beam of penetrating radiation, reception on the at least one sensor radiation from at least one source after interaction of radiation with the object of study, the formation of the output signal containing information about the radiation registered by at least one of the sensors and output characteristics of the research object, based on information output signal. At least one sensor may be installed on at least one of the carriages.

In close by purpose domestic is the way the research object includes scanning the object with a beam of penetrating radiation from the source in the direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the carriages.

In another similar embodiment, the method includes forming an image using the radiation received first and second sensors.

It is also possible implementation of the present invention, in which method the research object consists of the following steps: scanning the object with a beam of penetrating radiation from the source on the second carriage in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the carriages, generating the output signal based on information about the radiation that passed the first and second sensors, and the creation of the image, based on information from both beams of penetrating radiation. In any of the described variants of the method of the research object by the object under study can be people.

In accordance with another implementation of the present invention proposed a different way of research object. The method includes inducing rays of penetrating radiation in the temporary lifting of sources, with the rays of penetrating radiation generated by at least one first source positioned to direct radiation in the first direction towards the object and at least one second source positioned to direct a beam of penetrating radiation in a second direction, the side of the object and registering at least one sensor radiation from at least one source after interaction of radiation with the object of study. At least one first source may be a first group of sources located at different heights, and at least one second source may be a second group of sources located at different altitudes.

Brief description of drawings

The subsequent description will be illustrated with figures:

Figure 1 - schematic representation of the implementation of the present invention the inspection of the person entering interscop.

2 and 3 explain the mechanism of the positioning guide screw, lifting the carriage.

Figure 4 is a top view of two of the radiation source and the two obturator made so that sources could alternately to inspect the object.

5 is intratropical device located inside the body.

6 is a schematic illustration of an x-ray source, induced using electron emission.

7 - the use of a one-dimensional matrix of independent radiation sources in the case of measurement oratorskogo radiation.

Fig - the use of a two-dimensional matrix of independent radiation sources in the case of measurement oratorskogo radiation.

Figure 9 - application of one-dimensional matrix of independent sources of penetrating radiation and a group of sensors oratorskogo radiation.

Figure 10 - interscop, in which the group about the number of matrices of radiation sources, installed on a single cylinder.

11 is a front view of the device in which the rays are directed at the object from above.

Fig - side view of the device in which the person is illuminated by a group of rays x-ray radiation directed at the object from above.

Fig is a front view of the device in which the rays are directed at the object from opposite sides.

Fig - schematic side view of the device in which the person is illuminated by a group of beams of radiation directed at the object from above.

Fig - schematic cross section of Interscope, which uses the group registration systems oratorskogo radiation.

Fig - side view of Interscope presented on Fig.

Fig diagram of a system with obratnoyaytsevidnymi radiation using electromagnetic screening.

The implementation of the invention

In this description and the subsequent claims, the following terms should be used in the following value, regardless of their values in any other context.

"Carriage" - a mobile node, including the source and/or the radiation sensor. The carriage may include a radiation sensor, but this is not required.

"Positioning mechanism", a component of the device, providing the movement of the carriage in a direction having a vertical component. It can be the t to contain the actuator (for example, engine) and the required transmission elements.

"Located vertically matrix" - the number of elements of the device, first of all sources of radiation detectors arranged in a configuration having a vertical dimension so that at least one source vertically located in the matrix is at a height different from a height of at least one other source in the same matrix.

Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of a structural implementation of the present invention, in which the screening of the person included in the zone of action intrascapular device. Introskopiya the device shown in figure 1 and labeled as item 10, contains two different source of penetrating radiation, which scans the object in a single pass to form the image scanning results from two opposite sides of the object, allowing you to effectively identify any hidden object. Penetrating radiation, induced by each source is an electromagnetic radiation, such as x-ray or submillimeter radiation, however, under certain circumstances, it may be helpful to use electromagnetic radiation in different frequency bands or using emission is rentalsa particles, such as baryons. Because sources of penetrating radiation a few, and they are on different carriages, this greatly facilitates the formation of the image of the object. The equipment can create different images, including images, on the basis of scattered radiation and/or through radiation recorded on each side and/or top of the object. The simultaneous formation of different images. At the same time generated images may be combined using any software methods. The source 102 penetrating radiation, located on the proposed device, mounted on the carriage 100. On the carriage 100 can also be equipped with one sensor or more. For illustrative purposes, the figure shows three sensors. From these sensor 104 is designed to register praporschitskogo radiation, the sensor 106 is designed to register through radiation and the sensor 105 is also intended to register praporschitskogo radiation. Specialists in the art will appreciate the technical solution applied in the invention, according to which the number of sensors on each carriage is not limited to three, while not restricted, and the type of sensors. In particular, each sensor can be made with the ability to register more than one type of radiation. To retka may contain one or more sensors, and each sensor can be performed with the opportunity to register prevraschenie, through or obratnoystorone radiation.

The sensitivity of the sensor to a particular kind of radiation is achieved by changing the output signal of the sensor, the registration period and/or its sensitivity. For example, each sensor can transmit the detected signal to the processor, designed specifically for the processing of signals from sensors. Depending on the destination processor can be made for specific radiation in a specific time interval. So, if in a given time interval, the source 102 produces a stream of penetrating radiation, the sensors 104, 105 and 106 can be made to receive oratorskogo radiation, the sensors 114 and 115 for receiving praporschitskogo radiation, and the sensor 116 for receiving the through signal. Similarly, in another time interval, when the penetrating radiation creates the source 112, the sensors 114, 115 and 116 can be receivers oratorskogo radiation, the sensors 104 and 105 can be receivers praporschitskogo radiation, and the sensor 106 may receive a signal from the through radiation. This is just one example of how can be used and managed sensors radiation and what are the tasks of a matrix of sensors in the system in case of its use. Thus, in accordance the with different variants of implementation of the present invention possible a variety of configurations, including those who may not have received a detailed description.

The carriage 110, which is similar to the carriage 100, contains three installed on its sensor. Three sensors mounted on the carriage 110 includes a sensor 114 for registration praporschitskogo radiation, the sensor 116 to register through radiation and the sensor 115 for registration praporschitskogo radiation. These sensors, in the same way as similar sensors on the carriage 100 can be performed, as indicated in the above example, for the registration of each type of radiation, i.e. praporschitskogo, end-to-end and/or oratorskogo radiation.

The carriage 100 and 110 are installed in the scan area at the same height. Each of the carriages 100 and 110 have their own vertical positioning mechanism that moves the carriage along the trajectories, in the future depicted in figure 2 by lines 108 and 118, respectively. Positioning mechanism moves the carriage predominantly in the vertical direction with the same speed, so that during its movement the carriage to be at the same height relative to each other.

The screening device illustrated further includes a stationary sensor 122, the side scattered radiation, in which the scanning registers the radiation is directed essentially vertically.

p> The source of penetrating radiation, depicted in figure 1, scans the object 120 horizontally, with both carriages simultaneously and synchronously moved in the vertical direction, and the radiation from the first source, located on the first carriage, after the interaction of radiation with the object may be logged by the sensors located on the opposite set of the second carriage. In addition, the radiation from the second source, located on the second carriage, after the interaction of radiation with the object may be recorded by sensors placed on the opposite of the first carriage. The type of radiation can be through or scattered. Although in figure 1 the sensors oratorskogo radiation is not marked on carriages clearly, the carriage can be equipped with sensors oratorskogo radiation. In carrying out the invention, including a sensor oratorskogo radiation, the sensor may be configured to receive radiation from a source located on the same carriage, and that he himself, as explained in the above example.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the source of penetrating radiation on each carriage can be configured to make the x-ray beam is highly directional. This can be achieved by use of a collimator or lubog the other device for focusing a narrow beam of penetrating radiation. In addition, in the preferred implementation of the invention, the source of penetrating radiation may be configured to scan the object in a direction perpendicular to a predominantly vertical direction displacement of the carriages. Scanning can be performed using devices that may include, but is not limited to such technical solutions, as the obturator, the electromagnetic device management or any other scanning systems.

Figure 1 also illustrates the position of the sensors on one carriage relative to sources of penetrating radiation, located on another carriage, which is characteristic of the described design. In carrying out the invention, which is represented in figure 1, each source of penetrating radiation is in the position that corresponds to the height or level rise oppositely placed sensor that corresponds to the case through radiation. It is seen that the sensor 116 with the carriage 110 is at the same height as the source of penetrating radiation 102 on the carriage 100, and Vice versa, the source of penetrating radiation 112 on the carriage 110 is opposite the sensor 106 with the carriage 100.

On each slide, two sensors are used to register praporschitskogo radiation, placed with a vertical shift of p is, to relevant sources of penetrating radiation, that allows them to register the radiation scattered from the interaction of the x-ray beam with the object of study. Although the sensor 106 may be made for registration of the scattered radiation, the sensors 104 and 105 could be more than the sensor 106, to meet the purpose of registration praporschitskogo radiation from the source of penetrating radiation 112 after the interaction of the radiation with the object located between the carriages. Similarly, the sensor 116 may be executed to register praporschitskogo radiation from the beam of penetrating radiation from the source 102 after the interaction of radiation with the object of study, but the use of sensors 114 and 115 may be better for this purpose than using a sensor 116, due to the vertical shear sensors 114 and 115 relative to the origin 102.

Coordinated movement of the carriages can be achieved by constructive connections into a single structural unit.

During practical use of this equipment, the object is in the field of view of the system, and the carriage in the scanning of the object are shifted vertically, which allows you to scan with at least two sides in one pass. When the portal to scan a new object, the carriage can start scanning the object with your current put is I, due to the vertical displacement during the previous scan. For example, if one object is scanned, when the carriage is displaced in a vertical downward direction, then after the scan is complete and in the overview area, you receive the following object, this object can be scanned in the course of movement of the carriages up.

In another embodiment of the present invention, each slide can contain sources of penetrating radiation without any sensors connected with movable carriages. For example, the carriage 100 and 110 can be used without any of the sensors 104, 105, 106, 114, 115 and 116. In this case, for the registration of end-to-end and/or scattered radiation can be applied to stationary sensors, and sources of penetrating radiation may be switched alternately with the movement of the carriages. This example requires the use of stationary reconfigurable sensors that can be collected in a matrix of a size approximately the length of stroke of the carriages that will allow them to register penetrating radiation similar to how this is done using sensors placed on carriages according to the drawings in figure 1.

Although in figure 1, each carriage is shown placed on them with sources of penetrating radiation, in the framework of the present invention can be installed radiation sources also Lisina one of the two carriages, in this sensor, the scattered signal should be placed on the same carriage as the radiation source and the sensors through and praporschitskogo radiation across the carriage. The equipment presented in figure 1, to obtain images of the examined object 120 can accommodate only one source of penetrating radiation on one carriage and one sensor on the opposite table.

Figure 2 presents connected with the carriage positioning device type guide screw. Intratropical device, designated as item 11 contains guides the screws 200 and 210 connected to the carriage 100 and 110, so that simultaneous rotation of the guide screw motors 201 and 202, referred to here as the mechanisms for positioning the carriage 100 and 110 move in a vertical direction, each along the axis of rotation of the respective guide screw. Figure 2 illustrates one type of pointing device that the present invention provides the necessary movement of the carriages, however, in practical implementations of the invention may use other systems, is able to move the carriage. Such systems may include rack rails and wheel gears, Electromechanical device, movement of the carriage, a hydraulic device or system blocks than in the possible technical solutions are not restricted. The present invention also offers the possibility of moving carriages with one transfer mechanism connected to both carriages. Thus, the positioning mechanism may be a single structure in the form of a mechanical platform that is connected with more than one carriage. The positioning mechanism may additionally or alternatively include a system that allows movement of the carriage or carriages in the direction or directions that differ from the vertical. Any of the above systems or any positioning mechanism suitable for use, can be controlled by the controller, containing the displacement transducer 212 to track the movement of the carriage to the desired position or move them to the desired distance. The controller can also control the speed of movement of the carriages, or any other desired movement of the carriages.

Possible implementation in which the positioning mechanism, instead of being connected with the carriage, is connected with any element, which, in turn, will be the research object 120. In the implementation, in which the positioning mechanism is connected with any element, which will be the object of study 120, mechanical platform between the two carriages, the mechanism pozicionirovaniye to change the height position of this element in the direction having a vertical component, so the result of this movement the object of interest or some area of the object can be scanned with carriages. In this implementation achieves the same effect in the formation of images of the examined object, as in the above implementation with synchronous movement of the carriage in a direction having a vertical component, as both the implementation of the present invention provide the relative position of the object of research and carriages, but do not change the position of the carriages relative to each other.

Figure 3 is a side view of a device for scanning the person inside Interscope. As indicated above, the sources of penetrating radiation can be shifted relative to each other so that each source was in the position of the lifting height or position sensor, located on the opposite side of the object of study according to the desired scan type. For example, a sensor for end-to-end radiation on one of the carriages is located at the same height, which corresponds to the source of penetrating radiation that is installed on the opposite carriage. Interscop marked on the figure 3 position 12 shown with the described shift of sources of penetrating radiation,namely, the source 252 and the source 262 may shift due to the displacement of the respective carriages, i.e. carriage 250 and carriage 260. For example, if the carriage is performed similarly to each other with the Central location of the source of penetrating radiation so that the beam of x-rays emanating from the center of the carriage, each carriage must shift their positioning mechanism so that one carriage is moved relative to another, and therefore one radiation source was shifted in the vertical direction relative to the other source. This arrangement allows the use of reconfigurable sensors as discussed above. In particular, during the time interval when the source 252, sensors 253 and 254 can register obratnoystorone radiation sensor 264 can record the signal from the through radiation, and the sensor 263 may register prevraschenie radiation. And further, during the time interval when the source 262, sensors 263 and 264 can register obratnoystorone radiation sensor 253 may be reconfigured to register through radiation, and the sensor 254 may be used to register praporschitskogo radiation.

In addition, figure 3 illustrates the position of the guide screws 251 and 261, which are carriage 250 and 260, moving with the rotation of the screws engines 255 and 265 predominantly in the vertical directed the I.

Figure 4 is a top view on two sources of penetrating radiation with courses such that the radiation sources could alternately to direct rays of the radiation on the object under examination. Interscop marked on the figure 4 position 13. The present invention provides for the possibility of such organization mode of irradiation of the studied objects, wherein the source of penetrating radiation is irradiated object during a certain time. This can be achieved by applying as a permanent source of radiation and a pulse source providing radiation only during certain time intervals. In the case of a permanent source of radiation source can be provided with an obturator, which, for example, has only a number of slots corresponding to half of the obturator. In this case, the device must be equipped with a controller for synchronization of different radiation sources during certain time intervals in order to ensure scanning across the width of the object from two sides. Simultaneously, the controller must synchronize the movement of the carriages in a predominantly vertical direction by using the positioning mechanisms or a single positioning mechanism.

Figure 4 the first carriage 300 and the second to retka 310 are shown above. On carriages placed sources of penetrating radiation 301 and 311, their radiation is marked positions 302 and 312. The area of irradiation of the object with penetrating radiation characterized by the technical characteristics of the sources, limitations on her illustrations are not considered. The irradiation region is a region in which the beam of radiation can produce scans or perform scan. This area is illustrated by the lines 305 and 315. Line 315 characterize the area or window in which the scan beam radiation emitted by the source 311. Line 305 represent the region or window in which the scan beam radiation emitted by the source 301. The investigated object is placed between the carriages, as shown with a marker 320. Sources of penetrating radiation beam radiation scan which is carried out through courses 304 and 314. The courses contain holes 303 and 313, which allow the penetrating radiation emitted from relevant sources, to pass through the obturator in its motion, which is mostly spin. The movement of the courses can also be oscillating rotation or any other movement that creates the desired mode of scanning an object using radiation. The courses are thus to reliably screen the encoded radiation during those time intervals, when the holes 303 and 313 are not on the path of x-rays from the respective sources. For these purposes, the courses are made of lead or other suitable material, which is securely shields the radiation source used. As shown in figure 4, the beam 316 carries out a sweep in the area 315 along with the fact that the obturator 304 overlaps the path of propagation of radiation 302, a light source 301. Beam radiation continues to pulsate in the process of scanning, while the carriage is moving in a vertical direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing or from the plane of the drawing to fully scan the object. Almost can be used in various alternative schemes scanning with intermittent radiation.

Figure 5 is a scanning system, placed inside the housing that contains carriage and at least one positioning mechanism, in the process. The housing 450 may consist of portal 451, where the object of research can come in for a scan. The case can be made mobile. The case contains a carriage 400 and 410, which may have a desired combination of sensors and sources of penetrating radiation required for specific application purposes. The carriage can move in a predominantly vertical direction. Nutricous 450 can also be stationary system of registration of the scattered radiation, marked position 451. On the housing can be equipped with stationary sensors by placing them on the floor, in the upper part or on any of the walls of the housing container. Information obtained from each of these sensors may be processed or viewed individually or in combination with information obtained from another sensor or other sensors, including sensors on the carriages that will allow you to get more detailed information about hidden objects search in the studied sites. The housing can also include a system of local control, but can be adapted to work with the system remote control and monitoring. The enclosure can be placed system of environmental monitoring, which will allow you to adjust parameters such as temperature, humidity, air pressure, microbiological mode and level of contamination. The interior of the body can be isolated from the environment.

In some implementations of the present invention can be applied to systems and methods of control of objects using penetrating radiation, which use a variety of radiation sources. The sources may be activated individually, as described in the patent U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0258562, links to which are included in this application in full.

The x-ray sources can be made on the basis of field emission cathodes, providing high spatial and temporal resolution compared to thermionic emission sources. Because automise electrons provided by electric fields, high energy, high temperatures are not required, why such radiation sources have been called cold cathodes. Rays electron emission emitted from these devices may have low divergence, which greatly facilitates their focus. With the use of modern technologies, the time response of radiation sources provides a temporary Gating with frequencies comparable to the resolution of the control circuits, and practically measured in nanoseconds.

In the work of Zhang et al., A Multi-beam X-ray Imaging System Based on Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters, in Medical Imaging 2006, (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.6142, March 2, 2006) published information about what the firm Xintek, Inc. of Research Triangle Park, NC produced a linear matrix of 5 x-ray sources, each with a focal spot from 200 to 300 mm based on the use of electrodes with carbon nanotubes (CNTS). It was stated on the measurement of electron fluxes in the range of 0.1-1 mA when the level of the accelerating voltage 46-60 kV. The obtained estimations of time of cold cathodes has exceeded 2000 hours. At an accelerating voltage of 200 to what was measured the flow of electrons in 13 mA. The above article Zhang et al. included in this application by reference. With the current level of technology it is easy to imagine a device with a resolution of 1000 pixels per meter and pulse velocity of 10 MHz.

The use of cold cathodes CNTS in the context of their application as x-ray sources is also discussed in the work of Cheng et al., Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission X-ray source, 75 Rev. Sci. Instruments, p.3264 (2004), and the use of matrices of sources of penetrating radiation on cold cathodes described in the work of Zhang et al., Stationary scanningx-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters, 86 Appl. Phys. Lett., p.184104 20 (2005). Both works are included in the application by reference.

In addition, the use of matrices of sources of penetrating radiation on the cold cathodes of carbon nanotubes in imaging is discussed in the work of Zhang et al., A nanotube-based field emission x-ray source for microcomputed tomography, 76 Rev. Sci. Instruments, p.94301 (2005), which is also included in the application by reference.

With separate sources of penetrating radiation on cold cathodes can be used in electronic include. With a little delay (within nanoseconds) in sequential mode are formed of highly directional beams of radiation, as is often practiced in modern x-ray imaging. Alternatively, can use a variety of circuits can source the s penetrating radiation, provide the desired mode of operation of the sources in the time required for encoding the signal. The development of CNT-technology made it possible to overcome an important technical problem associated with the stability of electron fluxes and uptime cathodes.

Basic operations with sources of penetrating radiation on cold cathodes, marked on the 6 position 1010, is well known. The use of cold cathodes provides a high level of control. Voltage Vgcbetween the gate 1012 and cathode 1014, which is controlled by the control circuit 1013, causes the flow of electrons 1015, while the voltage Vcabetween the cathode and anode 1014 and 1016 controls the energy of the electrons colliding with the anode 1016, and the voltage applied to the focusing electrode 1018 determines the spot size of the electron beam.

Figure 6 depicts the technological node, in which x-rays are generated in the reflective target 1019, however, in the framework of the present invention can also be used through the target.

The use of discrete x-ray sources for imaging according to the present invention allows varying the dimension of the matrix x-ray sources (it can be one-, two - or three-dimensional), various types of scanning (raster or scan on the set of Trac OREM), dynamic use of different or varying energies, and use the time selection.

Figure 7 shows one implementation of the invention. One-dimensional matrix 1020 x-ray sources 1022 placed together with sensors 1023 oratorskogo radiation from one or more sides along the longest (usually vertical) axis 1021. All device 1024 entirely if necessary, can be rotated in a perpendicular direction 1025, usually horizontal, to form a line image. The alternative is to rotate the matrix 1020 relative to the longest (usually vertical) axis 1021, so that the beam of x-rays 1026 deployed in the perpendicular direction (again horizontal), forming a line image, but without movement of the entire device as a whole. The line image generated by the raster scanning of the object by the source of penetrating radiation in a vertical direction when the source is turned on 1022 for short periods of time in rapid succession.

On Fig presents a two-dimensional matrix of sources of penetrating radiation 1030, which may not have mechanical moving parts and allows you to browse within a predetermined solid angle (opredelennog the total number of sources of penetrating radiation 1032 and the divergence of their rays) in a very short time. In the design of mechanism could be used raster scan, similar to the CRT, or scan on the specified paths (using the algorithm of the Hadamard or any other encoding algorithm).

You can offer such implementation of the present invention, which is equipped with a speed control system indicated in Fig.9 position 1040. The system involves the installation of one or more sensors 1042 oratorskogo radiation, and the matrix of sources of penetrating radiation 1044 moving at a constant speed back and forth in the direction of near 1045 sensors 1042 or between them. Such systems can also work in the mode toggle between turning on sources that will be described below.

Further versatility in similar versions of the invention can be achieved by application of two or more dimensional matrix of x-ray sources 1051 and 1052 installed on the cylinder 1054, as shown in figure 10. Since the matrix of sources of penetrating radiation can be switched on and off electronically at high speed, then in this case includes only the matrix, inducing a beam of x-rays 1055, illuminating the target (figure 10 are not shown), and the other matrices are disabled, so there is no need to escape one matrix from another. the readings of this approach is determined by the natural ability to use alternate enable matrices in combination with the continuous accumulation of information to form the image. An alternative approach, which uses two cylinders, irradiating the two sides of the object. The radiation sources in each matrix can be controlled by the controller for Autonomous activation of each of the sources.

Alternating include sources can be useful in cases when due to technical limitations or constructive minimum distance between the sources is of the order of 1 cm, while the desired resolution in some special applications require their location at a distance of 4 mm from each other. On the cylinder are three-dimensional matrix, separated from each other by an angle of 120 degrees and shifted relative to each other in the vertical direction by 3.33 mm Each matrix scanning along lines that are separated by a distance of 1 cm, but due to a vertical shift of the final image after a complete rotation of the cylinder has a resolution of 3.33 mm This mode of operation is called "interlaced mode". For the system depicted in Fig.9, the formation of image in interlaced mode can be implemented due to the vertical offset of the matrices at each horizontal pass.

In accordance with the following implementation of the present invention carbon nanotube the x-ray sources can be collected is in linear or two-dimensional matrix and switched in series, as explained above. Other stand-alone x-ray sources present in the structure or proposed for installation in the future, can be used in a similar way, that is included in the scope of the objectives of the present invention described herein and the following claims.

The use of matrices of x-ray sources of this type can be useful in practical applications due to the following reasons:

The x-ray source can be very compact, especially in the direction along the line emission x-rays.

The use of linear matrix sources of x-rays significantly reduces the distortion of images formed by the use of a single source.

This approach to the induction of x-ray radiation provides this flexibility in data processing at the image formation and the determination of the geometry of the field of view, which far exceeds the capabilities of modern systems using a single x-ray source.

Due to the series connection of linear matrix sources x-ray image based on oratorskogo radiation; does not contain distortions associated with mutual influence of sources at each other.

the invention, used in configuration that implements a simultaneous scan of a person with two or more parties, significantly increases bandwidth intratropical equipment.

Following implementation of the invention represented by figure 11. Several x-ray sources based on carbon nanotubes 1110 assembled in a linear matrix 1111 or in a two-dimensional matrix, which is placed at the top (as shown in the figure) or to the side of the scanned character 1112. We emphasize that the graphic character models representative object of study, but the equipment and method the research presented here can be applied to any object, animate or inanimate.

Sensors 1114 scattered radiation, which can be sensors oratorskogo radiation or radiation side scatter, positioned to intercept the scattered x-rays. The object being scanned passes through the rays 1116 or transported through such means as the conveyor 1118 or moving belt. If necessary, the equipment can be fitted with brackets 1119. Autonomous sources of penetrating radiation 1110 can be switched in series to provide the required spatial resolution for scanning the object in accordance with known processing algorithms si the channels. Fig depicts the object 1112 in one of the positions when crossing zones imaging, which is indicated by the position 1100. Interscop 1100 has a front source of penetrating radiation 1160 and rear 1162 source, each of which may contain linear matrix sources, as shown figure 11 positions 1111. Each matrix includes a number of independent sources of x-ray radiation along an axis perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. The object 1112 or is, or is transported by conveyor 1118 so that different parts of his/her scanned relevant sources 1160 and 1162 while crossing workspace Interscope.

Following the implementation of the present invention are represented by Fig and 14 in the configuration that is currently used as detectors. As shown in Fig in the top view, the matrix of sources of penetrating radiation 1210 emit x-rays 1212, which is more clearly illustrated in the front view 7. Matrix 1210 can be constructed as a vertical. In accordance with this implementation of the present invention each source in each matrix can be enabled independently from other sources in the matrix. X-rays 1212 fall on the object 1112 in his/her pass through the working area introscope indicated by the position 1200 Radiation, scattered by the object 1112 or items that the investigated person shall be held in the hands or hides in the clothing, is registered by the sensor 1220 scattered radiation. The sensor 1220 scattered radiation generates a signal based on penetrating radiation, which it registers, and further processed by processor 1230 to determine and identify dangerous or prohibited materials and items in accordance with known algorithms or, alternatively, to demonstrate appropriately processed images of the examined object on the display monitor 1240. In both cases, the image is formed, and the term "image" is used herein and the claims to denote an ordered matrix of numbers corresponding to distinct spatial elements of the object. The arrangement minimizes distortion and shielding of the signal on which the image that has a positive effect on the results of applying technology to automatically detect, based on the use of pattern recognition algorithms of the form. The same approach can be applied to systems of baggage when scanning using the normal transmission or backscatter.

On the other hand, can be used and electromagnetic scanners, such as scanner 2104 (showing the config on Fig) or scanners, described in the patent U.S. Patent No. 6,421,420, issued July 23, 2002 and entitled "Method and Apparatus for Generating Sequential Beams of Penetrating Radiation", to which reference is made. Source 2412 penetrating radiation creates a beam of charged particles 2140, accelerating before the collision with the target surface 2160. Electromagnetic system 2418 scan beam can have any design of magnetic or electrostatic type. Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted by the target 2160 and passes through the collimator 2422, located at a certain distance from the target that creates the parallel rays of radiation.

If the system running the beam is realized by mechanical means, such as a rotating cage or courses, the above criteria should take into account the necessity to synchronize the movements of the mechanical elements of courses, whose movements can be shifted in phase. The system developed for such operations, described in the patent U.S. Patent No. 7,400,701 included here by reference in full. Thus, for example, to control the rotation of the collimator can be used controllers in closed loop, is well known in the art that allows for rotation of the collimator to define the route of x-ray radiation 2023. A vicious cycle is controlled by placing the aperture of the shutter (full angle sweep Lou who and, i.e. the angle between the extreme positions of the beam 2023 and 2024 from the same source), which is equal to 2π closed loop. In devices in which the emission of radiation is controlled electronically, can be used in any sequence of inclusions and level sweep, without limitation, the management system may be implemented entirely in software.

Due to the advantages of working in interlaced mode, which reduces or eliminates the interference signals to each other, the sources of penetrating radiation can be placed more compact than is possible in other cases. In particular, the sources of 2013, 2015 and 2017 can be placed on the same plane that actually allows you to organize simultaneous control on/off all sources of radiation, regardless of the speed at which the object crosses interscop. The described system makes it possible to successfully form an image on the basis of the signals from successive sources 2013, 2015 and 2017, emitting rays 2023-2028. Fig shows a typical device from three sources 2010 with rays 2023, 2025, etc., trajectory and sweep which lie in one plane.

Rays from each imaging unit are deployed sequentially, so that at any point in time there is no more than one beam of radiation. Thus, the source of the 2013 p is onecause radiation deploys its first beam. Radiation reflected from the object, as shown by a beam 2044, recorded by all sensors 2031-2036, the signals are transmitted to the processor 2040 to obtain an image of an object that can be transported through the system by a conveyor 2029 is possible, but optional design element. The signals from each sensor are processed by the recognition system independently from each other (for each signal is allocated its own electric channel). This process is repeated for each of the three blocks of image formation, resulting in frames of the object during its movement through interscop.

So, Fig shows a side view of the device, the elements of which are indicated by positions. Shows the crack 2050, through which a beam of radiation from source 2013 through segments 2052 and 2054 sensor 2031 when scanning 2018 object moving in the transverse direction 2016.

The signals from the sensors can be used to image selectively. Since the reflected photons 2044 registered by sensors 2033 and 2034 source 2013, as useful as reflected photons from the source 2017, the same sensors can be used to record signals from all sources, which increases the quality of the data collected and increases the efficiency of the hardware sensor is s.

Different implementation of the present invention can afford to successfully apply the technique of forming plural images on the basis of the scattered x-ray radiation induced traveling beam, in small working spaces while suppressing the influence of signals to each other and at the close spatial arrangement of blocks of image formation. Close spatial arrangement of blocks of image formation (the term "imaging unit" means here the source of penetrating radiation, at least one sensor associated with the electronic equipment and includes a software signal processing) allows you to register the scattered radiation from a single source with several sensors, which increases the amount of data from multiple signal improves image quality and allows efficient use of sensors.

In cases where it is desirable to scan specific areas of the examined object coplanar arrangement of imaging allows the simultaneous monitoring of inclusions/off x-ray sources, regardless of the speed at which the object moves relative to the blocks of image formation. This greatly simplifies the management of x-ray radiation is observed from each imaging unit in multilateral introscope, what makes unnecessary an individual sequence x-rays that are typically used in systems with non-coplanar emission.

The described embodiment of the invention presented here only as examples. Specialist in the art apparent, numerous variations and modifications of the proposed design. All these variations and modifications are included in the General definition of the present invention, which is reflected in the accompanying claims.

1. Device characterization the material of the object that includes the first and second carriages, each of which includes a source of penetrating x-ray radiation having a collimator, the beam forming of the researched object beam, at least one motor to move each carriage relative to the studied object, to move the directional laser beam relative to the object in a direction having a vertical component, and at least one sensor for registering radiation, oratorskogo from the studied object and the generated at least one of the radiation sources.

2. The device according to claim 1, in which at least one engine is installed with the possibility of simultaneous movement of each of the carriages in the direction of the within vertical component.

3. The device according to claim 1, wherein the first carriage includes a first sensor.

4. The device according to claim 3, in which the second carriage includes a second sensor.

5. The device according to claim 1, in which the first and second carriage provided with first and second scanners, respectively, each of which is associated with the respective radiation sources and is mounted for movement highly directional beams of penetrating radiation induced relevant sources, perpendicular to the direction of movement of the carriage on which is the appropriate source of radiation.

6. The device according to claim 5, in which the scanner is made with the possibility of the formation of alternating rays.

7. The device according to claim 1, in which the radiation sources mounted on the first and second carriages made with the possibility of inducing predominantly oppositely directed beams of penetrating radiation.

8. The device according to claim 1, wherein each radiation source is pulsed.

9. The device according to claim 1, which further includes a processor configured to receive from at least one sensor signal and image formation through at least the specified signal.

10. Method of examination of an object, comprising moving the first carriage has mounted on it the first radiation source and the number what Imatra, inducing highly directional beam of penetrating radiation directed to the object under examination, in which the scanning the first beam of penetrating radiation in a direction having a vertical component, moving the second carriage mounted on it a second radiation source and collimator, inducing highly directional beam of penetrating radiation directed to the object under examination, in which the second scanning beam of penetrating radiation in a direction having a vertical component, registering at least one radiation sensor, oratorskogo from the object, the flow sensor output signals based on the radiation recorded at least one sensor, and obtaining characteristics of the object via the output signal.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the first and second carriages to move synchronously.

12. The method according to claim 10, in which at least the first sensor from among the at least one sensor mounted on the first carriage.

13. The method according to item 12, in which at least the second sensor from among the at least one sensor mounted on the second carriage.

14. The method according to claim 10 which further includes moving the first and second carriages in their respective areas, and each of them has Vertica is inuu component.

15. The method according to claim 10 which further includes forming images by radiation recorded at least one sensor.

16. The method according to claim 10 which further includes scanning a beam of penetrating radiation, induced by the second radiation source mounted on the second carriage in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the carriages, the flow sensor output signals by means of radiation, recorded at least one sensor, and forming images by radiation detected from the first and second rays.



 

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