Method of blasting of rock mass
SUBSTANCE: method of blasting of rock mass includes preliminary zoning of rocks by fracturing, mosaic structure and blastability thus determining elementary uniform sections and subsequent updating of zoning during mine works. Elementary uniform zones are formed by size and output of slurry in near-wellbore corresponding by height to three zones - location of stemming, location of charge above and below bench bottom. According to characteristics of elementary zones parameters of drilling and blasting operations are determined, at that characteristics of slurry of elementary zones of charge level are used to determine parameters of drilling and blasting operations, and characteristics of slurry of elementary zones of stemming level are used to update parameters of drilling and blasting operations.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of drilling and blasting operations due to reduction of expenses of drilling and blasting and due to reduction of losses of wells caused by rockfall, improving quality of rocks fragmenting and development of bench bottom.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development rock.
The known method, including stage-detailed zoning of rocks blocking, fracture, toughness, and consumer quality and subsequent separation of the array of the working area at different height horizons and horizons or their parts - on operational units, the last - homogeneous elementary blocks, working from the top down method "disassembly" on blocking with the initial destruction of the largest technologically and technically oversized separateness of rocks in the array ledge - subsequent excavation of the array dimensions and fine fractions using an appropriate set of working bodies of technical devices universal unit, which allows the direct notch overall separateness of rocks from array to drill and blast large individual rocks by a small explosive charge and a very small diameter-8-84 mm under a local shelter or to carry out their mechanical destruction or loosening and subsequent excavation and loading of the rock mass in the means of transport or the inner blade or a temporary bottom warehouse (RF patent 2279546, Sekisov GV, Mamaev Y.A., Levin, A.R., Danilchenko became popular Method is asrabadi deposits of rock and half-rock types raznoobraznoi patterns). This solution may be effective in the development of half-rock rocks or rocks, are subject to intense weathering, with the inclusion of modular separateness. And is not effective in large open pits with great intensity advancement of the excavation front.
There is a method of blasting rock, including preliminary zoning career fields tremenously and explosive with the definition of the capacity of the wells, establishing in the process of drilling location tradearabia areas, delineation of them, the drilling of additional wells and short-delay blasting array with a slower firing additional wells on the main, characterized in that, with the aim of improving the quality of fragmentation and reduce the cost of blasting tradearabia plots framing in wells with high block with respect to the output of the sludge to the content of the most typical classes rig stuff, and the volume of drilling additional wells is determined based on the changes to the capacity of the wells drilled in tradearabia plots of the expression (1)
where qCC- the specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES required for crushing rocks tradearabia area, kg/m3;
qp- the specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES according to the pre is satisfactory, zoning, kg/m3;
ku- utilization of bore length equal to 0,6-0,7;
Vt- volume tradearabia plot, m3;
k1and k2the coefficients of proportionality, kg/L.M.;
(A.S. USSR 1351249, Higanjima, Vahatalo, Lowboard, Gaulonitis and Geelani).
This solution is simple to implement and allows you to practice directly in the process of conducting drilling and blasting to identify tradearabia areas on the unit for the drilling of additional wells. The solution is designed to have a qualified contractor has a significant subjective component, complicating the use of this solution in automated systems. In addition, the used criterion is cumulative, i.e. simultaneously characterizes not only the fracture, but also the characteristics of the cracks that does not matter when diagnosing areas where explosive fragmentation (due to the presence of open cracks) is not controllable, but, nevertheless, it is not possible to extend this technique everywhere on all types of rocks.
There is a method of blasting rock using the method for diagnosing the state of rock masses (Akulov CENTURIES Perfecting the design blasting for quarry at the base of developing models of the zoning arrays forges the rocks // Mining information and analytical Bulletin. - 2010. No. 7. - P.28-31.). Within a particular type of rocks in the diagnosis of the array is determined by its fracture and the condition of the cracks. The proposed method uses a special index - ratio-capacity wells. The ratio of the capacity of the wells is the ratio of the measured capacity of the well to the capacity of the bore through solid rock. I.e. this ratio shows how many times in this array is the capacity of the wells more than in the solid rock. The value of this index varies from 1 to 1.5, and more. Determination of the coefficient of capacity wells occurs automatically during charging wells, so this method without subjective component and can be used in automated systems. However, as described above technical solution, based on the use of aggregate criterion, i.e. simultaneously characterizes not only the fracture, but also the characteristics of the cracks that does not matter when diagnosing areas where explosive fragmentation (due to the presence of open cracks) is not controllable, but, nevertheless, it is not possible to extend this technique everywhere on all types of rocks.
The objective of the invention is to improve the efficiency, zoning rocks along the limit by dividing the elementary who's homogeneous zones.
The task is solved in that the elementary homogeneous zones form according to the size and output of the sludge in the near-well space corresponding to the height of three areas - the location of the tamping, the location of the charge above and below the foot of the escarpment. Through the characteristics of elementary zones set parameters for drilling and blasting, and through the characteristics of the sludge elementary zones of the charge level set parameters for drilling and blasting, and in a characteristic sludge elementary zones level tamping precise drilling and blasting parameters.
Figure 1 presents the profile of wells drilled in arrays of various patterns
1 - in the monolithic rocks
2 - in a broken previous blast the rocks
3 - marking soles of the ledge,
4 - the collapsed portion of the bore,
5 - position the bottom of the wells of the overlying horizon,
6 - area of artificial fracturing around the well in peribere.
Figure 2 presents the interval change of the output of the sludge
7 - upper horizon,
8 - current horizon,
9 - area combination.
Figure 3 presents the interval change in the size of the sludge
10 - the overlying horizon,
11 - current horizon,
12 - zone combination.
Figure 4 presents the dependence of the capacity of the wells with rock drilling bits 243 mm) from the exit of the sludge.
Figure 5 presents zavisimosti size of drill cuttings from blocking rocks.
Figure 6 presents the dependence of the explosive rocks (skarns) from blocking arrays.
Examples of specific performance
Rocks rocks are highly variable in structure and mechanical properties, therefore, the flow rate of drilling and explosives for blasting 1 m3the breed can vary within wide limits. Design of blasting is carried out on the basis of zoning deposits by category of explosive. These zoning confirmed by experienced explosions. When large variability arrays the zoning process is expensive, and these zoning unreliable due to problems of interpolation results experienced explosions in the depth of field. Working on zoning fields carried out in cycles with a periodicity of 1.5-2 years.
Additional difficulties for the zoning causes fracturing of rocks, which often has a decisive impact on the results of ore crushing. As noted at various times by many researchers (Dev, Arachnoid, Liebana, Sagamigawa, VScrollBar, Vnesin.com and others) structural rock properties largely determine the degree of fragmentation of the rock mass in the explosion. Important not only blocking rocks, but also the characteristics of the cracks and the x-filling. In complex-structured arrays of randomly changing the structure of the rocks, and the presence of open cracks (or fractures filled with loose material), significantly reduces the degree of fragmentation of the rock explosion.
When the rotating drum wells rock failure occurs not only in the project outline, but also beyond them. This particularly applies to complex-structured arrays, when attempting to improve the quality of crushing due to the increased drilling and EXPLOSIVES increases the explosive impact on the array outside of the project outlines the conditions (below the foot of the escarpment slopes of the escarpment). Outside project footprints blasting observed the destruction of the rock mass and intensive artificial fracturing. This applies to slope shoulders and the soles of the ledge. When hit wells in the area of artificial disturbances of the array is observed collapse wellheads, decreasing the amount of perebor, the deterioration of rock crushing and study the soles of the ledge. Thus, in (Zhaboev M.N., Akulov VA, Bakharev L.V., Ravikovich Bessovestnaya technologies blasting complex-structured arrays of rocks. Gorn. - 1990. No. 9. - S-23) highlighted the following main reasons for loss of production wells in the areas of artificial disturbance of the rock mass:
- Loss of drilling wells of the first row.
- About Uchenie wellheads in the drilling of the upper part of the wells in a broken previous explosions rock mass (see figure 1).
When designing mass explosions cyclical technology division of the rock does not provide the necessary accuracy of data output on the explosive rocks, which degrades the technical-economic indicators of production. Therefore, the creation of the system design mass explosions with elements of self-development is a very important task. Automated system design mass explosions must solve two problems:
1. Based on the existing zoning and the data model project (efficient drilling and blasting parameters on types of rocks) the current design of the explosive block.
2. Clarification of the existing zoning and the data model project (efficient drilling and blasting parameters on types of rocks), on the basis of the analysis of the results of an industrial explosion.
Information must always act in the automated system. The source of such information can only be industrial explosions. But the current structure of the information obtained in the production of industrial explosion, has elements that are largely dependent on subjective factors and have low reliability.
The greatest dependence on the subjective factor is the registration of fracture and characteristics of the cracks, which are not directly determined, so instead of fracturing and the characteristic is cteristic cracks are encouraged to register granulometric composition of the drill cuttings and its output. To measure the characteristics of the sludge can be used as is known, used concentrators particle sixers, and specially designed device.
For the analysis capabilities of artificial fracturing in the array in the near-well space form of elementary homogeneous zone, broken down according to the height of three layers:
1) corresponding to the position of the tamping;
2) corresponding to the position of the charge above the base of the ledge;
3) corresponding to the position of the charge below the foot of the ledge.
In the process of drilling wells pointervalue for each layer to produce the register size and output of the sludge.
Layer corresponding to the position of the tamping, characterizes the state of a rock mass after exposure to the lower part of the borehole charges overlying previously spent block.
The impact energy of the blast on the rocks below the soles of the bench depends on the location of the charge. Often the center of gravity location of the charge height unreasonably underestimated. This can happen for several reasons, main of which are:
- Is not taken into account the real capacity of wells in fractured rocks, when by drilling bore holes is longer than monolithic or modular breed is. This can increase the capacity of well over 20%.
In the rocks where the fragmentation effect of structural properties is not managed, often attempts to improve the quality of crushing due to the increased drilling and EXPLOSIVES.
When the center of gravity of the charge in the lower part of the borehole is increased, the impact energy of the charge on the array below the foot of the escarpment. To quantify this factor is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the sludge obtained during the drilling area perebor (on the overlying horizon) with the characteristics of the sludge obtained during the drilling of the upper part of the wells (tamping) the current horizon. Figure 1 presents the profile of wells drilled in arrays of different patterns:
1 - in monolithic arrays of rocks;
2 - in a broken previous explosion of rock masses;
3 - marking soles of the ledge;
4 - the collapsed portion of the borehole;
5 - position the bottom of the wells of the overlying horizon;
6 - area of artificial fracturing around the well in peribere.
Figure 2 presents the dependence of the interval changes with depth of sludge volumes in wells overlying (7) and the current (8) horizons. Analysis of the output of the sludge in the overlap zone dependency overlying and current horizons (9) until the displays, the output of the slurry under the influence of the artificial fracture decreased from 60 to 10%.
Figure 3 presents the dependence of the interval changes with depth particle size of the sludge by wells overlying (9) and current (10) horizons. Analysis of the particle size of the slurry in the zone of overlap dependencies overlying and current horizons (11) shows that the particle size of the slurry under the influence of the artificial fracture increased from 2 to 12 mm
Layer corresponding to the position of the charge characterizes the natural state of a rock mass.
As the source system uses the data of industrial explosions. In the process of drilling production wells cone drilling are defined:
1. The description of rocks on the current block.
2. Forecast characteristics of the rocks in the lower horizon.
3. Evaluation of the accuracy of the prediction of the current block is issued when developing the overlying horizon.
The first layer is the upper area corresponding to the height position of the tamping, is of interest for the analysis parameters and results of the previous explosion on the overlying horizon. Area exposed to artificial fractures caused by the impact of the charge on the outside of the design contour blasting. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the sludge in the upper and middle part of the borehole with respect to the location at which lennosti borehole charge on the overlying or adjacent block and loss of wells (from the collapse of the mouth) of the analyzed wells allows to judge about the deviations from the rational parameters of drilling and blasting at the breaking of the overlying or adjacent block.
Minimum destruction of the foot of the scarp suggests that the main impact of the energy well of the charge was directed toward the naked space (i.e. correctly were selected amount of charge, tamping, perebor, interval deceleration).
The second highest layer corresponds to the position of the charge above the base of the ledge and characterizes natural fracturing of the rock mass in the well vicinity. The parameter is the particle size of the sludge characterizes the fracturing of the rock mass, exit sludge characterized by the presence of open cracks. Increasing the yield of the slurry with drilling depth suggests that passed the area of artificial fractures with open cracks arising from the impact of the charge wells of the overlying block on the bottom of the escarpment (see Fig..2). The particle size of the cuttings with the drilling depth is reduced, this suggests that the strength properties of the array increases as you progress through the zone of artificial fractures (see figure 3).
The third layer zone, characterizing the rock mass at the level of perebor. Characteristics of the slurry, the particle size and output allow you to allocate (divide) the quantitative values of natural and artificial fractures in the comparative analysis of the results of the drilling of the underlying horizon.
Thus the m to assess the impact of explosive effect outside project footprints blasting the rocks studied twice:
1. When drilling the overlying horizon explores the characteristics of the sludge zone at the level of perebor.
2. With decreasing mining and drilling zone (which was previously described characteristics of the sludge level perebor) investigated the characteristics of the sludge level tamping.
An important task to ensure the accuracy of zoning is to create conditions for compliance with the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations and ensuring the accuracy of information input into the database. With this purpose, the drilling tools are used for high-precision positioning to position them in accordance with the project of drilling. The drilling rig is equipped with a device for determining the size and output of the sludge (e.g granulometry or miniature videocamera in a protective cover with safety device optics from cuttings and dust) by means of high-precision positioning control device to control the drilling, collecting data about the characteristics of the sludge and synchronize the operation of the above devices. Programmable microprocessor device connected to a personal computer (tablet PC)installed in the cab of the drilling machine and connect Wi max network server.
P is edlagaemoe technical solution allows on a regular basis using modern computer technology, positioning equipment, communication tools to adjust zoning rocks by categories of fracture, limit, and Refine the parameters of drilling and blasting operations. You can also use different methods of calculation of parameters of drilling and blasting. For example, the value of the usage ratio of the bore length for specific conditions can be calculated from the expression (2):
where H3- the height of the ledge, m; k2b, k3b, k6b0the coefficients of proportionality, for hornfels k2b=0.53, k3b=0.4, k6b0=2.5.
Monitoring the effectiveness of the localization of explosive effect strictly planned contours blasting is performed on the basis of the analysis of dependencies figure 2 and figure 3. Adjustment of parameters of drilling and blasting may be performed by using special indicators of the efficiency of perebor and coefficient of variation of capacity and loss of wells of the first row. The efficiency ratio perebor (CEP) is defined by the formula (3).
where Lp- the value of perebor, m; ∆ H is the deviation from the planned height of the ledge, m
Depth of perebor is calculated from the expression (4):
where k7b, k5b0the coefficients of proportionality, for hornfels k7b=1.45, k5b0=0.073.
The value of re is ur optimized for each category of breeds to:
1) to localize the application of explosive energy within the planned contour blasting;
2) to ensure the requirements of the subsequent processes of mining and beneficiation;
3) to minimize the impact of the explosion on protected objects.
If the explosive energy is applied outside of the project outline for planned values perebor and other drilling and blasting parameters, it says about changing the category of explosive rocks.
The distance between the wells is adjusted according to the formula (5).
wherea0,a1respectively the actual and the recommended grid wells, M.
When the deviation from the design elevation of the foot of the ledge calculation of the recommended consumption of EXPLOSIVES is conducted from the expression (6):
where p is the capacity of 1 L.M. wells, kg/m; Ki- utilization of the well.
Lskν- the length of the borehole, m; h - the height of the ledge, m
Sources of information
1. RF patent 2279546, Sekisov GV, Mamaev Y.A., Levin, A.R., Danilchenko became popular Method of field development rock and half-rock types raznoobraznoi structure.
2. Danilenko GI, Akulov VA, Bakharev L.V., Alimirzoev GA, Excavation of GI Method of blasting rock. A.S. No. 1351249 USSR, 1987.
3. Akulov V. improving the design of blasting for quarry on the basis of the e-developing models of the zoning rocks // Mining information and analytical Bulletin. - 2010 - №7 - P.28-31.
4. The zhaboev M.N., Akulov VA, Bakharev L.V., Ravikovich BS improving the technology of blasting complex-structured arrays of rocks. Gorn. - 1990. No. 9. - S-23.
5. Protodyakonov M.M. Materials for the fixed position of mining operations. Part 1. - M.: Publishing house of the Central Committee of miners, 1926.
6. Sukhanov A.F., TO the question of the unified rock classification. - M.: Whiteheat, 1947.
7. Baron LI, Konashen YG, Kurbatov V.M. Crushability of rocks. - M.: publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1963.
8. Baron LI, Likely G.P. Fractured rocks at the explosive blasting. - M.: Nedra, 1966, 136 S.
9. Baron LI About acoustic stiffness as a measure of resistance of rocks destruction crushing dynamic loads. Vzryv, No. 67/24. - M.: Nedra, 1969, / NTO mountain.
10. Baron LI Kostovetsky and methods of its measurement. - M.: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 1960, 123 S.
11. Moines NR. Energy and correlation of the process of destruction of rocks by explosion. Frunze: Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of King. SSR, 1963, 233 S.
The technical result
Improving the efficiency of drilling and blasting works by reducing the consumption of EXPLOSIVES, drilling for blasting rocks, as well as reducing the loss of wells from collapse, improving the quality of rock crushing and study the soles of the ledge.
The way blasting of rocks, including prior the nutrient zoning rocks along fractures and deblocking, the explosive emitting elementary homogeneous areas and the subsequent revision of zoning in the process of mining, characterized in that the elementary homogeneous areas form according to the size and output of the sludge in the near-well space corresponding to the height of three areas - the location of the tamping, the location of the charge above and below the foot of the ledge, and through the characteristics of the sludge elementary zones of the charge level set parameters for drilling and blasting, and in a characteristic sludge elementary zones level tamping precise drilling and blasting parameters.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of outlining and parallel compensation blast holes in a strictly determined order. The distance between outlining blast holes along the perimeter of the secured massif shall be equal to r”р” (not higher than this value). The distance between outlining blast holes and the contour of the secured massif shall be equal to r”СМ” (not higher than this value). The distance between outlining and compensation blast holes shall be equal to r (not higher than this value). Compensation blast holes are arranged at the side of the secured contour at the angle formed between the axis of outlining blast holes and axes of compensation blast holes equal to 60°. The values r”р”, r”СМ”, and r are determined depending on strength characteristics of the massif and capacity of the used explosive.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency and safety of these types of works due to optimal distribution of wells or boreholes along a contour of a secured massif for specific mining-geological and mining-technical conditions.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: explosions of reference and investigated explosives are performed in rock masses of the same type as per mining-and-geological and mine engineering parameters; after the explosion of charges of compared explosives there measured is width of explosion funnel along the mine rock break line on the level of bench bottom along its lower edge, and relative strength coefficient is calculated as per the formula considering limit radius of mine rock break along bench bottom at explosion of the charge of reference and investigated explosives, capacity of well for reference and investigated explosives, and width of explosion funnel of reference and investigated explosives along the mine rock break line on the level of bench bottom along its lower edge.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing mine rock crushing intensity and reducing lump yield and cost of blasting operations.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to extraction methods of mineral deposits from ore veins. Drilling of wells located at some distance is performed directly in ore vein. Wells are reamed using thermal fragmentation basically to boundary surfaces between ore vein and environment. Then, in ore vein between thermally reamed wells there drilled is pit for introduction of explosive charge. The latter is blasted in order to destruct the ore between reamed wells. After ore vein section is destructed with guided blast wave, the other well is drilled in ore vein at the specified distance from the previous place of blasting operations and thermally reamed, and the next pit is drilled between them for explosive fragmentation. The process is repeated for as many times as it is required for extraction of the necessary amount of ore from ore vein.
EFFECT: invention allows minimising the ore extraction cost by reducing the ore impoverishment.
12 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes calculation of parameters of stress waves regarding the deflexion of detonation wave and energy dissipation. Rock stress is determined after detonation wave deflexion on the base of the laws of breakdown of an arbitrary discontinuity of data by the properties of explosive substances and impact adiabats of rock material. Then Cauchy problem is solved by the data about stress waves' parameters at random distances that allows determining these parameters at all further distances. It is taken into consideration that the rock is first dynamically loaded and then statically unloaded. Entropy change takes place only at impact wave front. Thus there is the difference between the energies of loading and unloading that is the energy of dissipation itself. Considering dissipation energy there calculated are the stresses obtained in massive at various distances from the charge.
EFFECT: method allows reducing the volume of small fractions and improving ecological indices of blasting activities.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling of blast holes with increased subdrilled area, their charging with an air cushion arranged in the above subdrilled area, and explosion of mine rocks. Air cushion with length of 6-10 diameters of the well is created below actual level of bench bottom by 2-3 diameters of the well. Additional charge with length of 10-20 diameters of the well is arranged under the cushion.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of charges.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling vertical main wells, definition of a contour in plan and soil elevations of solid inclusions along the depth of the main wells, drilling additional vertical wells inside the contour of inclusions, charging main and additional wells with explosive charges, with placement of explosive charges in additional wells inside their inclusions and their blasting. Selection of explosive charge parameters for charging additional wells is carried out by the value of product of explosive detonation speed and explosive charge diameter defined from the ratio.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of solid inclusions grinding.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: block to be exploded is drilled around the perimeter of its connection to rock mass by means of a row of wells in 3-4 metres. At that, during preparation for drilling and explosion loosening the well rocks in the row are drilled to the depth below the coal formation through the distance excluding the formation destruction during explosion of row by means of base charge.
EFFECT: reducing the cost of rock mass to be exploded owing to using explosives non-resistant to water as a result of drying of the block to be exploded.
SUBSTANCE: method of blast-hole drilling ensuring preset extent of blast rock grinding includes drilling of explosive wells at the distance between them, depending on detonating characteristics of explosives, physical and technical properties of a rock massif, parameters of its cracking, their charging and explosion. Explosive wells are charged with explosives with specific consumption per m3 of blast rock in amount determined with account of explosive energy losses as charge explosion products expand in a well volume occupied with the charge, and also with account of losses related to the extent of the specific explosive detonation completeness in the well of the specific diameter, which are introduced into a calculation expression for a coefficient of relative operability of the applied explosive.
EFFECT: reduced volume of drilling works in drilling of explosive wells, which results in higher efficiency and reduced cost of blast-hole drilling.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to form charges in drowned wells, including drilling of wells, their filling with explosives and a plug from inertial materials, a multicharge is formed in wells filled with water, made of two different types of hose explosive charges. The main hose explosive charge with detonation speed corresponding to the speed of stress wave propagation in surrounding rock and weight of 75…80% from total mass of the multicharge is placed vertically along the well axis. The second hose explosive charge with high speed of detonation exceeding the speed of stress wave propagation in a rock massif and weight of 20…25% from the total mass of the multicharge, is placed along the spiral around the first hose charge, with a pitch of one turn along the vertical line equal to two well diameters. Linear initiation of the explosive multicharge is carried out simultaneously along the entire length of the well with a detonating chord with a charge of 40 g/m.
EFFECT: amplified amplitude of a voltage pulse and intensity of rocks grinding, which as a whole increases efficiency of drilling and blasting works with reduction of hazardous effect of explosion to environment.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: during performance of drilling and blasting works in the lower part of each explosive well a bottom charge is arranged, on the outer surface of which there is a circular cumulative groove arranged, the top of which lies in the horizontal plane, which separates the volume of the bottom charge in two and matches the plane of a working site of an open pit ledge or a bottom of an underground stope. The value of well subgrade drilling is accepted as equal to the half of the cumulative groove base width.
EFFECT: reduced drilling flow due to reduction of subgrade drilling and higher quality of arrangement of a working site of open pit ledges and a bottom of stopes at underground mining works.
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of safety berms, which mutual arrangement and width provide equality of stable and constructional angles of slope of non-working wall within zone specified by open-pit depth and providing location rockslides and rockfalls on berm which are not to be removed during functioning of the wall. At that development of upper zone of open-pit is done using longitudinal and transverse panels with mining works performance from the central part of open-pit to its periphery and towards bank fall with diminishing of open-pit walls under specified angles obtained considering allowance for wall curvature in its lower part without any limitations by parameters and form of pit-end extraction. Optimisation of proportion of retaining and shearing forces effective on the weakest surface of potential rockfall provides reducing of high-altitude zone developed by sections curvilineal in plan to the zone minimal but sufficient for provision of stability of non-working open-pit wall.
EFFECT: rising angles of walls diminishing, reducing volume of overburden operations and optimisation of mining-and-transport equipment operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of non-working projections, transport offramp, horizontal and inclined safety berms. Inclined safety berms are formed in places of their junction to transport offramp. Slope of sections of inclined safety berms is restricted in compliance with technical characteristics of machines and mechanisms used for cleaning of safety berms from rockslides and rockfalls.
EFFECT: reduction of volume of development operations and improvement of conditions of mechanical cleaning of safety berms from rockslides and rockfalls.
3 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for bulldozer mining of placer mineral fields including capping works with continuous transverse entries by bulldozers and arrangement of dumps at cut boards, production works, sands dressing. Capping operations of minerals are carried out by mining at the distance from the point of exit line crossing with the line of the sand surface contour to the point of crossing of the ledge slope line with the line of sand surface contour. And peat components of the inner exit are removed layerwise in a top down manner by longitudinal entries of a bulldozer with their further transportation into dumps.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of capping works by a bulldozer method.
SUBSTANCE: open-pit field in its water-bearing part is developed alternatively from above-water and under-water faces by an excavating machine installed on the pontoon used earlier during development of open-pit field in its non-watered part. Undeveloped pillar of the open-pit field is left in its water-bearing part.
EFFECT: increasing the development efficiency of water-bearing mineral deposits without performing any additional operations.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the frozen condition a delineated section of a tailing storage facility is broken into cuts by development of ventilated trenches created for the entire width of a bucket with a backhoe excavator. Then dry tails are excavated for the entire width of the cut, which is equal to the minimum width of the traffic way, with the backhoe excavator installed on the upper site of the excavation cut.
EFFECT: increased intensity of tails mining and reduction of costs.
SUBSTANCE: first, regular hexagons with the sides equal to diameter of the main wells are marked on plane of extraction field. Then, external and central circles with diameter equal to diameter of extraction wells are marked at tops and in the centre respectively of the above hexagons. Besides, each boundary circle of one hexagon adjoins three circles of two neighbouring hexagons as per close packing scheme. After that, core of central well is drilled in the centre of hexagon by means of core method with pre-drilling of service well. System of cracks directed perpendicular to axis of wells is made out of the cavity of the above well at the depth of core drilling of external wells, or slot raise with diameter equal at least to 2.4 of the extraction well diameter is cut. After that, cores of the rest six extraction wells with the centre at tops of hexagons are drilled and lifted. Therefore, core drilling cycle of six of seven wells excludes technologically complex and time-consuming operation of core removal from rock mass.
EFFECT: improvement of drilling capacity of core of large diameter due to their preliminary cutting prior to the beginning of the well drilling.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: after the deposit is stripped, extraction field is separated into a mesh with rhombic cells with sides and a short diagonal, which are equal to diameter of the main well. First, service wells with diameter of not less than 93-112 mm are drilled in mesh nodes as centres; then, the main wells of large diameter are drilled concentrically to service well; core is pulled off the rock mass, lifted to the surface and removed from core barrel. After that, cores of large diameter are supplied to concentration plant and washed out with high-head hydraulic guns, and the pulp formed after excess water overflows from sediment trap is supplied to concentrating devices used during drag extraction of diamonds. After diamonds are extracted, shanks are dehydrated on centrifuges and supplied with the elevator to the warehouse from where they are taken for laying of drilled wells.
EFFECT: avoiding uncontrollable losses of diamonds during extraction, and reduction of formation of new mechanical defects on diamond crystals at kimberlite disintegration.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves development of upper part of the pit along temporary lines using dump trucks with stiff frames to the intermediate contour determined with conditions of efficient use of the latter, and further development of the pit using articulated dump trucks and steeply inclined haulage berms. Formation of boundary contours of the pit is performed based on its mining through complete design depth with steeply inclined haulage berms with movement of mined rock directly to external dumps and storage areas.
EFFECT: higher development efficiency due to reduced volumes of overburden operations at increase in complete extraction of deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method for extraction of hard mineral resources from deep-lying water-flooded deposit consists in open-pit field drilling by rows of multi-functional wells oriented in a certain way that are used for down-hole hydraulic mining of mineral in the period of overburden operations at dry-excavated pit, as well as for supplementary exploration of mine field, parameters monitoring and drying of rocks.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of traditional methods for mine fields development via geo-technological methods.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening of mineral resources, advance boring of auxiliary wells of minor diameter and then of main wells concentric with them by core drill of large diameter, separation of cores from mass, their lifting to the surface and further shattering and disruption. Wells are drilled using thermal influence, for instance by thermo-friction method, and cooling of bits by cleaning agent; when temperature of face and well walls is 100°C and below, SAS solution is grouted into well; then when cores of large diameter are lifted in cold season they are influenced by natural cold below 0°C, further disruption is performed under positive temperature.
EFFECT: defrosting of permafrost kimberlites by heat of technical processes accompanying technical cycle of diamonds production, and freezing of kimberlite using natural cold.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg