# Adaptive digital predicting and differentiating device

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device includes: a smoothing unit, a deviation ratio setting subunit, a real deviation subunit, a unit increment subunit, a dynamic characteristic control subunit, a smoothing unit data output, data, first control and clock inputs of the device; a clocking unit for a prediction unit; a prediction unit, a quadratic prediction subunit, a linear prediction subunit, a first derivative estimating unit, having a first subunit for calculating the first derivative, a second subunit for calculating the first derivative; a prediction behaviour control unit, having a register for storing the address of the ordinate of the history of the input process, the input of which is the second control input of the device, a comparator, an inverter, an AND element and an address counter. The prediction unit includes an adaptation unit, having a first and a second XOR element, an OR element, an inverter, a first and a second AND element, a flip-flop and a multiplexer, the output of which is the first data output of the device.

EFFECT: high quality and accuracy of control in digital dynamic control systems.

6 dwg

The invention relates to automation and computer engineering and can be used for forecasting of stationary and nonstationary random processes, improve the quality and accuracy control in digital systems of control and guidance of various (including ballistic objects.

A device for adaptive extrapolation (prediction) (ed. St. USSR №1246775, CL G06F 15/353, 1984)containing the block smoothing unit extrapolation (prediction), containing three myCitadel, the address register y (reference points) the prehistory of the input process, specifying the time of the forecast and the output of adder evaluating quadratic forecast. The device has limited functionality.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a device for adaptive extrapolation (prediction) (ed. St. USSR №1572281, CL G06F 15/353, 1988)containing the block smoothing unit extrapolation (prediction), which includes three serially connected myCitadel, the register set a time of the forecast, the output of adder evaluating quadratic prediction and evaluation unit of the first derivative of the three adders. This device also has limited functionality.

The above analogues, like all technical systems operate in two modes: fixed and dynamic (transient). The latter may be what caused ü run, the acceleration curve, the transition from one mode to another and so on, almost abrupt change of the input process. Naturally, the operation prediction in this case should be excluded.

Stationary regime, in turn, can be divided into two types, when a deterministic basis (median) input discrete random process can be linear (in the particular case, constant) or nonlinear (quadratic) character changes over time.

The technical problem for the proposed device is to eliminate the duality output forecast, i.e. in the definition and schema for adaptive (automatic) selection of linear or quadratic operator forecast input discrete process depending on the nature of the behavior in the last period of pre-history.

Therefore, the adaptive digital prediction and differentiating device, comprising: a block smoothing (ed. St. USSR №1531808, CL H03H 17/04, 1988)containing the adder, the first and second reversible counters, single channel subunit smoothing (ed. St. USSR №748417, CL G06F 15/32, 1980) of the serially connected adder and a register, the sub job ratio deviations, containing a register, a counter and a delay element, a subunit of the actual deviations of the containing block inverters, jet, the comparator and the element And, sub unit increments containing two elements And the inverter, the sub control dynamic response, contains two pulse shaper element OR counter, the first, second and third elements And the trigger mode, the information output unit smoothing information, a first control and pulsing the input device; node clocking unit forecast containing a delay element, a trigger pulse generator, the element And the shift register; block prediction, containing the first and second myCitadel, each of which contains a block of register memory, multiplexer, block inverter and adder, sub quadratic forecast, containing the unit inverters, the first and second adders, the output of the second adder is an information output subunit, the subunit linear prediction, containing the adder and the unit inverters, the output of the adder is an information output subunit, the evaluation unit of the first derivatives containing the first subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the first to n-th (current) point design background predictable process from one adder whose output is the output of the subblock and the second information output device, the second subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the second (n-1)-th point design history from one adder whose output is the output of the sub is Loka and the third information output device and the third subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the third (n-2)-th point design history from a block of inverters, first and second adders, the output of the latter is the output of the subblock and the fourth information output device; a control unit dynamics forecast containing the register storing the address of y (reference points) the prehistory of the input process, the input of which is the second managing input device that specifies the time (interval) of the forecast, a comparator, an inverter element And the address counter, the information output of which is wound on the address bus multiplexers both vychitala and to the first input of the comparator, the second input is connected to the output of storage register addresses, the output of the comparator through an inverter connected to the first input element And the second input is connected the output of the third element And subunit management dynamic characteristic (SOUTH) block smoothing, the output element And is connected to a counter input of the address counter, the bus is reset to "0" which is connected to the output of the second element AND SOUTH block smoothing, to solve the problem in the unit forecast put the block adaptation, containing the first and second XOR, item, OR, inverter, first and second elements, the trigger and the multiplexer and to the first input of the first EXCLUSIVE OR element wound output iconic discharge of the second adder of the third subunit of the calculation of the first derivative and the second the od-exit sign digit adder of the second subunit of the calculation of the first derivative, the output of this iconic discharge connected to the first input of the second EXCLUSIVE OR element, a second input connected to the output of the sign digit of the adder of the first subunit of the calculation of the first derivative, the output of the second EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the second input element OR at the first sign which things are output from the first EXCLUSIVE OR element, the output element OR connected to the first input of the second element And through an inverter to the first input of the first element And the second input of both elements And is connected to the output bus ("in") of the shift register node clocking block prediction, the output of the first element And wound on the tire installation 1 trigger, and the output of the second element And zero input trigger, direct ("1") the output of the latter is connected to the address input of the multiplexer, the information input bus which produces outputs subunits quadratic and linear projections, the output of the multiplexer block adaptation is the first information output device.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict: figure 1 - block diagram of the proposed device; figure 2 - block diagram block smoothing; figure 3 - block diagram single channel subunit smoothing; figure 4 - block diagram of the node clocking block prediction; figure 5 - block diagram of the unit forecast and unit adaptation; on ih - a table with examples of simulation results of the operation.

Known formulas operators forecast obtained analytically using the approximating polynomials by three points (the ordinate) the prehistory of the input discrete random process by the method of least squares (Milne VE Numerical analysis. M: IL, 1951, str). The operator forecast on approximarely the second order polynomial (quadratic) three-point background is:

The operator forecast on approximarely the first-degree polynomial (linear) three-point background is:

or its simplified version:

where y_{p}the first (current) design point (ordinate);

y_{p-1}, y_{p-2}accordingly, the second and the third reference point (ordinate) duplex prehistory input smoothed discrete sequence. In the numerical analysis is a system of equally spaced points with step h, in real-time h - point spacing (y), i.e. the time (depth) forecast (N).

Denote Δy_{1}=(2y_{p}-y_{p-1}as birdnest first level of background input discrete sequence, i.e. the difference between twice the current and previous ordinate process, respectively, Δysub>
2=(2y_{p-1}-y_{p-2}- birdnest the second level of the background.

After modifying equations (1) and (3) subject to birdnote get the following expressions for quadratic operators [QTR3] and linear [LN] forecasts that are implemented in the proposed device:

where Z=y_{p}-Δy_{2}and

Known formulas numerical differentiation for equally spaced points, expressed through the function values at these points (Gollard. Handbook of computational methods in statistics. M: FS, 1982, §6.6, page 61)in particular, for three points are:

Below is a table of correspondence numbering reference points (nodes) background numbering of points in the original.

The number of design points in prehistory | 3 | 2 | 1 | |

y_{n-i} | y_{n-2} | y_{n-1} | y_{n} | y_{n+1} |

y_{i} | y_{0} |
y_{1} | y_{2} | |

f_{i} | f_{-1} | f_{0} | f_{1} |

After conversion equations (6), (7) and (8) subject to birdnote get the following expressions for the calculation of the first derivatives are implemented in the proposed device:

The main typical elements of the device are adders (Raman) and blocks of inverters, and the multiplication coefficients of the components is appropriate mounting shifts tires last at the input to the adder. Such operations on the block diagram (see figure 5) indicated by the circle.

In table 6 the results of the simulation of the proposed device 12 examples of materials application No. 2011122148/08 (032740) dated 31.05.2011, in which the evaluation of the quadratic and linear predictions in similar calculated at four points (the ordinate) three-level background predictable process. These estimates can be taken for the General forecast. As can be seen from the table, a satisfactory match with the General forecast for the proposed device provides lgorithm adaptation (selection),
based on analysis of the combinations of signs of the first derivatives in the three reference points (y-y_{p}, y_{p-1}and y_{p-2}) two-level background process, in particular, for all matching characters should choose evaluate quadratic forecast, if not linear. Circuit implementation the task is solved by a serial connection of two XOR with the item, OR (A, B, C - the signs of the first derivatives: "+"=0, "-"=1):

The device comprises (see figure 1) block smoothing 1, block prediction 2 and block adaptation 3. Block smoothing 1 (see ed. St. USSR №1531808, CL H03H 17/04, 1988) contains (see figure 2) adder 4, sub 5 actual variance containing block of the inverter 6, the two comparator 7.1 and 7.2 and the element And 8, the first reversible counter 9, sub 10 jobs ratio deviations containing the register 11, the counter 12 and the delay element 13, the sub unit 14 increments containing the inverter 15 and the two elements And 16.1 and 16.2, the second reversible counter 17, the subunit 18 control of dynamic characteristics, contains two pulse shaper 19.1 and 19.2, item, OR 20, the counter 21, the three elements 22.1, 22.2, 22.3 and trigger mode 23; information input 24 of the block and smoothing device, a first control 25 and pulsing 26 inputs the device and block smoothing; odekunle the first sub-aliasing 27 (see auth. St. USSR №748417, CL G06F 15/32, 1980), contains (see figure 3) connected in series adder 28 and the register 29; information output 30. Node clocking block 31 forecast contains (see figure 4) delay element 32, the trigger 33, the pulse generator 34, the And gate 35 and the shift register 36. The block prediction 2 (see figure 5) contains the first 37 and second 38 myCitadel, each of which contains a block of register memory 39 from (A) series-connected registers 40, the multiplexer 41, the unit inverters 42 (assuming that the multiplexer does not have inverted outputs) and the adder 43; sub 44 quadratic forecast, containing a block of inverters 45, the first 46 and second 47 adders; sub 48 linear prediction, containing a block of inverters 49 and the adder 50; block 51 evaluation of the first derivative contains the first subunit 52 calculation of the first derivative in the first to n-th point design background process from one adder 53, the output 54 which is the second information output device, the second subunit 55 calculation of the first derivative in the second (n-1)-th point design history from one adder 56, the output 57 which is the third information output device, the third subunit 58 calculation of the first derivative in the third (n-2)-th point design background, which consists of the first adder 59, the unit inverters 60 and the second adder 61, the output 62 which is is the fourth information output device; node 63 dynamic control forecast containing the register 64 storage address (A) ordinate reference points background process, entrance 65 which is the second managing input device that specifies the time of the forecast H=at (T - cycle operation, And the maximum address of the memory register 40 block 39), the comparator 66, the inverter 67, the And gate 68 and the address counter 69; block adaptation 3 contains two elements EXCLUSIVE OR 70.1 and 70.2, item, OR 71, an inverter 72, two elements And 73.1 and 73.2, trigger 74, the multiplexer 75 and the first information output device 76.

The work cycle consists of 4 clock cycles. Block smoothing 1 operates in two modes: fixed and dynamic (transient), and all operations are performed within one (1) time.

In stationary mode, the unit smoothes the input discrete random process, a deterministic basis (median) which can be constant, linear or non-linear (quadratic) character changes over time. Block smoothing 1 (see figure 2) implements the following modification of the operator's signature exponential smoothing:

where x_{n}and y_{n}- input and output samples;

α=1/K is the smoothing parameter, K is a parameter adaptation;

Δx_{n}=(x_{n}-y_{n-1}) - the current deviation from the median of the process.

As criterion of efficiency is the efficiency (accuracy) smoothing the selected ratio d between zero and the actual deviations Δx_{
n}. The last form current single increment of either sign output samples in accordance with the signature function in (12):

sign[Δx_{n}/K]=0 for [Δx_{n}-K]<0 (Δx_{n}- zero variance),

sign[(Δx_{n}/K]=1 [Δx_{n}/K]>0 (Δx_{n}- actual deviation).

In stationary mode (D=0 - sign mode) block 1 smoothes the input random sequence increments to the level specified by the value d (the real range d=7÷190), which is filled in before you begin with the entrance 25 to the register 11 subunit 10 set the ratio of the variance. The latter is a controlled frequency divider, for example, for d=7 the output direct transfer counter 12 appears every seventh clock pulse from input 26, and, through a delay element 13 overwrites the inverse code d register 11 in the counter 12 (for the next cycle of operation of the divider), and subtracts "1" from the first reversible counter 9 that contains the code of the parameter adaptation K.

Adaptive control smoothing parameter, providing a constant output values of the variance of the smoothed process regardless of the degree of variability in the input, as follows. Let (at a certain code To the counter 9) increased the variance of the input discrete process, i.e. increased the number of valid variance is x_{
n}(both characters). After comparing them with the option of adapting To output blocks of Comparators 7.1 and 7.2 subunit 5 (playing the role of negative feedback) are logic "1" (mode Comparators: [Δx_{n}>K]="1", [Δx_{n}<K]="0")received at the input element And 8. As in the stationary mode the trigger mode 23 is in the state "0" (D=0), with its inverted output to the first input element And 8 subunit 5 also receives a logical "1". High level signals at all inputs of the element And 8 permit the passage of clock pulses from input 26 to a summing input of the first reversible counter 9 (code To increases in the last) and second input elements And 16.1 and 16.2 subunit unit 14 increments. The output signal from one of them (depending on the sign of the deviation) is fed to a summing (or subtractive) the input of the second reversible counter 17 of the smoothing ie signature function (12). The process of growth will reduce the number of valid variance and will continue until, until dynamic equilibrium, i.e. the number of pulses received from sub 10 on the subtractive input of the counter 9 will be equal to the number of pulses received at its summing input subunit 5, and the output variance of the smoothed discrete sequence are similar the th (d=7: one valid deviation should have seven zero).

Transient (dynamic) mode can be caused by running, acceleration, turn the transition from one mode to another and so on, almost abrupt change process. For smoothing discrete input sequence for transient conditions (D=1) uses a single channel subunit smoothing 27 (see figure 3), which implements the following statement exponential smoothing: y_{n}=½(X_{n}+y_{n-1}), i.e. with a minimum degree of smoothing and with minimal phase shift (delay) the output samples. Sub 27 works in both modes is triggered by clock pulses from input 26 in register 29, but is used only for transient (dynamic) mode. For a stationary random process, the probability of occurrence of a series, for example, m=8 (eight) deviations from the median (deterministic framework) process is one sign the contract in accordance with the geometric probability distribution is equal to:

P(x=m)=(½)^{m}=1/256≈0,004,

i.e. so small that it can be considered as the appearance of such series by the beginning of the transition mode. The subunit 18 secures such series and works as follows. As for the stationary mode, the most probable deviation of different signs, then the sign changes in the adder 4 with a "plus" to "minus" and Vice versa trigger pulse shapers is law 19.1 or 19.2 and through the element OR 20 reset to "0" the counter 21 and the trigger mode 23 (D=0). In dynamic mode (the formers 19 do not work) on the counter 21 (for example, 4-bit) will receive eight consecutive pulses from clock input 26. Output high-order bit of the counter 21 will set the logic "1", a high level signal which will ensure passing through the first element And 22.1 pulsing pulse, which sets the trigger mode 23 1 (D=1). The last signal from the inverted output will block the operation of subunit 5 of the actual variances and, respectively, subunit 14 single increments, and a high level signal direct access will be allowed through the second element And 22.2 overwrite discretes single subunit smoothing 27 in the second reversible counter 17 of the anti-aliasing. At the end of the transitional regime in the adder 4 will inevitably arise deviations of different signs, which will lead to the triggering of the pulse shapers 19 and, respectively, to switch the trigger mode 23 in the state "0" (fixed smoothing mode, D=0).

Operations forecasting and adaptation are done in three steps, respectively, of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th. They are formed by a series of three pulsing pulses from node clocking 31 (see figure 4). Pulsing the pulse input 26 clears the trigger 33, and writes "1" in the least significant bit of the shift register 36. The same pulsing pulse, delayed by the element C the support 32 sets "1" trigger 33,
thus allowing the passage of pulses from generator 34 through the element And 35 in the shift register 36, the tyres least significant bits ("a", "b" and "C") and you receive the above series. In the 2nd step of recording the output current (first) design points y_{p}in the first register 40 of block 39 of register memory of the first vicites 37. At the same time overwrites (shift) all the preceding y in adjacent registers 40 (i.e. a background of the input process). The address input of multiplexer 41 receives address code (A), the ordinate history from the address counter 69, equal code address recorded with the second control input 65 to the register 64 storage addresses before you begin device, and specifying the time (interval) prediction N=AT. In accordance with this address, the y output of multiplexer 41 (as the second design point y_{p-1}) through the power of the inverter 42 is fed to the input of the second term of the adder 43, at the entrance of the first term of which is a double ordinate of the previous design points y_{p}. At the output of the adder 43 of the first vicites 37 is set birdnest 1 level of background input discrete sequence. In the 3rd quantum operations similar to those described above, but for the second 38 myCitadel, the output of which is set birdnest-level history.
All the adders in the device - Raman. Upon completion of the 3rd beat of the output subunit 44 in accordance with the formula (4) code set evaluation quadratic (non-linear) prediction for nonstationary discrete input sequence, the output subunit 48 in accordance with the formula (5) code of estimating linear prediction for stationary or slowly changing input discrete sequence, and outputs 54, 57 and 62 unit 51 estimates of the first derivatives in accordance with formula (9), (10) and (11) - codes of these estimates. In the 4th step of the output signal ("in") of the shift register 36 node clocking 31 depending on the combination of signs of the first derivatives sets the trigger 74 block adaptation 3 in the state "1" (quadratic forecast) or "0" (linear prediction). Direct trigger 74, as the address input of multiplexer 75, provides choice and transfer his single output multiplexer 76 and the device code to the evaluation of the forecast.

Node dynamics control forecast 63 is intended to exclude a prediction operation on a dynamic (transient) mode (D=1) operation of the device, by resetting to "0" of the address counter 69 pulsing signal (U_{0}from subunit 18 to control the dynamic characteristics of the block smoothing. Zero address counter 69 to address tire multiplexers 41 both vychitala about what specic during transient calculation and installation at the outputs of both subunits forecast 44 and 48 of the code of the current increments of y_{
n}the minimum of the smoothed input process. With the transition of the device in the stationary mode (D=0) the trigger mode 23 sub 18 will permit the passage of pulsing pulse from input 26 through the open element And 68 at the counting input (U_{a}) of the address counter 69. With the growth of addresses in the last outputs of both subunits forecast 44 and 48 are mounted codes (y_{n+1}predicted input process using information from two background only for new stationary mode. Growth code address h in the counter 69 (h=aT, a=1, 2, 3,...), i.e. the recovery of a specified prediction time N will continue with each cycle until, until it becomes equal to the storage register 64 h=H. the Comparator 66 (mode: [H=h]→"1", [H≠h]→"0") in this case through the key 67 and the element And 68 will close the counting input of the address counter 69.

The use of both operators forecast for monitoring, tracking, or management options in technical systems is based on fundamental physical laws: the law of inertia, law of conservation of energy and motion, the inertia of the processes of heating/cooling and other that allows (based on the background of the process) to rely on a high degree of reliability prediction. About the accuracy of the forecast can only be judged at the completion of the event and if in the time period (interval) the prediction of what was to force majeure: strike, jump, blast, etc.

Adaptive digital prediction and differentiating device, comprising: a block smoothing containing the adder, the first and second reversible counters, single channel subunit smoothing of the series-connected adder and a register, the sub job ratio deviations, containing a register, a counter and a delay element, a subunit of the actual deviations of the containing block inverters, two Comparators and the element And the sub unit increments containing two elements And the inverter, the sub control dynamic response, contains two pulse shaper element OR counter, the first, second and third elements And the trigger mode, data output block smoothing information, a first control and pulsing the input device; node clocking unit forecast containing a delay element, a trigger pulse generator, the element And the shift register; block prediction, containing the first and second myCitadel, each of which contains a block of register memory, multiplexer, block inverter and adder, sub quadratic forecast, containing a block of inverters, the first and second adders, the output of the second adder is an information output subunit, the subunit linear prediction, containing the adder and the unit inverters, the output is matora an information output subunit, the evaluation unit of the first derivatives containing the first subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the first to n-th (current) point design background predictable process from one adder whose output is the output of the subblock and the second information output device, the second subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the second (n-1)-th point design history from one adder whose output is the output of the subblock and the third information output device and the third subunit of the calculation of the first derivative in the third (n-2)-th point design history from a block of inverters, the first and second adders, the output of the latter is the output of the subblock and the fourth information output device; a control unit dynamics forecast containing the register storing the address of y (reference points) the prehistory of the input process, the input of which is the second managing input device that specifies the time (interval) of the forecast, a comparator, an inverter element And the address counter, the information output of which is wound on the address bus multiplexers both vychitala and to the first input of the comparator, the second input is connected to the output of storage register addresses, the output of the comparator through an inverter connected to the first input element And the second input is connected to the output of the third element And the sub driven by the I am dynamic characteristic (SOUTH) block smoothing, the output element And is connected to a counter input of the address counter, the bus is reset to "0" which is connected to the output of the second element AND SOUTH block smoothing, characterized in that the block prediction entered the block adaptation, containing the first and second XOR, item, OR, inverter, first and second elements, the trigger and the multiplexer and to the first input of the first EXCLUSIVE OR element wound output iconic discharge of the second adder of the third subunit of the calculation of the first derivative, and the second input - output symbolic discharge adder of the second subunit of the calculation of the first derivative, the output of the same sign discharge connected to the first input of the second EXCLUSIVE OR element, a second input connected to the output of the sign digit of the adder of the first subunit of the calculation of the first derivative, the output of the second EXCLUSIVE OR element connected to the second input element OR at the first sign which things are output from the first EXCLUSIVE OR element, the output element OR connected to the first input of the second element And through an inverter to the first input of the first element And the second input of both elements And is connected to the output bus ("in") of the shift register node clocking block prediction, the output of the first element And posted at bus installation 1 trigger, and the output of the second element And zero input trigger, direct the th ("1") the output of the latter is connected to the address input of the multiplexer, on the information input bus which produces outputs subunits quadratic and linear projections, the output of the multiplexer block adaptation is the first information output device.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: in a digital predictor, the dynamic characteristic control subunit (DCCS) of the smoothing unit of the device includes a third AND element whose first input is connected to the clock input of the device, and the second input is connected to the complementary output of DCCS mode flip-flop. The prediction unit of the device also includes a dynamic prediction control unit, having a register for storing the ordinate address (calculated points) of the input process history, the input of which is the second control input of the device, a which sets the prediction time, a comparator, an inverter, an AND element and an address counter. The data output of the address counter is connected to address buses of multiplexers of all three subtractors and the first input of the comparator, the second input of which is connected to the output of the address storage register. The output of the comparator is connected through the inverter to the first input of the AND element, the second input of which is connected to the output of third AND element of the DCCS. The output of the AND element is connected to the complementing input of the address counter, the reset bus of which is connected to the output of the second AND element of the DCCS of the smoothing unit.

EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction.

6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device has a smoothing unit; a prediction unit having a first, a second and a third subtractor; a second derivative estimating unit having a subunit for calculating a second derivative at a second (n-1)-th reference point of the input process history consisting of an adder and a block of inverters, in which the addend input of the adder is connected to the data output of the smoothing unit, and the augend input of the adder is connected through the block of inverters to the output of the second adder of the subtractor, the output of the adder of the subunit is the third data output of the device, and the subunit for calculating the second derivative at the third (n-2)-th reference point of the input process history consisting of two adders, in which the addend input of the first adder is connected to the output of the multiplexer of the first subtractor, and the augend input is connected to the output of the block of inverters of the second subtractor. With wiring shift of the bus by one bit towards the most significant bits of the adder, the output of the first adder is connected to the second input of the second adder, the first input of which is connected to the output of the multiplexer of the third subtractor, and the output of the second adder of the subunit is the fourth data output of the device.

EFFECT: high quality and accuracy of control in digital dynamic control systems.

5 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed device includes a smoothing unit which comprises an arithmetic unit, a shift pulse generating unit, a deviation count pulse generating unit, a dynamic characteristic control unit, a deviation ratio setting unit, a first and a second bidirectional counter and a prediction unit clocking unit; a prediction unit, having a first, a second and a third substractor, each having a register storage unit, a multiplexer, an inverter unit and adder; a quadratic (nonlinear) prediction subunit, having a first and a second adder; a prehistory ordinate address register and a linear prediction subunit, having a first and a second adder.

EFFECT: high depth of prediction and broader functional capabilities by facilitating prediction for stationary and slow-varying random processes.

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1 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

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EFFECT: broader functional capabilities by obtaining first derivative estimates for all equidistant points (nodes) of the two-level history of an input smoothed discrete process.

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to digital signal processing and information measuring equipment and can be used to linearise the transform function of units and systems, as well as interpolation and extrapolation of measurement results. The apparatus has an analogue-to-digital converter, an integrator, a unit for calculating sequences of quotients and differences and a unit for calculating parameters of the approximating unit, connected in series, as well as a unit for setting integration intervals, the output of which is connected to the control input of the integrator, and a threshold circuit whose input is connected to the output of the unit for calculating sequences of quotients and differences, and the output is connected to the control input of the unit for calculating sequences of quotients and differences.

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FIELD: information technology.

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7 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electric element having ports and linear electric properties characterised in matrix, which is impedance matrix, admittance matrix or dissipation matrix of electric element and connecting voltage applied to ports with current passing through these ports. Electric element has inactivity determined by means of parameters perturbation up to perturbated set of parameters provided that this perturbated set of parameters corresponds to function in Boolean values.

EFFECT: increase of forecast accuracy for technically relevant linear electric properties of electric elements.

16 cl

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: digital predicting and differentiating device includes a unit for estimating first derivatives, having a subunit for calculating a first derivative at a second (n-1)-th reference point of process history consisting of three adders, the output of which is the third data output of the device, and a subunit for calculating a first derivative at the third (n-2)-th reference point of the process history consisting of three adders and a block of inverters, the output of the subunit being the fourth data output of the device.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of prediction devices by obtaining estimations of first derivatives using numerical differentiation formulae for prehistory nodes of an input smoothed discrete sequence.

5 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device has an image storage unit, a pixel storage unit, a turning unit, a vocabulary forming unit, a vocabulary storage unit, a processing unit, a priority calculating unit, turning unit, an adaptive form determination unit, a similarity search unit, a pixel averaging unit, an image filling unit and a clock pulse generator.

EFFECT: reconstruction of image pixel values under incomplete a priori information conditions.

6 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method of detecting and eliminating pulse noise when processing images involves comparing values of the original digital image with different threshold values. A set of penalties is then created for values of the original digital images exceeding the threshold values. The resultant penalty values are formed by adding separate penalty values for each reading. Readings whose resultant penalty values exceed the calculated threshold level are considered abnormal. Further, two-dimensional arrays of penalties are formed for each threshold level. Two-dimensional nonstationarity regions are determined and localised by a two-dimensional programmed detector with subsequent zeroing of the penalty values. The detected pulse noise values are eliminated by replacing them values of a first-order approximating surface on the localised regions.

EFFECT: detection and elimination of pulse noise values when processing digital images in conditions of non-parametric expected uncertainty of statistical characteristics of pulse noise and the image.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: device has a smoothing unit consisting of an adder, inverters, comparators, counters, AND logic elements, a deviation ratio setting unit and a dynamic characteristic control unit, and a prediction unit comprising three subtractors, two prediction subunits and a register.

EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction and simplification of the device.

7 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: computer science.

SUBSTANCE: device has sum forming blocks, matrix functions forming block, difference forming block, delay lines, apriori data output block.

EFFECT: higher precision.

6 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to digital computer technology and can be used in systems for digital processing radio signals for optimum non-linear filtration. The device has blocks for generating matrix functions (4, 6, 10, 12), corrector units (2, 8), differential generating units (1, 7), summing units (3, 9), delay line (5, 11), unit for generating and output of priori data (13). The device also has a unit for calculating regularisation parametre (14), which is linked to the rest of the units.

EFFECT: more accurate evaluation of the information process in measuring systems.

8 dwg

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used in control and signal processing systems. Technical outcome is achieved due to that, the device contains a unit for storing measurement results, commutators, interval division unit, random number generator, unit for eliminating associated values, ranking unit, storage register for random number samples, approximation units, subtracting units, remainder storage units, units for obtaining an ordered series on intervals, truncated sampling units, units for calculating mean-square deviation, multiplier units, coefficient storage register, coefficient evaluator, unit for setting false alarm probability, comparators, penalty storage units, arithmetic adder, threshold evaluator, comparator, penalty storage register, unit for eliminating anomalous measurements, storage register, delay unit and a clock pulse generator.

EFFECT: detection and elimination of anomalous measurements with a fixed value of false alarm probability.

1 dwg

FIELD: computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used in systems for controlling and processing multi-dimensional signals. The device comprises a unit for storing input realisation 1, unit for calculating first coefficient 2, unit for calculating second coefficient 3, unit for calculating third coefficient 4, approximation unit 5, unit for evaluating useful component 6 and clock generator 7. Approximation of values of initial discrete realisation of the measured process is done through minimisation of the objective function, which is a sum of mean square deviations of two-dimensional evaluation of useful component from the initial two-dimensional realisation of measurement results.

EFFECT: separate two-dimensional evaluation of useful component given a single realisation of the measured process.

1 dwg

FIELD: computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to digital computer engineering and can be used in digital signal processing systems for optimum nonlinear filtering. The device contains six units for generating matrix functions, three correctors, three units for generating difference, three units for generating sum, three delay lines, unit for generating and outputting prior data, and two units for calculating regularisation parametre.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of evaluating information process parametres in measuring systems.

8 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to information measuring devices and can be used in computer engineering, in signal control and processing systems. The devices has a register for storing measurement results (1), delay unit (2), approximation unit (3), register for storing estimations (4), averaging unit (5), control unit (6), clock generator (7), and a comparator unit (8).

EFFECT: pickup of useful signal against a background of noise with minimisation of end effects, in conditions of insufficient prior information on statistical characteristics of adaptive noise and useful signal function given a single realisation of the measuring process.

4 dwg