Method to mine gravel deposits of minerals
SUBSTANCE: in the method to mine gravel deposits, including contouring of balance reserves by data of exploration wells, opening of a sand bed, performance of opening and production works, after contouring of balance reserves the opening works are carried out with solid transverse trips into a dump to the level of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour. Production works are started by slabbing with a bulldozer in the area of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour with transportation of sands into a mined space. Each subsequent lifting of the balance reserves contour is mined in the similar manner, peats located between lifts of the balance reserves contour are transported through slabbing with secondary displacement into the dump.
EFFECT: reduced operational losses of a useful component.
The invention relates to mining and can be used in the development of mineral deposits, mainly for the development of placer deposits in an open way.
The known method of placer developments, which do not produce Stripping and mining complex carries out simultaneously the excavation of peat and sand (Leshkov VG Theory and practice of development placers mnogozachatkovye dredges. - M.: Nedra, 1980, s).
The disadvantages of this method are: significant metalliferous ore Sands; the reduction of mineral extraction with 1 m3rock mass; depreciation of mining equipment; increases in the cost of production, leaching and enrichment of the Sands, and also the period of mine.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result for the proposed method is a method of placer developments with jurisdiction Stripping, and the contour of industrial stocks in the top of reservoir Sands set horizontally with mark, depending on the technical, geological and economic factors (Varicak M.I., Nadolski V.I. Optimization of parameters of open pit mining of placers, - M.: Nedra, 1985, p.76-78).
The disadvantages of this method are significant technological losses of useful components the NTA with the peat overburden. This is due to the fact that the top layer of sand is rising and falling (due to uneven distribution of the useful component), and the border industrial stocks is thus that part of the reserves is located above the path of industrial stocks in the top of reservoir Sands. In this case, the contour of industrial stocks in the top of reservoir Sands set horizontally, with optimization level, the maximum obtained by the company from the sale of useful component of profit.
The present invention is the reduction of operating losses of useful component.
This task is achieved by the method of placer developments, including the delineation of reserves according to exploration wells, the opening of the reservoir Sands, management of overburden and mining, after contouring balance reserves Stripping conduct continuous transverse trips to the dump to the level of the maximum point of the contour balance reserves, mining operations begin longitudinal benches bulldozer in place of the maximum point of the contour balance reserves with the transportation of sand in the mined-out area, each subsequent raising of the contour balance reserves mined in a similar way, peat, located between elevations protractor which have longitudinal benches with a secondary movement in the blade, and on reaching the mark of mining and Stripping operations to the level of the lowest level of the path of balance reserves of the mining work is carried out by known methods.
Stripping a continuous transverse field level maximum level contour balance reserves represent the minimum performance dilution useful component. Mining longitudinal benches bulldozer in place of the maximum point of the contour balance reserves lead to a more complete extraction of the component with the lowest losses. Transportation of peat located between elevations, longitudinal benches with a secondary movement in the blade allows to simplify the scheme of the organization of movement of transport.
The invention is illustrated graphically in figure 1 and figure 2 below:
1. the solid direction transverse trips bulldozer;
2,4. the maximum contour balance reserves;
3,5. the direction of the longitudinal faces of the bulldozer;
6. the minimum contour balance reserves;
7. the space between the two maximum contours balance reserves;
8. the direction of transportation of peat longitudinal benches from the space between the two maximum contours balance reserves;
9, 10. the spacing of the flanges on the Sands;
11, 12. production of sand processing with Macs is imally contour balance reserves.
The figure 1 shows a cross-section of alluvial deposits on exploration line. Above the line of the surface shows the number of exploratory wells (I, II, II,IV). According to the results of exploration and established conditions conducted contour balance reserves on the top of reservoir Sands 2. Initially, the opening of the reservoir Sands and Stripping produces a continuous cross-visits 1 bulldozers in external dumps (figures not shown) on the two sides of the placers. Moreover, work is carried out to the maximum level contour balance reserves 2 with a spacing of 10 boards.
Mining operations begin longitudinal benches 3 bulldozer with the maximum level of the contour balance reserves with the transportation of sand in the developed space, with the formation of the notches 12. Each subsequent rising contour balance reserves 4 mined longitudinal benches bulldozer 5 with the creation of production 11. Peat 7, located between the elevations of the contour balance reserves 2 and 4 are transported longitudinal benches 8 with a secondary movement of peat 1 in the dumps. Upon reaching the mark of overburden and mining operations to the level of the lowest level contour balance reserves 6, mining operations should be performed by known methods, for example by opening with a spacing of the flanges 9.
Method development placer mestorozhdeniya fossil, including delineation of reserves according to exploration wells, the opening of the reservoir Sands, management of overburden and mining, characterized in that, after contouring balance reserves spend Stripping solid cross-trips to the dump to the level of the maximum point of the contour balance reserves, mining operations begin longitudinal benches bulldozer with the maximum level of the contour balance reserves by transporting sand in the goaf, each subsequent raising of the contour balance reserves work in a similar way, peat, located between the elevations of the contour balance reserves transported longitudinal benches with a secondary movement in the blade.
SUBSTANCE: peat fields floating in water areas of the water-storage reservoir are cut into blocks with sizes of sides of 20×40 m with thin water jet under a pressure of 120-150 at and the range of 20-25 m, which is obtained by means of hydraulic monitor installed on the floating platform with attached equipment.
EFFECT: higher cleaning efficiency of water-storage reservoirs from floating peat fields.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises auger with cutting tool installed on it and planetary reducer. Auger is placed into jacket with longitudinal ledges on inner surface, rotating with the help of planetary reducer in the opposite direction relative to direction of auger rotation, besides, torque to auger and external jacket is sent from single drive.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of broken mineral transportation process.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: matrix for moulding contains contains casing, which, according to the invention, is implemented as divided. Divided casing contains external and internal parts, located co-axial with ability of free motion in axial direction relative to each other and forming annular slot. Two parts of casing are connected to each other by screws, herewith between heads of screws and external casing there are installed springs, which overlaps annular slot at absence of solution pressure in feeding system of binding additive.
EFFECT: simplification of moulding of as damp, as and dry materials, ensured by friction reduction.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.
EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.
17 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use in peat industry for extracting peat at non-dried, natural peat deposits.
SUBSTANCE: complex for extracting mineral resources, peat in particular, contains a lift with a winch for raising and deepening working organ in form of a system of coaxially positioned upper and internal pipes, the latter being connected to hydro-monitor in lower part, slurry pipelines, drilling plant containing diesel plant, high pressure forcing pump. Complex is also provided with water intake pump having pipeline tubing and connected to slurry pipeline by vacuum pump. Platform is made in form of a pontoon and connected by rigid connection to off-road rig, and on it high pressure forcing pump, diesel plant, vacuum pump are mounted and interconnected, and additional pipes are positioned for drilling the well and extending the slurry pipeline. Working organ is provided with peat intake connected to external pipe, which is positioned above the hydro-monitor, and has radially made apertures along whole perimeter with diameter not less than 15 mm, hydro-monitor being made in form of conical tip, perforated across whole surface, with diameter of apertures not more than 3 mm, while external pipe through the vacuum pump is connected to the slurry pipeline.
EFFECT: lowered costs, ensured ecological safety, increased reliability, shorter times needed to launch areas into operation, extended peat extraction season and transition to year-round production.
FIELD: open-pit mining for obtaining peat.
SUBSTANCE: method involves prior dewatering peat deposit; serially excavating peat from separate zones for depth equal to peat deposit thickness; installing caisson with watertight walls to isolate zone having volume equal to that of caisson from remainder peat deposit; pumping out water from peat deposit zone isolated by caisson to dewater peat inside caisson; removing peat from caisson along with retaining of cut upper horizontal ground forming layer; taking out caisson from excavated zone and diverting water from adjacent zones to above excavated zone; filling hole created in place of previous caisson location with cut upper horizontal ground-forming layer; reinstalling caisson in adjacent zone and repeating above peat production operations.
EFFECT: increased output due to reduced time of prior peat deposit dewatering, reduced peat drying time due to production of peat mass having lesser moisture content and possibility to maintain natural water balance of surrounding territory.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frame, front and back supporting rollers, cutter with working elements in form of thin plates placed along spiral line, forming apparatus, drive. Edges of thin plate of working elements are made in form of parabolic curve. Plates of working elements are made even, slanted and, in turns, rotated in opposite directions. Back support roller is mounted on side holders of front portion of forming apparatus.
EFFECT: higher quality.
FIELD: drying equipment engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has frame with frontal and backward rotary support rollers, sole with groove on surface and heaters placed therein. Device is provided with mechanism for vertical displacement of soil, placed between ends of frame and sole, on running surface of rollers ball-like shelves are placed in staggered order. Vertical displacement mechanism is made of guide with post, held on the middle of each frame end, and of screw positioned on guide aperture, having two nuts, on sole surface groove is made along shape of common sine curve in form of even size portions serially placed one after the other along and symmetrically to longitudinal axis of sole. One nut is set on screw above said guide and made in form of hub and wheel placed below it, rigidly interconnected by rods, and other nut is set on screw below the guide. Size of ball-like shelves, length and width of sole are determined from mathematical formulae.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes backfill in worked-out area of small-grain dump and further backfill of pebble dump on its surface using mined rock removed upon processing of solid placer and consequent extraction of material from dump removing particles of gold. Before re-processing of dump works for coarsening of gold particles sizes are performed. Before backfill of pebble dump silt-settling tank is formed in near-bedrock part of small-grain dump, for which purpose a barrier is formed on bedrock surface from water-proof, covering perimeter small-grain dump. After backfill of pebble fraction on surface of small-grain dump, dump is exposed during the time interval required for flushing of dump space by non-ramming water flows, then the dump is frozen preferably in two stages. Upon extraction of material from the dump its volume located above volume of silt-settling tank is removed without flushing. In order to flush volume of the dump by non-ramming water flows, natural water-borne sediments and/or forced feed of water to the dump surface is used. During formation of water-proof barrier water-proof film material is used in addition.
EFFECT: higher gold extraction efficiency during re-development of gravel deposits.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for cleaning-up of ore bed reservoirs is performed by means of desalination. In this respect, hole-drilling of solid ore is performed, as well as its explosive rupture, filling of blasted capacity with working solution and egress of product solution. Besides, the outer configuration of blasted capacity is drilled around at an angle equal to slope angle of working ledge. Along the centre line of blasted capacity all the way down the cleaning-up of ore bed an efficient well is drilled. The rest of ore body is drilled around by closed parallel rows of vertical wells. While stable roach is being blasted, all the capacity of blasted ore bed, including its outside configuration, is drilled around by vertical wells of the similar depth.
EFFECT: ensuring stability of open pit side and rising safety level of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of sands by quality by means of establishment of upper and lower limits of a producing part with different content of a useful component, further, after development of sands using the method of preliminary separation of coarse fractions, high-quality sands are supplied for enrichment, and an intermediate process reservoir, where low-quality sands are stored, is used for natural separation of rock and metal minerals by density in water medium and concentration of a precious component in a lower layer, then the upper layer is removed, and the lower concentrate layer from the process reservoir is sent for enrichment. Low-quality sands pass through additional stage of useful component concentration by natural separation of minerals by density, at the same time gold particles are concentrated in the lower layer, and clayey particles go into drainage.
EFFECT: improved performance indices of sands processing, reduced losses of fine gold, lower processed volumes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delineation of balance and industrial reserves as per the data of exploration wells, drilling and mining activities; re-delineation of industrial reserves is performed after their delineation along the top of sands. At that, new contour at excavation of rock mass is set from cross point of exploration well with initial contour of industrial reserves at minimum elevation of balance reserves as to top of bed of sands to cross point of contour of balance sands-peat reserves at an exit angle of excavating transport vehicle of stripping equipment, and where there are no cross points of new contour with contour of balance reserves as to top of bed of sands - parallel to initial contour of industrial reserves.
EFFECT: reducing operating losses of useful component.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stripping operations, excavation and transportation of sands with bulldoser to vibration screen with further feed of sands to the receiving sump and further transportation to mineral processing equipment. Receiving sump is formed in the form of a pit drilled to the rock bed along the circuit of reserves and longitudinally separated with a pillar into two semi-pits: one is meant for sand storage, the other one is meant for boulders; screen is installed on sand supply side with possibility of its being moved along the pit with an inclination providing boulder movement to the second semi-pit.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of mining equipment at development of boulder gravel mineral deposits owing to extraction of boulders to specially prepared space.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used to develop natural and anthropogenic high-clayey gravel deposits of minerals with high content of fine and thin gold. The method of acoustic and hydraulic pulse softening and disintegration of high-plastic clay sands of gold-bearing placers includes placer opening, formation of an accumulator, softening of clay sands with the help of water supply and subsequent filtration process, assembly of a plant of discharge hydraulic transportation of the hydraulic mixture. Hydraulic washing of sands is carried out with subsequent free-flow supply of a hydraulic mixture into the accumulator and subsequent pressure hydraulic transportation of the hydraulic mixture to the system of washing and sizing, which is coupled with an additional accumulator by means of a mechanism that supplies the sized hydraulic mixture. Periodic acoustic exposure is carried out with directed radiation of 20 kHz frequency and intensity from 5 to 10 W/cm2 to a large-sized solid component of the hydraulic mixture in the additional accumulator before and after periodical hydrodynamic exposure of pulse loads generated in case of high-voltage electric breakthrough and producing voltage with exceeding the limit strength of the solid component of the hydraulic mixture depending on its water saturation. Number of charges is determined on the basis of the specific size of the largest piece.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of damage and disintegration of clay sands of placers.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used in developing natural and technogenic placer deposits of natural resources with increased content of fine and thin gold. Proposed method comprises deposit opening, producing sump, weakening rocks by feeding water and filtration, and mounting pipeline transport of hydraulic mix with pumps with hydrodynamic cavitation agitator. Pre-loosened mined rock arranged in sump first section by bulldozer agitator is subjected to ultrasound at frequency of 20 Hz and intensity of 10 to 20 W/cm2. Water is forced into sump first section in amount making 0.15 to 0.3 of volume content of rocks lumps at porosity of 26 to 40% to act by ultrasound with 20 Hz-frequency and 10 to 20 W/cm2-intensity onto hydraulic mix and feeding said mix to system of jetting and grading with pre-disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation agitator. Simultaneously with loosening mined rock in first section, second sump section is filled with loosened mined rock. Jetting and grading with barren rock and feeding hydraulic mix in additional sump are performed for additional saturation with water. Water is additionally fed into additional sump with the solid-to-liquid ratio of 3:7 to act by ultrasound with 20 Hz frequency and 10 to 20 W/cm2 intensity onto hydraulic mix solid component in additional sump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and environmental safety.
SUBSTANCE: method includes definition of coordinates of receiving hopper location and arrangement, definition of average transportation distance at specified receiving hopper location and on the basis of this information technical and economical parameters of ground development, rock straight movement towards receiving hopper by bulldozer, washing and extraction of mineral resource. Note that average transportation distance is defined as weighted average distance from receiving hopper to all points of the ground of random configuration and area S at zero point located at hopper location point.
EFFECT: improvement of excavation equipment effectiveness and decrease of daylighting and mining activities prime cost at placer mines development.
SUBSTANCE: development method involves drilling of ditches with arrangement of removed peats in external dumps, melting of permafrost sands in natural way, movement of sands with excavating equipment, development of sands with a drag in longitudinal adjacent ways. Development of terrace placers above flood-plains is performed in steps in longitudinal strips with piling of peats in internal longitudinal dam constructed in the area of excavated sands. For rising the water level in drag section and flooding of sand molten in natural way, for the purpose of their being protected against season freezing, not only longitudinal transport dams, but also longitudinal dam built from removed sands and transverse dams built from overburden peats are used. Area of removed sands is created by driving advance longitudinal trench and by dragging sands with slanting (non-symmetrical) working face in adjacent area developed with primary travel of the drag.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing development efficiency of terrace placers.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first bottom is divided as to width into two parts. Drain is performed on one part. At that, river bank is protected by means of a berm against washway. Extraction of aggradational deposits is performed in opposite part of the first bottom. Works are carried out in two stages without violation of boundaries of coastal zone and safety berms during the pre-freshet period: mined rock is extracted at the first stage parallel to water drain; at the second stage, by means of inclined working (trench) at an angle close to 90° there knocked down is water drain and worked-out area of open-pit mine, water drain is shutoff downstream, and during the freshet period there performed is controlled aggradation of burdens of river drift to the worked-out area of open-pit mine.
EFFECT: enlarging production volumes on restricted surface areas without violation of boundaries of coastal zone owing to regeneration and recovery of stock.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has screw, having transporting spiral ribbon held on the shaft. Equipment is provided with U-shaped chute and perforated drum with armature in form of screw ribbon, having curvilinear shape in cross-section, arched in the direction of movement. Drum is mounted in upper portion of U-shaped chute. In its lower portion a screw is mounted.
EFFECT: higher productiveness.