Method and device to transfer heat from first medium to second one

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of heat transfer from the first, relatively cold, medium to the second, relatively hot, medium, including stages of rotation of a compressed fluid medium contained in a certain volume (6) around the axis of rotation for developing thus a radial gradient of temperature in this medium, and heating of the second medium by means of a fluid medium in the fluid medium section that is relatively distant from the axis of rotation. This invention also relates to a device for realisation of the specified method.

EFFECT: efficient production of a medium with high temperature.

14 cl, 5 dwg

 

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for transferring heat from a first, relatively cold environment to a second, relatively hot environment.

At existing power plants usually receive through the Carnot cycle, or steam cycle, using the source of the high temperature source and a low temperature (heat sink). In practice, an environment with high temperature, typically superheated steam, is fed into a turbine, which produces work; and then condense the steam, heat up (overheat) and again served in the turbine. That is, the difference between the amount of heat that is contained in the environment with high temperature, and the amount of heat that is allocated to a source of low temperature, turn in work, in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics.

For larger temperature difference between the sources of high and low temperature can be turned into a work of greater amount of heat, and the efficiency of the process increases. Usually as a source of low temperature (heat sink) is the environment (earth), and the environment with high temperature generated by the combustion of fossil fuels or nuclear reactions.

DE 3238567 relates to a device for obtaining the temperature difference for heating and cooling. Under the influence of external forces in Gaza create a difference pace the atur. Through the use of centrifugal forces and in the case of gases with high molecular weight, this effect increases to such an extent that it is of interest for technical applications.

WO 03/095920 relates to a method for transmission of thermal energy, in which heat energy is passed into the internal chamber (3) rotating the centrifuge through the first heat exchanger (4, 4A, 4b), and in this inner chamber (3) has a transmitting energy to the gaseous medium, the heat is removed from the centrifuge (2) through the second heat exchanger (5; 5A; 5b). The amount of applied energy can be reduced significantly by providing the inside of the rotor (12) of the gas medium for energy transfer in a state of equilibrium, and by the radial direction of the heat flow in an outward direction. For the invention, the underlying WO 03/095920, is essential in preventing convection (page 2, last sentence).

US 3902549 relates to a rotor, mounted for rotation at high speed. In its center is the source of thermal energy, while its periphery is a heat exchanger. There are camera comprising a gaseous material, which, depending on its position in the camera, can't take the heat from the source of thermal energy or heat release the heat exchanger.

The subject of this izaberete the Oia is to ensure effective way of obtaining high temperature environments.

To this end, the method according to this invention includes the following stages:

rotation is contained in a volume of compressible fluid around the axis of rotation to create thus a radial temperature gradient in the fluid, and

heating the second medium through the fluid in the zone relatively remote from the axis of rotation.

In one of the embodiments of the invention additionally includes the stage of extraction of heat from the first medium (i.e. this first cooling medium through the fluid in the zone of the axis of rotation or relatively close to it.

Thus obtained hot and cold environment, in turn, can be used, for example, for heating or cooling buildings or to generate electricity by, for example, the Carnot cycle, or steam cycle.

The efficiency of the method according to this invention can be further increased, if thoroughly mix the parts of the fluid selected in the radial direction, for receiving at least essentially constant entropy in these areas, increasing, thus, the conductivity in the fluid environment.

In addition, the conductivity and, therefore, the efficiency increases with increasing pressure and density of the fluid. Thus, it is preferable to have a pressure higher than 0.2 MPa (2 bar) (on the axis of rotation, and more preferably greater than 1 MPa (10 bar) (axis of rotation). The pressure ratio at the periphery and the pressure on the axis of rotation is preferably more than 5, and more preferably more than 8.

The invention additionally relates to a device for transferring heat from a first, relatively cold environment to a second, relatively hot environment, including gas-tight drum mounted on the frame for rotation, and

the first heat exchanger installed inside the drum relatively far from the axis of rotation of the drum, for example, in the inner wall of the drum.

In one of the embodiments of the present invention, the device comprises a second heat exchanger mounted at the axis of rotation or relatively close to the rotation axis.

In another embodiment, the device includes one or more at least essentially cylindrical or coaxial wall separating the radially inner part of the drum on the number of branches.

In an additional embodiment of the invention at least one of the heat exchangers associated with the cycle to work. An additional loop may include an evaporator or superheater, which is thermally connected with the high-temperature heat exchanger, condenser, thermally associated with low-temperature heat exchanger, and a heat engine is. Usually the environment serves as a heat sink, but it can serve as a source of high temperature if the operating temperature of the cycle is quite low.

In yet another additional embodiment of the invention the compressible fluid is a gas and preferably contains essentially monatomic element, or consists essentially of monatomic element with atomic number (Z) greater than or equal to 18, such as argon, and preferably more than or equal to 36, such as krypton and xenon.

The invention is based on the understanding that, although usually heat flows from a region of higher entropy to areas of lower entropy, therefore, from higher temperature to lower, in the post isentropic compressible fluid, placed in the field of gravity, the heat also flows from areas of lower entropy to the field of higher entropy. In the earth's atmosphere, this effect reduces the vertical temperature gradient to the actual values of 6.5°C/km, in contrast to the calculated values of 10°C/km Hydropower is based on the same principle.

Low thermal resistance increases the heat flow from a lower to a higher temperature.

In accordance with at least some aspects of the present invention of artificial gravity used for the menichini length of a column of compressible fluid medium in comparison with a lamp post which operates just the gravity of the earth, and the atmosphere is replaced by gas, which allows you to create a much higher temperature gradient in the fluid. To increase thermal conductivity in the fluid environment of use mixing.

In the framework of this invention, the term "gradient" is defined as a continuous or stepwise increase or decrease in value of any property that is observed when passing from one point to another, for example, the radius of the cylinder.

For reasons of completeness it should be noted that the US patent 4107944 relates to a method and device for the heating and cooling by circulating a floating rotors of the working fluid in the channels, the specified compression of the working fluid in these canals, and removal of heat from the above-mentioned working fluid in the heat exchanger to remove the heat, and add heat to the said working fluid in the heat exchanger to add heat and conduct the rotors. The working fluid hermetically contained within the device, and it may be appropriate gas, for example nitrogen. The heat exchanger for the working environment is provided for the works of the heat exchange within the rotor, between the two streams specified by the working fluid.

US 4005587 relates to a method and apparatus for transferring heat from the source of the low-temperature heat to the heat sink at a higher temperature using a compressible working fluid, which is compressed by centrifugal force within a rotating rotor with a corresponding temperature increase. Heat transfer from the heated working medium to the heat sink, having a higher temperature, and after expansion and cooling by cold heat source heat added to the working fluid environment. Cooling within the rotor provide for the regulation of the density of the working fluid to facilitate its circulation.

Similar methods and devices known from US 3828573, US 3933008, US 4060989 and US 3931713.

WO 2006/119946 relates to a device (70) and the method of heat transfer from the first zone (71) of the second zone (72) with the use of mobile (often gaseous or vaporous) of atoms or molecules (4), for which, in one example implementation, the chaotic motion of atoms/molecules, which usually prevents the transfer of heat due to the simple motion of molecules, overcome by the use of preferably oblong nanoscale limiters (33) (e.g., carbon nanotubes)to align the atoms/molecules and then to expose them to the accelerating force in the direction in which it has to be transferred heat. Accelerating force preferably is centripetal. In an alternative example of a molecule (4C) in nanoscale limiters can be arranged so that transfers the heat vibrations, directed transversely of the longitudinal dimension of the elongated limiters (40).

JP 61165590 and JP 58035388 relate to heat the tubes of the rotating type. US 4285202 relates to methods of energy conversion, comprising at least one stage, which is exposed to the working fluid medium in such a way as to make or compression or extension.

Below the invention is explained in more detail with reference to the drawings, which schematically depict a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Figures 1 and 2 represent a General view and a side view of the first embodiment of the device according to this invention.

Figure 3 is a cross-section of the drum used in the embodiment shown in figures 1 and 2.

Figure 4 is a cross section of a second embodiment of the device according to this invention.

Figure 5 is a flow chart of the power plant, including the embodiment of the invention in Figure 4.

Identical parts and parts performing the same or essentially the same functions are denoted by the same numerical position.

Figure 1 shows the experimental set device 1 with artificial gravity in accordance with this invention. The device 1 includes a stationary base frame 2, is securely hosted on p is Lu, and the rotating table 3, mounted on frame 2. Means to actuate, for example, a motor 4 mounted on the support frame 2 and connected with the rotary table 3. In order to reduce the resistance of the medium to the rotating table 3, on its circumference, attached to the annular wall 5. In addition, to the rotating table 3 is attached to the cylinder 6, passing in the radial direction.

As shown in Figure 3, the cylinder 6 includes a Central ring 7, two (Perspex™) of the outer cylinder 8, two (Perspex™) inner cylinder 9 mounted coaxially within the outer cylinder 8, the two end plates 10 and the number of locking elements 11, which end plates 10 are attached to the cylinders 8, 9 and the cylinders 8, 9, in turn, to the Central ring 7. The cylinder 6 has an overall length of 1.0 m Figure 3 provides for the assessment of the scale.

Clearance, limited Central ring 7, the inner cylinder 9 and the end plates 10, is filled with xenon at ambient temperature and pressure of 0.15 MPa (1.5 bar), and further comprises a number of faucets or fan 13. Finally, on the inner wall of the ring 7 has a Peltier element (not shown), but as the ring 7 and the annular plates 10 are temperature sensors and pressure (also not shown).

During operation of the rotary table 3 and, therefore, the cylinder 6 rotations the Ute with a speed of about 1000 rpm Radial plots of the fluid are thoroughly mixed by means of a fan 12 for receiving at least essentially constant entropy in these areas. Since the process is reversible and due to thermal insulation provided by the inner and outer cylinders 8, 9, which allows processes essentially o adiabatically heat transfer inside the cylinder 6 from the axis of rotation to the periphery and Vice versa, is essentially isentropic.

During the rotation of the temperature and pressure of xenon in the end plates 10 increases, and the temperature and the pressure ring 7 falls. When, at equilibrium, by means of a Peltier element in the gas ring 7 send step heat pulse, temperature and pressure ring 7 increase and, consecutively, the temperature and pressure of the end plates 10 increase, that is, heat flows from a source having a relatively low temperature (the gas on the ring) to the source, with a relatively high temperature (gas end plates).

Figure 4 shows a cross section of a second embodiment of the device 1 with artificial gravity in accordance with this invention. The device 1 includes a stationary support frame 2, is securely placed on the floor, and the rotating drum 6 mounted on the base frame 2 rotatably around-ear, closed the g its longitudinal axis, for example, by means of respective bearings, such as ball bearings 20. Acceptable diameter of the drum 6 is in the range from 2 to 10 meters in this example is 4 meters. The wall of the drum thermally isolated in a known manner. The device 1 additionally includes means to actuate (not shown)to rotate the drum at speeds in the range from 50 to 500 rpm

The drum 7 includes at least two heat exchanger, the first heat exchanger 22 is installed inside the drum, relatively far from the axis of rotation of the drum 7, and the second heat exchanger 23 is placed at the specified axis or relatively close to it. In this example, both of the heat exchanger 22, 23 include rolled into a spiral tube, coaxial with the axis of rotation, and is connected to the input via the first hydraulic connection 24 is capable of rotating fluid through the second hydraulic connection 25 is capable of rotating fluid - exit.

Shown in Figure 4 embodiment of the invention further includes a tube 26, coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the drum 7 and contains located along the axis of the fan 27 for forced circulation of the contents of the drum. In this example, the drum is filled with xenon under pressure of 0.5 MPa (5 bar) (at ambient temperature)and the heat exchangers 22, 23 are filled with water.

Figure 5 shows the layout of the power plant, including the embodiment of the invention, figure 4 shows associated with the cycle for production work, in this example, with the so-called "steam cycle". The cycle includes a superheater 30 connected to the high-temperature heat exchanger 22 of the device 1, the heat engine is known in itself and which includes in this example a turbine 31, the capacitor 32, connected with the second heat exchanger 23 of the device 1, the pump 33 and the evaporator 34. The steam cycle is also filled with water. In the art there are also many other suitable environment.

The rotation of the drum creates a radial temperature gradient in the xenon with the temperature difference (ΔT) between the heat exchangers in the range from 100°C to 600°C, depending on the angular velocity of the drum. In this example, the drum rotates with a speed of 350 rpm, which leads to a temperature difference (ΔT) of about 300°C. In both of the heat exchanger 22, 23 serves water at 20°C. the Heated vapor (320°C), high-temperature heat exchanger 22 serves in the superheater 30, while chilled water (10°C) from the low-temperature heat exchanger 23 is served in the capacitor 32. Steam cycle produces work in a known manner.

In another embodiment of the invention, the device includes two or more drums connected in series or computers is Ino. For example, in a configuration comprising two drums connected in series, the heated environment of the first drum serves in the low-temperature heat exchanger of the second drum. As a result, the transfer of heat to the high temperature heat exchanger in the second drum increases significantly compared to the heat transfer in the first reel. Chilled medium from the first drum can be used as a cooling medium, for example, in the condenser.

In another embodiment of the invention alternatively or in addition to the above the tube (26) the device includes a number of at least essentially cylindrical and coaxial walls dividing the inner space of the drum on the number of branches. The fluid in each Department are thoroughly mixed, for example, by means of fans or stationary elements, so as to establish essentially constant entropy within each of these departments and, thus, to increase the mass transfer within each branch. The result is speed and negative in the radial direction from the center of the gradient of entropy, which allows the heat transfer from the axis of rotation of the drum to its circumference.

Wall, mutually separating the compartments, can be solid, thus preventing mass transfer from one compartment to the next, or may be open, for example, in the form of a metal mesh or sieve, thus allowing a limited mass transfer. Walls can also be provided with protrusions and/or other characteristics that increase the surface area and thus the heat transfer between branches.

In yet another embodiment of the invention from the center to the periphery of the drum flows more fluid, for example, within the radially arranged pipes, thus increasing the potential energy and pressure. This high pressure fluid drives the generator, such as (hydro)turbine, and then it is evaporated by the relatively hot compressed fluid (e.g., xenon) on the inner wall of the drum or near it. Thus obtained pairs are transferred back to the center of the drum, at least partially, through the use of its own expansion, and condense through relatively cold compressible fluid. This example implementation can be used for direct casting of the generator in action.

This invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments that are within the essence and scope of the claims can be diversely changed. For example, in heat exchangers of the drum can be applied to other environments, such as carbon dioxide, vodor the d and CF 4.

1. The method of transferring heat from a first, relatively cold environment to a second, relatively hot environment, which includes stages:
rotation is contained in some volume (6) compressible fluid around the axis of rotation to create thus a radial temperature gradient in the fluid, and
heating the second fluid through the fluid in the zone of the fluid is relatively remote from the axis of rotation, wherein the compressible fluid is under pressure of more than 0.2 MPa (2 bar), measured at the axis of rotation.

2. The method according to claim 1, comprising a stage of extraction of heat from the first medium through the fluid in the zone of the axis of rotation or relatively close to it.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which the parts of the fluid are thoroughly mixed (12; 27).

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the compressible fluid is under a pressure greater than 1 MPa (10 bar).

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein compressing the fluid contained in the drum with a diameter of at least 1.5 m and rotate with a speed of at least 50 rpm, preferably at least about 100/min

6. The method according to claim 1, in which through at least the first environment, preferably through both the first and second media, and preferably through the Carnot cycle, or steam cycle (30-34) are running.

7. The method according to claim 1, vkluchaysya or more executed sequentially or in parallel stages of rotation contained in some volume (6) compressible fluid around the rotation axis.

8. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the stage of:
providing additional fluid to flow in the direction from the axis of rotation,
actuation of the generator through the liquid,
evaporation of the fluid through the fluid in the zone of the fluid is relatively remote from the axis of rotation,
pumping of steam towards the axis of rotation, and
condensation of steam by means of a fluid medium in the zone of the axis of rotation or relatively close to it.

9. The method according to any of the preceding claims 1 to 8, in which the compressible fluid medium contains essentially monatomic element or consists essentially monatomic element with atomic number (Z) greater than or equal to 18, preferably more than or equal to 36.

10. The device (1) for transferring heat from a first, relatively cold environment to a second, relatively hot environment, including gas-tight drum mounted on the frame for rotation, and
the first heat exchanger (22), mounted inside the drum (6) relatively far from the axis of rotation of the drum, wherein the drum contains a compressible fluid medium, and the device is made to operate at the pressure of the fluid above 0.2 MPa (2 bar), measured at the axis of rotation.

11. The device (1) according to claim 10, comprising a second heat exchanger (23), located at the axis of rotation, and relatively close to it.

12. The device (1) according to claim 10, comprising one or more at least essentially cylindrical and coaxial walls dividing the inner space of the drum (6) on the number of branches.

13. The device (1) according to claim 10, in which at least one of the heat exchangers (22, 23) includes rolled into a spiral tube, coaxial with the axis of rotation.

14. The device (1) according to any one of PP-13, in which at least one of the heat exchangers (22, 23) associated with the loop (30-34) for production work.



 

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26 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: heat source unit of cooling system includes circuit (12) of heat source. Circuit (12) includes the first gas port (31) continuously interconnected with delivery side of compressor (14), the second gas port (32) continuously interconnected with suction side of compressor (14), the third gas port (33) selectively interconnected with one of the first gas line (25) and the second gas line (26), liquid port (34) continuously interconnected with the end of liquid inlet/outlet of heat exchanger (15) of heat source, the first switching mechanism (17) which switches over the state of interconnection of the end of liquid inlet/outlet of heat exchanger (15) of heat source, and the second switching mechanism (18) which switches over the state of interconnection of the third gas line (27). Cooling system includes unit (10) of heat source of system (5) and unit (7) of heat consumption, which has circuit (8) of heat consumption, which includes pressure reducing mechanism (41) and heat consumption heat exchanger (40). Circuit (9) of cooling agent has been created with the connection of the third gas port (33) of circuit (12) of unit (10) of heat source and the gas inlet/outlet end of heat consumption circuit (8) and as the connection of liquid port (34) of circuit (12) and the liquid inlet/outlet end of heat consumption circuit (8).

EFFECT: possibility of using auxiliary heat exchanger both in cooling and heating modes.

5 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

4 dwg

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