Method of tunnel building

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of tunnel building includes the following operations: soil development and its transportation, support of mine workings at driving with shotcrete, probably with anchors, arcs and net, geophysical measurement of rock density in bottom-hole zone, which results are used for correction of length of planned driving and thickness of layer of shotcrete in order to speed-up driving and to reduce shotcrete flow rate.

EFFECT: accident prevention, possibility of correction of driving method in order to speed-up it and correction of structure of temporary support in order to improve its efficiency, improving safety of underground operations.

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The invention relates to the field of construction, namely for the construction of tunnels mining method.

There is a method of construction of tunnels containing the operation excavation machine or drilling and blasting method, the buildings lining (installation of anchors, arches and nets, laying of concrete or nabryzgivanii), the operation of transportation developed soil and materials attachment ("Directory engineer tunnellike), Transport, 1992, s, 159, 188, 193, 350).

The disadvantage of this method lies in the uncertainty of soil properties in front of the face, because the soils have a high variability of the properties and geotechnical predictions have large uncertainties. An unexpected meeting with sinking tectonic fault (zone a sharp reduction in soil strength) is fraught with the possibility of accidents.

There is a method of construction of tunnels, additionally containing an operation exploration drilling (Sunwesu "Baikal-Amur mainline. Technical report, TIMRA, 1999, p.95, pp.118).

The disadvantage of this method is significant slowing of the rate of penetration due to time-consuming operations the drilling of several exploratory wells in the mine, so advanced exploration drilling is used, as a rule, only the expected intersection with tectonic faults and the constant is the quality control of the ground in front of the face when tunneling is absent.

The objective of the proposed method lies in the organization's continuous monitoring of the quality of the soil in front of the face that, in addition to preventing accidents, enables adjustment of the sinking technologies to increase its speed and design of temporary piles to improve its efficiency.

To obtain the technical result in the production cycle for the construction of the tunnel containing the operation excavation with its transportation, the operation of fixing the output developed by the section of naryzhneva thickness t, possibly with anchors, arches and net, include the operation of geophysical measurement density P of rocks on the length Landin the critical zone, and the length LC. planned zagadki and the thickness t of the layer of concrete is made variable along the length of the tunnel to increase ROP and reduce the consumption of concrete. While LC=V/T (m), where V is the velocity of penetration production (m/day), determined used excavating equipment, and T is time steady state output.

T is determined by correlation.

T=0.246*Ky3-1.618*Ky2+Ky-2.575 (day); 0<T<10;

Toythe stability factor unsupported generation,

Toy=(0.7÷1.3)*R/Σ(γi*Hi); (dimensionless) 1.0<y<10;

R - strength the rock in compression,

R=18.378*P-40.45, (MPa); 2.25≤P≤2.55, t /m3;

t is determined by the design of supports for the load q,

q=γ*h;

h=B/(0.1*R);

where In - flight tunnel (m);

γ is the density of rocks in the arch (t/m3);

h - height of the arch collapses (m).

In addition, accepted for the greater safety of the work that

Σ1nLC,i≤0.5Landwhere n is the number of benches after a geophysical measurement of density of soil in front of the face, with Land=(20÷40) m, Land≤3 H,

where H is the height of the output.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in the diagram on the drawings, where

figure 1 schematically presents the technological complex for construction of the tunnel;

figure 2 presents an example of the forecast density of soils by the results of geophysical measurements on the length Land=30 m;

figure 3 presents the results of tests on samples of half-rock rock in uniaxial compression;

figure 4 shows a graph of the density distribution of soils prior to slaughter tunnel No. 1 at the North portal (example of the method);

figure 5 shows a graph of the density distribution of soils prior to slaughter tunnel No. 1 on the southern portal (example of the method).

Technological cycle for the construction of the tunnel 1 shows the operation of the excavation machine or drilling and blasting method and the operation of the coop is the supply of lining (installation of anchors, arches and nets, laying of concrete or nabryzgivanii) using equipment 2, and the determination of density of soil in front of the face geophysical methods using devices 3 at a certain distance Landin the bottomhole zone 4 length Landas outlined by the circuit 5, subject to the subsequent sinking of the benches 6 length LC.

Results of geophysical measurements is a graph of density of soil in front of the face on the length Land(the example graph in figure 2).

Test samples of half-rock of rocks in compression showed a clear dependence of the strength on the density of the rock (figure 3).

Using this correlation between density and compressive strength of rock in compression R (for half-rock rock R=18.378*P-40.45, where R is in MPa, and P in t/m3and 2.25≤R≤2.55), we obtain the distribution of the strength of rocks before slaughter on the length Land.

To assess the stability of production, depending on the strength capacity of soils used method of integrated sustainability assessment outcrops on the configuration and size of the possible failure of the masses [Nsibilities. "Mechanics of underground structures", M: "Nedra", 1994].

The essence of the method consists in comparing the strength of rocks, Rccompression with household values of vertical stress γ in particular is the point of the route of the tunnel with regard to plastic properties of rocks. The stability criterion for a circular formulation has the form:

Rc*Ks≥γ*H*Kσor Kmouth=Rc*Ks/(γ*H*Kσ)≥1,

where Ks=1+(Nεsinφ-1)/sinφ - coefficient increase the stability of the rocks due to the plasticity,

Toσ- coefficient of stress concentration at the circuit output,

φ is the angle of internal friction of rock,

ε=εwithy=Epanel/EDef- the ratio of total deformation to the elastic.

However, the use of complex theoretical dependencies in a production environment is not always convenient, so were derived approximate correlation.

Approximately the stability factor can be determined by the formula

Ky=(0.7÷1.3)*R/Σ(γi*Hi),

where Σ(γi*Hi) - net weight layers i rock above the seam.

Based on this assessment sustainability unsupported develop experimentally obtained a table depending on the time of standing from sustainability index (table).

Average range of sustainability indicators was obtained correlation time standing T not supported the elaboration of the sustainability target.

T=0.246*Ky3-1.618*Ky2+3.74 Ky-2.575 (day).

Length Zachodni LC=V/T

where V is the velocity prog the DKI generation, define the available equipment (m/day).

Table
Categories : stability of rocks
№ p/pSustainabilityThe degree of resistanceThe permissible exposure timeRecommendations on the mount
1>5.5Quite stableup to 10 daysAnchor and/or obrigatory posts
23÷5.5Stableup to 3 daysArch-shotcrete (concrete) posts with anchors or without them
31.5÷3The average stabilityup to 10 hoursArch-shotcrete (concrete) with anchors (or without) + spraying concrete on the roof and the bottom
41÷1.5Moderately and weakly resistantup to 3 hours Arch-shotcrete (concrete) + immediate spraying concrete on the roof and the bottom
5<1Unstablenot allowedSpeciespoor (screen from pipes, tentatively. strengthening)+spraying the concrete and anchor, including on the forehead of the face

Using the known dependence

fkr=0.1*R,

where R in MPa,

fkr= the hardness of the soil Protodyakonov,

determine the height of the arch collapses and the expected load q on shoring production,

q=γ*h;

h=B/(0.1*R);

where B is the span generation (m);

γ is the density of rocks in the arch (t/m3);

h - height of the arch collapses (m).

The calculation to find the lining thickness t on the well-known computational model of Metroproject given module deformations of rocks, also obtained by geophysical measurements.

After the construction of elaborate approximately the length of 0.5Landgeophysical measurements of density of soil in front of the face, repeat and perform forecast the sustainability of development by adjusting the length of zagadki and width of the lining.

The effectiveness of the method of construction of the tunnel is determined by the creation of the permanent quality control of soils bottomhole zone with respect to their actual state from the effects of the concentratie stress prior to slaughter, that eliminates the occurrence of accidents due to inaccuracies of the preliminary forecast of soil and allows you to adjust the amount of zagadki and the thickness of the temporary roof support framing. The magnitude of zagadki affects the rate of penetration of generation, and the thickness of the temporary lining - material design.

An example of the method

Experimental verification of the proposed method was implemented on the construction of tunnel No. 1 on the motorway "Alternate Kurortny Prospekt in Moscow (scientific technical report crid contract Mining and environmental monitoring for the project "Construction of the Central motorway Sochi "Alternate Kurortny Prospekt" from km 172 Federal highway M-27 Dzhubga-Sochi (rpage) prior to traversal of Sochi PC 0 (Ragusa) with the reconstruction of the section of road from ultimania to Resort prospectus, Krasnodar Krai (1 turn from Ragusa to ultimania") step 2).

Figure 4 and figure 5 shows graphs of distribution of density of soil in front of the faces of the North and South portal of tunnel No. 1. Based on these measurements determined the sustainability indicators:

- 4-th category of sustainability identified in areas PK+84.5-PK+88.2, PK+91-PK+92.8, which are characterized by a weak degree of stability with a valid time of exposure of less than 10 hours and recommendation and on the mount of slaughter - immediate spraying concrete on the roof and slaughter;

- 3rd category of sustainability identified in areas PK+68-PK+69.8, PK+74.5-PK+84.5, which are characterized as moderate resistance allowable time of exposure of less than 1 day, and recommendations on the mount of slaughter - Naberezhnye on the roof and slaughter;

- 2-nd category of sustainability identified in areas PK+66.9-PK+68, PK+69.8-PK+74.5, PK+88.2-PK+91, PK+92.8-PK+96.9, which are characterized as stable with a valid time of exposure less than 3 days, and recommendations on securing the face - arched concrete lining.

The results of the geophysical forecast density of soil in front of the face together with the results of observations of deformations of the primary lining of Calotte on site PC 8+74.62-PC 10+50.00 allowed to take the decision to cancel the installation of concrete anchors in the roof and wall framing, provided a work project 2009-70-T1-37, 2009-70-T1-42 and 2009-70-T1-61. The decision was taken by the Commission, composed of representatives of builders, designers and the client.

1. The method of construction of the tunnel containing the operation excavation with its transportation, the operation of fixing the output developed by the section of naryzhneva thickness t, possibly with anchors, arches and grid, characterized in that it comprises the operation of geophysical measurement density P of rocks on the length Landveritably zone, and length LCplanned zagadki and the thickness t of the layer of concrete is made variable along the length of the tunnel to increase ROP and reduce the consumption of concrete,
LC=V/T, (m),
where V is the velocity of penetration production (m/day), determined used tunneling equipment;
T - time steady state unsupported output,
T=0,246·Ky3-1,618·Ky2+3,Ky-2,575 (day); 0<T<10;
Toythe stability factor unsupported output,
Toy=(0,7÷1,3)·R/∑(γi·Hi); (dimensionless) 1,0<y<10;
R - the strength of rock in compression,
R=18,378·P-40,45, (MPa); 2,25≤R≤2,55, t/m3;
t - calculated structures of support in the load q
q=γ·h;
h=B/(0,1·R);
where In - flight tunnel (m);
γ is the density of rocks in the arch (t/m3);
h - height of the arch collapses (m).

2. The method of construction of the tunnel according to claim 1, characterized in that ∑1nLC,i≤0,5Landwhere n is the number of benches after a geophysical measurement of density of soil in front of the face, with Land=(20÷40) m, Land≤3H, where H is the height of production.



 

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