Method to control turbine plant and turbine plant

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in the method to control a turbine plant and in a turbine plant providing for the possibility to perform start-up control of load on a reducer within limitations applied onto equipment, used with the turbine plant, there is a stage of temperature rising, at which the temperature of working medium arriving into the turbine is increased; a stage of flow rate rising, at which the working medium flow rate is increased via a bypass that relieves the working medium from the outlet to the inlet of the compressor, when the temperature of the working medium arriving into the turbine is increased with a source of heat; and a stage of working medium flow rate reduction, at which the flow rate of working medium relieved via the bypass is reduced upon expiration of the specified time period after increase of the flow rate via the bypass.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase reliability of turbine plant control.

2 cl, 13 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a method of controlling turbine installation and turbine installation, in particular to a method of controlling turbine installation and turbine installation, mainly used in closed gas turbine cycle, where the working medium circulates in a closed system, and the heat source is a nuclear reactor or similar device.

The level of technology

In a closed gas turbine cycle, where the working medium circulates in a closed system, in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor or similar device, the functions of the engine are required only during acceleration at the start, applied electrical device HRC (static frequency Converter) or similar device, which you can use as a motor generator, do the less powerful, to reduce the cost of power equipment.

Therefore, in a closed cycle gas turbine output at nominal engine speed occurs when the decrease in a closed system the amount of work environment, such as helium, to the extent of the transfer of fuel pellets inside the nuclear reactor by a stream of helium, as well as at low temperature.

This previously proposed technology, reducing the working medium in the closed contact is re (see, for example, Japanese patent publication No. 3020853).

However, the speed of temperature rise in the reactor is limited, and therefore, even when the gas turbine in a closed loop left on the rated speed, the generator still works for a short time as the engine. Thus, there is a continuous mode in which the gear is located between the gas turbine and generator, is attached negative direction torque.

Then the temperature entering the turbine working environment increases due to the heat of the nuclear reactor and the performance of the turbine increases. When this conversion happens kinematic scheme of the turbine installation, and a negative torque on the gearbox is replaced by a positive one.

For gear set some minimum load, which prevents wear due to switching load standard values under the action of its own weight of the gearbox or transfer contact position of the teeth from the default position.

Thus, when the negative torque on the gearbox is replaced by a positive, as described above, a problem arises due to the fact that it inevitably becomes less than the specified minimum.

In addition, since the speed of temperature rise in the reactor is limited, also limited the ena and the rate of increase of torque on the gearbox or similar equipment, and so it is difficult to shorten the time period during which the torque is less than the specified minimum.

The invention

The present invention is proposed to solve the above problems, and therefore, its aim is to provide a method of controlling turbine installation and turbine installation, which allows the operation start, the driving load on the gearbox, subject to the limitations imposed on the equipment provided in the form of turbine installation.

To achieve this goal within the framework of the present invention provides the following means.

The claimed method of controlling turbine installation, characterized in that the turbine installation includes a compressor for compressing the working medium; a heat source for heating the compressed working medium; a turbine driven in rotation heated working medium circulation circuit through which the working medium is circulated at least between the compressor, the heat source and the turbine; however, the claimed method involves the step of increasing the temperature, which increases the temperature in the turbine working environment; the step of increasing flow rate, which increases the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor, during increasing heat source temperature work is her environment, supplied to the turbine from the heat source; and the step of lowering the flow rate, which reduces the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor after a predetermined period of time after increasing the flow through the bypass.

According to the present invention when the temperature of the working medium supplied to the turbine, the fluid flow through the bypass increases for a specified time, and then reduce, thereby reducing the period of time during which the load on the gear closer to 0 than some specified value.

That is, with the beginning of the rise of the inlet temperature to the turbine working environment, increasing the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor, i.e. circulating between the output and the input of the compressor, increase the required torque on the compressor, and increase the load on the gearbox. Further, the temperature in the turbine operating environment continues to grow over time, which is growing developing turbine torque, and the load on the gearbox gradually approaches zero.

After a predetermined period of time after the start of temperature increase of the working environment the absolute value of the load on the gear approaches the set value which prevents the wear of the gearbox in this mode, therefore, the fluid flow through the bypass reduce. When the fluid flow through the compressor decreases, and also decreases the required torque on the compressor. Along with this, the turbine produces sufficient torque, causing the load on the gearbox changes the sign on the opposite of that which she had up to this point. For example, if the load during rotation of the compressor or similar equipment by means of a generator is considered negative, the load becomes positive. Largest positive load on the gearbox becomes greater than the above specified value.

In this case, the load on the gearbox control only one fluid flow through the bypass, and therefore even if the heat source has a limited rate of temperature rise, such as a nuclear reactor or similar device, you can adjust the load on the gearbox, and within the limitations on the rate of promotion, or the like imposed on the heat source.

Preferably, the claimed method further includes: a first computing step, which calculates the fluid flow through the bypass at the stage of higher consumption and lower consumption based on the time lapsed after the start of temperature increase of the working environment; a second computing step, which calculates the flow through the bypass required the th to prevent surging of the compressor, based on the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and outlet of the compressor, and also changed the number of revolutions of the compressor based on the temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the compressor; a selection step, which selects the greater of the two values of consumption, calculated on the first and second processing stages; stage regulation of fluid flow through the bypass, in which the fluid flow, return the fulfilled from the output to the input of the compressor, adjust to the specified value.

According to the present invention, are choosing the greater of the two values of flow through the bypass, one of which is calculated based on the period of time elapsed after the start of temperature increase of the working environment, and the other as necessary to prevent surging of the compressor to prevent the fall of the load on the gearbox to the value, which is closer to 0 than the specified value, and to prevent surging of the compressor.

Turbine installation according to the present invention includes; a compressor for compressing the working medium; a turbine driven by the working medium circulation circuit through which the working medium is circulated at least between the compressor and the turbine; a by-pass for by-passing the working medium from the output to the input of the compressor; a flow regulator for regulating fluid flow through BA the pas; the engine to bring the rotation of the turbine and compressor using gear at start-up; and control device for implementing the inventive method of control.

According to the present invention, the control device claimed process regulates the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor, and controls the load on the gearbox.

Thus the load on the gearbox control only one fluid flow through the bypass, so even if the heat source is limited by the speed of temperature increase, such as a nuclear reactor or similar device, the load on the gearbox can be adjusted within the constraints on the rate of increase in temperature or the like imposed on the heat source.

According to the claimed invention, a method of controlling turbine installation and turbine installation with increasing inlet temperature to the turbine working environment by improving on some specified time fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor, and a consequent decrease in flow through the bypass, provide the start-up of turbine equipment to adjust the load on the gearbox within the limitations imposed on the equipment in the turbine installation.

Brief description of drawings

In figure 1 with tematicheskie presents the layout of the power plant according to the first variant implementation of the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a block diagram explaining the control of the power plant, are presented in figure 1.

Figure 3 graphically presents the algorithm explaining the regulation at start-up of power plants, presented in figure 1.

Figure 4 shows a graph of the time variation of the temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine power plant with figure 1 and the opening degree of the second bypass valve.

Figure 5 shows a graph illustrating the application of torque to the gearbox power plant is presented in figure 1.

Figure 6 shows a block diagram illustrating the management of a power plant according to modification of the first embodiments of the present invention.

7 shows a graph of the time variation of the temperature at the turbine inlet and the opening degree of the first and second bypass valves when starting the power plant presented on Fig.6.

On Fig schematically presents power plant according to the second variant of realization of the present invention.

Figure 9 shows a block diagram illustrating the control of the power plant, presented at Fig.

Figure 10 graphically presents the control algorithm when starting the power plant presented on Fig.9.

Figure 11 schematically represented is and the layout of the power plant according to a third variant of implementation of the present invention.

On Fig shows a block diagram illustrating the control of the power plant, presented at the 11.

On Fig graphically presents the control algorithm at start-up of power plants, presented at the 11.

Preferred implementations of the invention

The first option

Below with reference to figures 1 to 5 is illustrated the operation of the power plant with gas turbine closed cycle according to the first variant implementation of the present invention.

Figure 1 schematically shows a power plant according to this implementation variant of the present invention.

For this variant of implementation of the explanations given with reference to power plant with a gas turbine, where the circulation path forming a closed system, as a working medium circulates helium as a heat source for heating the compressed working medium is a nuclear reactor.

As shown in figure 1, energy (turbine) installation 1 includes, generally, a turbine 3, a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure and a gear 6 mounted on the same rotating shaft 2; coupled with the gear 6 generator (engine) 7, the atomic reactor 8 for heating the working medium, compressed by the compressor 5 high pressure, and circulating circuit through which the working environment consistent is consequently passes through the atomic reactor 8, the turbine 3, a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

As shown in figure 1, the turbine 3 is installed on the shaft 2 and is driven high-temperature working medium is supplied under high pressure from the nuclear reactor 8.

The working environment can pass through the circulation path 9 from the atomic reactor 8 to the turbine 3 and the turbine 3 to the compressor 4 low pressure.

Figure 1 also shows that the compressor 4 low pressure is mounted on the rotary shaft 2 and serves to compress the working environment due to the rotation of the shaft 2.

The working environment can pass through the circulation path 9 from the turbine 3 to the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 4 low pressure to the compressor 5 high pressure.

Figure 1 further shows that the compressor 5 high pressure is mounted on the rotary shaft 2 and serves to compress the working environment due to the rotation of the shaft 2.

The working environment can pass through the circulation path 9 from the compressor 4 low pressure to the compressor 5 and high pressure from the compressor 5 to the high pressure in the nuclear reactor 8.

As shown in figure 1, the atomic reactor 8 is located between the compressor 5 and high pressure turbine 3 and the supply to the turbine high-temperature environment with a high pressure, which heats the working medium flowing under you who akim pressure from the compressor 5 high pressure.

The working environment can pass through the circulation path 9 from the compressor 5 to the high pressure in the nuclear reactor 8 and from the reactor 8 to the turbine 3.

Figure 1 shows that the gear 6 connects the shaft 2 and the generator 7 is able to transmit torque with shaft 2 by the generator 7, and the generator 7 to the shaft 2 when the rotation transformation.

The gearbox 6 is a multiple gears that interact in a particular schema. For example, the gearbox can be used planetary gear, although the present invention this scheme is not limited.

As shown in figure 1, the generator 7 is connected with the gear 6 with the possibility of transmission of torque forces and, when the power plant 1 is in operation, through the shaft 2 and the gear 6 is driven to generate power turbine 3.

When you start the same power unit 1 turbine 3, a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure result in rotation of the generator 7 through the shaft 2 and the gear 6, using energy supplied from the outside.

As shown in figure 1, the circulation path 9 is used for circulation of the working medium between the atomic reactor 8, a turbine 3, a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

The circulation path 9 is equipped with a regenerative heat exchanger 21 for the implementation of those which of loobman between the working environment, leaving the turbine 3, and the working medium leaving the compressor 5 high pressure; refrigerator 22 for performing heat exchange between the working medium at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure and sea water; and intermediate refrigerator 23 for performing heat exchange between the working medium leaving the compressor 4 low pressure, and sea water.

Figure 1 shows that the regenerative heat exchanger 21 is used for heating the feed to the reactor 8 of the working environment due to the heat extracted from the working medium coming from the turbine 3. The regenerative heat exchanger 21 is located between the turbine 3 and the compressor 4 low pressure, and simultaneously between the compressor 5 to the high pressure and the atomic reactor 8.

As shown in figure 1, the refrigerator 22 is a heat exchanger to transfer heat to the working medium coming from the regenerative heat exchanger 21, sea water. The refrigerator 22 is located between the heat exchanger 21 and the compressor 4 low pressure.

In this case, the refrigerator 22 can work by taking heat from the working environment of sea water, as described above, or any other medium, without limitation to the present invention.

As shown in figure 1, the intermediate refrigerator 23 is used to heat the working medium leaving the compressor 4 low pressure sea water. Intermediate holodilnik is located between the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

In this interim refrigerator 23 can work by taking heat from the working environment of sea water, as described above, or any other medium, without limitation to the present invention.

Next, as shown in figure 1, in the circuit 9 has a first bypass 31 to increase the flow rate of the fluid at the inlet into the compressor 4 low pressure, and a second bypass switch 32 for controlling the amount of working medium in the circuit, i.e. to regulate the flow of working medium in the circuit 9, as well as to increase the fluid flow at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure in the compressor 5 high pressure.

As shown in figure 1, the first bypass switch 31 is used to bypass a portion of the workspace from the output of the intermediate refrigerator 23 at a point between the cooler 22 and the compressor 4 low pressure. In other words, the first bypass 31 is a path, one end of which is connected to the circulation path 9 between the cooler 23 and the compressor 5 high pressure, and the other end between the cooler 22 and the compressor 4 low pressure.

In the path of the first bypass switch 31 has a first bypass valve 36 for regulating fluid flow through the bypass.

As shown in figure 1, the first bypass valve 36 is installed in the path of the first bypass 31 for regulating fluid flow through the first bypass in speaking, the first bypass valve is used to control the fluid flow at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure to prevent surging of the compressor 4 low pressure.

Although explanations for this version of the implementation are given in relation to the two valves 36, mounted in parallel, the present invention is not limited to this number, the valves may be larger or smaller.

As shown in figure 1, the second bypass 32 is a road on which you can submit a working environment as the output of the compressor 5 high pressure and compressor inlet 4 low pressure, as well as to bypass a part of the working environment from the output of the compressor 5 high pressure to a point between the heat exchanger 21 and refrigerator 22. In other words, the second bypass 32 is a path with one end connected between the compressor 5 and high pressure regenerative heat exchanger 21, and the other between the cooler 22 and the compressor 4 low pressure.

The second bypass 32 is equipped with the first tank-accumulator 41 and the second tank has a battery 42, which is connected to an external supply system working environment, while between the first tank-accumulator 41 and the second tank-accumulator 42 has a second bypass valve (flow controller) 43.

The first tank battery 41 is a container of the industry, located in the path of the second bypass 32 on the side of the compressor 5 high pressure. The second tank battery located in the path of the second bypass-side refrigerator 22.

The flow of the working medium in the circulation path 9 from the supply system is produced through the first tank battery 41, the second tank battery 42 or through both tank at the same time.

If, however, regulate the fluid flow at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high-pressure part of the working medium from the output of the compressor 5 high pressure perepuskat sequentially through the first tank battery 41 and the second tank battery 42 and return to a path between the regenerative heat exchanger 21 and refrigerator 22.

As shown in figure 1, the second bypass valve is installed in the path of the second bypass 32 between the first tank-accumulator 41 and the second tank-accumulator 42 and serves to regulate fluid flow through the second bypass 32. In other words, the second bypass valve 43 serves to regulate fluid flow at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure in the working mode of the power plant 1, as well as to regulate the load on the gearbox 6 during start-up.

As shown in figure 2, to the inlet of the second bypass valve 43 receives the control signal from the second program the CSO regulator 51.

Although explanations for this variant implementations of the claimed invention are applied to the two second bypass valve 43 installed in parallel, the present invention is not limited to this number, the second by-pass valves may be larger or smaller.

Figure 2 shows a block diagram explaining the control of the power plant, are presented in figure 1.

Next, as shown in figure 2, in the structure of the power plant 1 has a second software controller 51 for controlling the second bypass valve on the basis of commands to increase the working medium temperature.

Below explains how to manage the first bypass valve 36 from the second software of the controller 51.

Further explains the principle of the power unit 1 having the above-described layout.

In the operating mode, i.e. when the power plant 1 produces electricity, the working medium under high pressure enters the atomic reactor 8, additionally heated by the heat of the reactor to a temperature of, for example, about 900C., and then fed back into the circulation path 9.

In the circulation path 9, the working medium flows into the turbine 3. Turbine 3 by the energy of the high temperature working environment with high pressure creates a force and torque transmission is t his shaft 2.

Torque force from the shaft 2 is transmitted to the gear 6 and further to the generator 7. Gearbox 6 reduces the number of revolutions of the shaft 2 to the number of revolutions required for the rotation of the generator 7.

The generator 7 generates electricity due to the transmitted torque it efforts.

Leaving the turbine 3, the working environment temperature is lowered to approximately 500C, and the circulation circuit 9 is supplied to the regenerative heat exchanger 21. In the heat exchanger 21 is heat exchange between the working medium leaving the turbine 3, and the working medium leaving the compressor 5 high pressure, as described below, after which the working medium exits the heat exchanger 21.

From the regenerative heat exchanger 21, the working medium circulation circuit 9 is supplied to the refrigerator 22, which gives off heat sea water, cooled to approximately 20C, after which the working medium out of the refrigerator 22.

From the refrigerator 22 working environment by circulating circuit 9 is fed to the inlet of the compressor 4 low pressure. Compressor 4 low pressure compresses the flowing working environment due to the torque from the turbine 3 to the shaft 2, and releases it back into the circulation path 9.

From the compressor 4 to the low pressure working medium circulation circuit 9 is supplied to the intermediate refrigerator 23, where the CTD is no heat of sea water, cooled to approximately 20C, after which the working medium leaves the intermediate refrigerator.

Intermediate refrigerator 23 working environment by circulating circuit 9 is fed to the input to the compressor 5 high pressure. The compressor 5 high pressure increases the pressure of flowing of the working environment, compressed by the compressor 4 low pressure, due to the torque from the turbine 3 to the shaft 2, and gives a working environment back into the circulation path 9.

From the compressor 5 of the high-pressure working medium circulation circuit 9 is supplied to the regenerative heat exchanger 21, where it takes heat from the working medium coming from the turbine 3, is heated, for example, up to approximately 450C, and returned to the circulation path 9.

From the regenerative heat exchanger 21, the working medium circulation circuit 9 is again supplied to the nuclear reactor 8, then the above procedure is repeated.

If the fluid flow through the circulation path 9 is small, i.e. if the low flow rate at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure, then open the first bypass valve 36 to prevent surging of the compressor 4 low pressure.

That is, opening the first bypass valve 36, the return on the first bypass 31 part of the working environment, the last compressor 4 low pressure and intermediate Jolo is ilnik 23, in the circulation path 9 between the cooler 22 and the compressor 4 low pressure. Because of this, the flow rate at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure increases compared to flow through the circuit 9 in General that prevents surging of the compressor 4 low pressure.

If small fluid flow at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure in the compressor 5 high pressure, then open the second bypass valve 43 to prevent surging of the compressor 4 low pressure 4 and the compressor 5 high pressure.

That is, opening the second bypass valve 43, perepuskat on the second pass 32, through the first tank battery 41 and the second tank battery 42, the part of the working environment from the output of the compressor 5 high back pressure in the circulation path 9 between the regenerative heat exchanger 21 and refrigerator 22. Thus, the fluid flow passing through the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure increases compared to flow through the circuit 9 in General that prevents surging of the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

Finally, if the quantity of working medium in the circuit 9 is small, the working medium was added in the circulation loop of the system supplying fluid connected through the first tank-batte the torus 41 and the second tank battery 42.

Below is disclosed process management start power unit 1 used in the present implementation of the claimed invention.

Figure 3 graphically presents the control algorithm when starting the power plant, are presented in figure 1.

At start-up is shown in Fig.1 power unit 1 to the generator 7 serves food from outside. Powered generator 7 operates as a motor and creates a torque force to rotate the turbine 3, a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 through a high pressure gear 6 and the shaft 2.

Figure 4 shows a graph illustrating the change with time of the temperature of the medium flowing into the turbine power plant with figure 1, and the opening degree of the second bypass valve. Figure 5 shows a graph of torque applied to the gearbox power plant with 1.

Here, positive values of torque on the graph from figure 5 are related to the load on the gear 6 when the rotation of the generator 7 turbine 3, and negative if the rotation of the turbine 3 and the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure generator 7.

The turbine 3 and other equipment to the nominal spin speed, for example, 6000 rpm, until, until you run the power plant 1 and will not receive a command to increase the temperature (T1). is this period the temperature Tin of the working environment, coming into the turbine 3, and the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valves maintain constant, as shown in figure 4 and figure 5. So the gearbox is supported by the negative torque-Q.

Then, when the power unit 1 receives a command to increase the temperature (T1), as shown in figure 4, begin increasing the temperature of the reactor 8, and the temperature increase Tin production environment that is heated in the reactor 8 and supplied to the turbine 3 (step S1 temperature increase).

At the same time, the second software controller 51 controls the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 (step S2 of higher consumption).

With increasing temperature Tin is supplied to the turbine 3 of the working environment grows and created by the turbine 3 of the torque force. When opening the second bypass valve 43 increases the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass output of the compressor 5 to the high pressure point of the circulation path 9 between the regenerative heat exchanger 21 and refrigerator 22, this increases the required torque on the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

When reducing the absolute value of the torque supplied to the reducer 6 due to the rotating efforts, develop turbine 3, there is an increase in its absolutego values due to the increase in torque is and the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure, and, thus, the absolute value of the torque generally increases, as shown in figure 5 (reduced as progress in the right portion of the graph from figure 5).

The temperature in the reactor 8 and continues after opening the second bypass valve 43, and therefore, as shown in figure 4, continued growth temperature Tin of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine 3.

Thus, developing the turbine 3 of the torque force continues to grow, and, as shown in figure 5, the absolute value of the torque on the gearbox 6 decreases as the growth temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine 3 (as progress in the right part of the diagram).

After a predetermined period of time after receiving the command to increase the temperature, namely, at time T2, the torque on the gear reaches the specified value.

Here the second software controller 51 reduces the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 (step S3 of the flow rate reduction).

With the decrease in the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 decreases the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass output of the compressor 5 to the high pressure point of the circulation path 9 between the regenerative heat exchanger 21 and refrigerator 22, and with it decreases and the required torque on the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressur who I am.

Torque on the gearbox 6 sharply increases and overcomes the interval between the negative value-Q1 and a positive value Q1 due to a decrease in the required torque on the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

The graph from figure 5 the dotted line indicates the change with time of the torque on the gear 6 provided that the temperature Tin of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine increases, and the degree of opening of the second bypass valve 43 is not operated.

As shown in figure 5, controls the degree of opening of the second bypass valve 43 from the second software controller 51 can reduce the period of time during which the torque on the gear 6 is in the interval between the negative first predetermined value Q1 and the positive first predetermined value Q1.

Next, figure 5 in the interval between the positive first predetermined value Q1 and the negative first predetermined value Q1, the value of torque on the gearbox 6 is small, and therefore the probability of development of wear on the gears and other gear 6.

According to the present invention, during the raise the temperature of Tin supplied to the turbine 3 of the working medium fluid flow through the bypass increases for a specified time, and then reduce, thereby reducing the period of lying is neither, during which the absolute value of the load on the gearbox 6 is closer to 0 than to the specified torque-Q1. Thus, during the operation of the start you can adjust the torque on the gear 6, while respecting constraints on the rate of temperature rise and the like imposed on the atomic reactor 8, which constituted the power plant 1.

When this torque on the gearbox 6 is controlled by adjusting only the fluid flow through the bypass, and therefore even if the heat source when the power plant 1 has speed limits of temperature rise, as, for example, the atomic reactor 8 or similar device, can adjust the torque on the gear 6, and within the limitations on the rate of temperature rise or the like imposed on the atomic reactor 8.

The modification of the first variant

The following describes a modification of the first embodiments of the present invention with reference to Fig.6 and Fig.7.

Although the basic structure of the power installation of this modification is basically no different from those described above for the first variant, this modification differs from the first variant of the method of controlling the first bypass valve. Therefore, for this with reference to Fig.6-7 explains only how to manage the first by-pass valve, and describe what their other constituent elements is omitted.

Figure 6 shows a block diagram illustrating the management of a power plant according to this modification.

Constituent elements identical to elements, disclosed in relation to the first implementation variant of the claimed invention, are denoted by the same item numbers, and their description is omitted.

As shown in Fig.6, the control device 150 power unit 101 in this embodiment, the implementation contains a second software regulator (the regulator) 51 to control the degree of opening of the second bypass valve 43, and the first controller 151 for controlling the degree of opening of the first bypass valve (flow control) 36.

The first controller 151 controls the degree of opening of the first bypass valve 36 based on the starting team on the rise of temperature.

Below explains how to control the degree of opening of the first bypass valve 36 from the software controller 151.

Next is explained the regulation at start-up energy device 101 used for this variant implementations of the claimed invention.

Thus, although the procedure of the start of the second software controller 51 and the first controller 151 control the degree of opening of the second bypass valve 43 and the first bypass valve 36 corresponding is about, the second software controller 51 does not differ from similar regulator according to the first embodiment, and therefore its description is omitted.

In addition, the power unit 101 generates electricity in the same way as in the first embodiment of implementation of the claimed invention, so the description is omitted.

7 shows a graph illustrating the change with time of the temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine during start-up of the power plant according to Fig.6, and the change with time of the degree of opening of the first and second bypass valves. In this case the curve V1 figure 7 shows the degree of opening of the first bypass valve 36, and the curve V2 is the degree of opening of the second bypass valve 43.

The turbine 3 and other equipment result in rotation with a speed of, for example, 6000 rpm until then, until you run the power plant 101 and will not give the team at increasing temperature (time T1). During this period the temperature Tin of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine 3, the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 and the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 constant support, as shown in Fig.7.

Then, when the power unit 101 receives a command to increase the temperature (time T1), as shown in Fig.7, begin increasing the temperature at which many of the reactor 8, as well as raising the temperature Tin of the working medium heated by the reactor 8 and supplied to the turbine 3.

At the same time, the first controller 151 controls the degree V2 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36.

When opening the first bypass valve 36 part of the working environment, through compressor 4 low pressure and intermediate refrigerator 23, returns for the first 31 bypass back to the inlet of the compressor 4 low pressure. In other words, the flow rate of the working medium compressed in the compressor 4 low pressure grows, and with it grows and required torque for the compressor 4 low pressure (see figure 1).

Further increases the absolute value of the torque on the gearbox 6, located between operating as a motor generator 7 and the compressor 4 low pressure.

After opening the first bypass valve 36 and the second bypass valve 43, the temperature rise of the nuclear reactor 8 is continued, and, as shown in Fig.7, is also continuing increase in the temperature Tin of the working medium flowing into the turbine 3.

Therefore, as in the first variant of realization, the rotating force developed by the turbine 3, continues to grow, and the absolute value of the torque gearbox 6 decreases as the growth temperature entering the turbine 3 of the working environment.

After a specified period the belts after receipt of the command to increase the temperature (T2), torque on the gearbox reaches the specified value.

The first software controller 151 and the second software controller 51 is controlled, respectively, by the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 and the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43, as shown in Fig.7.

With the decrease in the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 decreases the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass output of the compressor 4 low pressure at its input, and with it decreases and the torque required to bring the rotation of the compressor 4 low pressure.

Torque on the gearbox 6 sharply increases and overcomes the interval between the negative set torque (specified value) -Q1 and the positive set torque (specified value) Q1 due to a decrease in the required torque for the compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure.

The above procedure by controlling the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 and the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 from the side, respectively, of the first software of the controller 51 and the second software controller 151, it is possible to simplify the control torque on the gearbox 6.

Namely, for regulating torque on the gear 6 can be used together first the first and second bypass valves 36, 43, and therefore there is no need to apply in one way or another as the valves of large diameter or increase their number. Therefore, the change or complication of the procedure for managing torque in the gearbox 6 is compensated by the possibility to restrict the basic cost of power plant 101.

The second option

The following describes the second embodiment of the present invention with reference to Fig-10.

Although the basic configuration of the power setup for this option is the implementation of the claimed invention, in General, similar disclosed above in relation to the first option, the second option is different from the first method of controlling the second bypass valve. Therefore, in this embodiments is explained with reference to Fig-10 only way to control a second by-pass valve, and a description of the other constituent elements is omitted.

On Fig schematically shows a power plant according to this implementation variant of the present invention. Figure 9 shows a block diagram illustrating the control of the power plant, presented at Fig.

When the installation elements identical to elements of the first variant of realization, are denoted by the same item numbers, and their description is omitted.

As shown in Fig and Fig.9, Energetichesky the installation 201 according to this implementation variant further comprises a second sensor 261 pressure, which measures the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 5 high pressure, and the sensor 262 temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine 3, and, in addition, computing device 263 for the calculation of the adjusted speed.

As shown in Fig, the second sensor 261 pressure measures the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 5 high pressure. As shown in Fig.9 measured by the second sensor 261, the ratio of pressures is fed to the input of the second controller 251 prevent surging, part of the control device 250.

On Fig shown that the temperature sensor 262 measures the temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the turbine 3. In Fig.9, in turn, shows that the measured sensor 262 temperature is fed to the input computing device 263 for the calculation of the adjusted speed.

As shown in Fig.9, the computing unit 263 calculates the specified number of revolutions N1 on the basis of the temperature Ti measured by the temperature sensor 262, and the actual speed N of the turbine 3 by the following formula:

Computed by the computing device 263 specified number of turns N1 is fed to the input of the second controller 251 prevent surging.

Next, as shown in Fig.9, the control device 250 power plant 201 is according to this implementation variant of the claimed invention includes: the second software controller 51 to control the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 based on the time elapsed since the receipt of the team on the rise of temperature; a second controller 251 prevent surging, which calculates a degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43, which would provide a consumption, excluding the surge of the compressor 5 high pressure; a second selecting unit 252, which of the two control signals at the outputs of the second software of the controller 51 and the second controller 251 prevent surging selects the signal which corresponds to a greater degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43.

As shown in Fig.9, the second controller 251 prevent surging calculates the value of the flow rate at the inlet to the compressor 5 high pressure to eliminate compressor surge control 5 high pressure, based on the ratio of the pressure measured by the sensor 261, and the adjusted number of revolutions N1, received from the computing device 263, and then based on the calculated flow rate calculates the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 and generates a corresponding control signal.

The control signal from the output of the second regulator 251 prevent surge arrives at the input of the second selecting device 252.

Here consumption, excluding surge, calculated by adding the predetermined margin to the rate of flow at which the compressor 5 high pressure who the hiccups the surge. Thus, the calculated degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 is the degree of opening at which the fluid flow entering the compressor 5 high pressure, is added to the above stock.

As shown in Fig.9, two control signals from the feedback controller 51 and the second controller 251 prevent surging, the second selecting unit 252 selects the signal which corresponds to a greater degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43.

The selected control signal is supplied from the second control device 253 to the second bypass valve 43.

Next is explained a method of controlling the start-up power unit 201 used in the present implementation of the claimed invention.

Thus, although the procedure of the start of the second software controller 51 and the second controller 251 prevent surging, respectively, calculate the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 and generates control signals, calculation of the degree of opening of the V2 of the second bypass valve second software control 51 similarly, the same device in the first embodiment, and therefore its description is omitted.

In addition, power unit 201 generates electricity similarly to the power plant according to the first is arianto implementation of the claimed invention, therefore the explanation is omitted.

Figure 10 graphically presents the control algorithm when starting the power plant presented on Fig.9.

As shown in figure 10, when starting the power unit 201 calculates the flow through the bypass from the regulator 51 feedback and calculating the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 (the first computational step S21), and the calculation of the flow through the bypass from the second controller 251 prevent surging and calculating the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 (second computational step S22) are performed independently from each other.

As shown in Fig.9, the input of the second controller 251 prevent surging, incoming to the control device 250 from the second sensor 261 pressure enters the ratio of pressures of the working medium at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 5 high pressure, and from the computing device 263 receives the specified number of turns N1.

The second controller 251 prevent surging calculates the flow rate at the inlet to the compressor 5 high pressure to eliminate compressor surge control 5 high pressure, on the basis supplied to its input pressure ratio and the adjusted number of turns N1. The second controller 251 prevent surging calculates the flow rate, which excludes any pump is a, using pre-recorded in tables or similar.

Then the second controller 251 prevent surging on the basis of the calculated flow rate calculates the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 and generates a corresponding control signal to the second selecting unit 252.

As shown in Fig.9, the input of the second selecting device 252 receives control signals specifying the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43, the second controller 251 prevent surging and from the second software of the controller 51.

The second selecting unit 252 selects the one that corresponds to a greater degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43, and outputs it to the second bypass valve 43 (step S23).

The degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43 is controlled in accordance with the received control signal, resulting in the regulation of the flow through the second bypass 32 (step S24 regulate the flow through the bypass).

In accordance with the above-described layout, choosing the greater of two quantities of the fluid flow through the bypass, calculated based on the time since the start of the temperature increase of the working environment, i.e. from receipt of command to the temperature increase, and from conditions prevent surging of the compressor 5, regulate rashtrabhasha environment, return the fulfilled through the bypass, according to the selected value, thereby preventing not only the drop in torque on the gearbox 6 is closer to 0 than the given values of Q and-Q, but also the occurrence of compressor surge control 5 high pressure.

In particular, even if a situation occurs when the compressor 5 high pressure is exposed to the risk of occurrence of surging in the result of any failure, the surge can be prevented.

A third option

Below is disclosed a third embodiment of the present invention with reference to 11-13.

Although the composition of the power plant for this variant implementations of the claimed invention largely differs from that disclosed above in relation to the second option, the third option is different from the second method of controlling the first bypass valve. Therefore, in this embodiments is explained with reference to 11-13 only way of controlling the first bypass valve and the description of other parts is omitted.

Figure 11 schematically shows a power plant according to this implementation variant of the present invention. On Fig shows a block diagram illustrating the control of the power plant, presented at the 11.

The installation elements similar to the elements of the second variant implementation of the stated invented the I, marked with the same item numbers, and their description is omitted.

As shown in figure 11 and Fig, power plant 301 according to this implementation variant of the claimed invention additionally features a first sensor 361 pressure, measuring the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 4 low pressure.

As shown in figure 11, the first sensor 361 pressure measures the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 4 low pressure. As shown in Fig measured by the sensor 361 ratio pressure is fed to the input of the first regulator 351 prevent surging, included in the control device 350.

Next, as shown Fig, the control device 350 power unit 301 according to this implementation variant includes: a first software controller 151 to control the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 based on the time lapsed from receipt of command to the increase of temperature; the first Adjuster 351 prevent surging, managing degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36, through calculation of flow rate, excluding the surge of the compressor 4 low pressure; and a first selecting unit 352, which selects from the two control signals at the outputs of the devices 151, 351 the signal, which corresponds to the the opening degree of the first bypass valve.

As shown in Fig, the first Adjuster 351 prevent surging calculates the value of the flow rate at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure, which eliminates the occurrence of surging, based on the ratio of the pressure measured by the sensor 361, and the adjusted number of revolutions N1 calculated by the device 263, and then based on the calculated flow rate calculates the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 and emits a corresponding control signal.

The control signal from the output of the first regulator 351 prevent surge is fed to the input of the first select device 352.

Here consumption, excluding the occurrence of surging, calculated by adding the predetermined margin to such consumption, which occurs a surge in the compressor 4 low pressure. Thus, the calculated degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 is the degree of opening at which the fluid flow entering the compressor 4 low pressure, increased by the value of the specified stock.

As shown in Fig, the first selecting unit 352 selects from the two control signals received from the software controller 151 and the first Adjuster 351 prevent surging, the signal, which corresponds to a greater degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36.

Selected first selecting device is the your 352 control signal is supplied to the first bypass valve 36.

Below is illustrated the control of start-up power plant 301 used in the present implementation of the claimed invention.

When starting the power unit 301, as in the second variant implementation, the input of the second selecting device 251 of the second software of the controller 51 and the second controller 251 prevent surge signals that control the degree V2 of the opening of the second bypass valve 43, and the selected second selecting unit 252, the signal at the second bypass valve 43.

On Fig graphically presents the control algorithm at start-up of power plants, presented at the 11.

At the same time regulating the opening degree of the second bypass valve 43, as shown in Fig, independently from each other, calculate the flow through the bypass using the software controller 151 with the subsequent calculation of the opening degree of the first bypass valve 36 (the first computational step S31), and calculate the flow through the bypass using the first controller 351 prevent surging with the subsequent calculation of the opening degree of the first bypass valve 36 (the second computing step S32).

On Fig shown that at the input of the first regulator 351 prevent surging, included in the control device 350 from the first sensor 361 pressure ratios is that the ratio of pressures of the working medium at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor 4 low pressure, and from the computing device receives the specified number of turns N1.

The first Adjuster 351 prevent surging calculates the flow rate, which excludes any surging at the inlet to the compressor 4 low pressure, on the basis of supplied to its input pressure ratio and the adjusted number of turns N1. The first Adjuster 351 prevent surging calculates the flow rate, which excludes any surging, on the basis of pre-recorded in tables or similar.

Then the first controller 351 prevent surging on the basis of the calculated flow rate at the inlet calculates the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 and emits a corresponding control signal to the first selecting unit 352.

As shown in Fig, to the input of the first select device 352 from the first Adjuster 351 prevent surging and software controller 151 receives control signals specifying the degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36.

The first selecting unit 352 selects from the control signals, the one that corresponds to a greater degree of opening of the first bypass valve 36, and outputs it to the first bypass valve 36 (step S33).

The degree V1 of the opening of the first bypass valve 36 is adjusted on the basis of the received control signal, resulting in Regulus is the formation of flow through the first bypass switch 31 (step S34 regulate the flow through the bypass).

Thus, choosing the greater of two quantities of the fluid flow through the bypass, calculated on the basis of the period of time elapsed since the beginning of the temperature increase of the working environment, i.e. from receipt of command to the temperature increase, and prevent surging of the compressor 4 low pressure, regulate fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass according to the selected value, thereby preventing not only the drop in torque on the gearbox 6 is closer to 0 than the given values of Q and-Q, but also the occurrence of compressor surge control 4 low pressure.

In particular, the surge of the compressor 4 low pressure can be prevented, even if a situation occurs in which the surge can easily occur as a result of any failure.

Legal protection of the present invention is not limited to the above variants of implementation, but covers modifications that do not change the essence of the present invention.

For example, although the explanation for the above implementation options were given on the assumption that the two-stage compressor, which includes a compressor 4 low pressure compressor 5 high pressure, the compressor may have one, three or more levels, without any limitation to the present invention.

1. The method of control tour is Inna installation, characterized in that the turbine system includes:
a compressor for compressing the working environment;
the heat source for heating the compressed working environment;
turbine driven in rotation heated working medium; and a circulation path through which the working medium is circulated at least between the compressor, the heat source and the turbine;
and this method includes the following steps:
the stage temperature increase, which increases the temperature entering the turbine working environment;
the step of increasing flow rate, which increases the fluid flow, return the fulfilled through the bypass from the output to the input of the compressor with increasing heat source temperature of the working medium flowing into the turbine;
the phase of decline in consumption, which reduces the consumption return the fulfilled through the bypass working environment after a predetermined period of time after increasing fluid flow through the bypass;
moreover, this method also provides:
the first computational step, which calculates the fluid flow through the bypass at the stage of higher consumption and lower consumption based on the time lapsed after the start of temperature increase of the working environment;
the second computational step, which calculates necessary to prevent surging of the compressor fluid flow through the bypass, ex the Dublin core from the ratio of the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the compressor, and calculate the modified rotational speed of the compressor based on the temperature of the working medium at the inlet to the compressor;
the selection step, which selects the greater of the two values of consumption, calculated on the first and second processing stages; and phase regulation, in which the fluid flow, return the fulfilled from the output to the input of the compressor to regulate the selected flow rate.

2. Turbine installation, characterized in that it contains:
a compressor for increasing the pressure of the working environment;
turbine driven in rotation by the coolant;
circulating circuit through which the working medium is circulated at least between the compressor and the turbine;
a by-pass for by-passing the working medium from the output to the input of the compressor;
a flow regulator for regulating fluid flow through the bypass;
engine to bring into rotation of the turbine and compressor using gear at start-up;
control device for implementing the control method according to claim 1.



 

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