Construction method of non-working open-pit wall

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of safety berms, which mutual arrangement and width provide equality of stable and constructional angles of slope of non-working wall within zone specified by open-pit depth and providing location rockslides and rockfalls on berm which are not to be removed during functioning of the wall. At that development of upper zone of open-pit is done using longitudinal and transverse panels with mining works performance from the central part of open-pit to its periphery and towards bank fall with diminishing of open-pit walls under specified angles obtained considering allowance for wall curvature in its lower part without any limitations by parameters and form of pit-end extraction. Optimisation of proportion of retaining and shearing forces effective on the weakest surface of potential rockfall provides reducing of high-altitude zone developed by sections curvilineal in plan to the zone minimal but sufficient for provision of stability of non-working open-pit wall.

EFFECT: rising angles of walls diminishing, reducing volume of overburden operations and optimisation of mining-and-transport equipment operation.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for tuning out outside of the pit.

There is a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the construction of neočiŝaemyj safety berms, and on the site of an adjunction to transport the berm build their variable width (patent RF №2084633, IPC IS 41/26, 1997).

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of taking such width of the safety berm, which would be sufficient to accommodate therein the talus and tumbled rock for the whole period of existence of the quarry, only then we can achieve that goal, when really a safety berm will not be subject to clearance from the scree.

There is also known a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the construction of a berm, divided detecting areas having the form of truncated prisms formed along the entire length of the track transport berm (RF patent No. 2206748, IPC 7 IS 41/26, 2001).

The disadvantage of this method is the large amount of work on the construction of a berm complex forms, as well as catching sites are not so, to change the direction of movement of the falling stone.

There is also known a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the division of a coil transport berm, constructed from the bottom is arera on the inner and outer zones, the internal area of a coil constructed with horizontal safety berms, passing in the outer zone on inclined orbits of the safety berm (RF patent 2171893, IPC IS 41/26, 2001).

A disadvantage of the known method are the large amounts of gornoobogatititelnyh works. Depending on the geometric parameters of the bottom of the quarry increases the amount gornoobogatititelnyh works and a number of inclined safety berms constructed at each horizon, and this leads to a significant reduction of the angle of the pit.

Closest to the proposed invention the technical essence is a way of tuning out outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, and also provide accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board (RF patent No. 2084633, IPC IS 41/26 from 20.07.1997,).

The disadvantage of this method is the increase in Stripping operations, while ensuring equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside the Board and the need to implement mechanisms to work on cleaning the berms on the coy working platform at the base of the redeemed of the ledge and the problem of removal of debris and collapsed rocks.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of detuning outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, and also provide accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board by optimizing the ratio of trapping and shearing forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, ensures reduction of the high-rise zone, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit, redeemable under the project the angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part.

The technical result is achieved as follows.

In accordance with the recommendations (Galkin A.M., Galkin, V.A., Popov V.I. experience in the design and construction of the pit with sloping safety berms): Tsvetmetinformatsiya, 1977. - 35 C.) for contouring deposits on transverse sections from the hanging sides deposits accepted the slope of the end flanges β=55°. The angle of repose of the final Board, at the optimum shape of the pit is determined by glam fall deposits, is variable and ranges from 45° to 55°.

Development of the lower horizons career though and complicates the technology of mining, but it gives the reduction in overburden and transportation costs.

At the approach to the limiting circuit working ledges Strawalde, so that their height is increased to 30 m

When setting the side end position angles satkoski ledges are accepted:

in the upper fractured zone - 55°;

in the zone of moderate fracture - 60°;

deeper than 150 m - 65-70°.

When building the quarry must be taken into account gaining the angles of slope in the final position in connection with the placement outside the pit wall systems revealing the workings.

Given that in real terms due to the shedding of the upper part of the shelf drop-offs within the crushed layer to 38-400, the actual angles of satkoski will be slightly lower than the design values.

Sustainability concave in plan pitwall higher than rectilinear. This is because when curved in plan the form of development due to the lateral forces of thrust (crushing rocks have additional holding force which creates resistance to the displacement of the failure wedge. The geological structure of the rocks composing the Board of quarries and configuration quarry hollows, determines not only the methods of assessment of their stability and, basic principles and calculation scheme which has been developed in the Institute research Institute (Ameen, Amiotte, Vasenin. Rational profile pit. Horn. INF.-analyte. bull. No. 1, 2002 - S-145), but also the methods of forming the pitwall and technology development fields, allowing the use of side effect of crushing rocks to increase the angles of slope of the sides on the path to maturity.

Sloping and steep deposits of minerals, elongated along the strike of the ore bodies, can work in the quarry three sections.

The plots given curvilinear in plan form, limited rectilinear excavation front between the ends of the pit. One of the sections - the first, located on the flank of the Deposit is mined primarily in the second, the Central plot, mining reach the ore zone, and the third, another langova land reserves are being finalized. Overburden from the second and third section are transported both external and internal dump, located in the mined-out space of the first section.

Thus, the field of operations of the flank areas of career, the first and third are moving towards each other until the drawdown with an average plot. The average pit stationary, and the blade on it is not etsip is changing. Fill the internal stockpile overburden is followed by podviganiem mining in the posting with the same speed. Internal dump overburden is intended to preserve, maintain the preset for career curvilinear forms. The career development field to limit the depth in this case begins with a section located at one of the ends of the quarry, which plan is attached a curved shape with a radius

where RBthe curve radius exhaust section, m;

RH- the average radius of the site, m;

N - depth plot, m;

α is the angle of the slope outside the Board for the pit, with the amendment on its curvature, hail.

When this limit the depth of the pit

where N90- the height of the vertical cracks detachment, m;

φ is the angle of internal friction of rocks, hail.

In subsequent angularity of a career path at mining sites should be maintained by regulating the amounts of dumping overburden in the inner blade. The controlled length of straight part of the side (L)located between the ends, should be 0≤L≤2h. When L=0 the configuration of a career in terms of approaching a round or elliptical shape and the action of the lateral thrust maximum, i.e. such as to all the career path. The optimal distance in the range of 0≤L≤2h for each career is chosen based on the feasibility analysis.

When L>2h meaningless use of krivolineynoe ends career plan for increasing angles of maturity of the boards on this straight, because the extra resistance failure wedge created by the forces of lateral thrust.

Sequential mining end, elongated along the strike of the ore Deposit, a separate curved in plan areas of career, for a given length of straight in front of mining operations and subsequent filling out space, increases resistance outside of the pit due to the additional resistance to displacement of the failure wedge created by the forces of lateral thrust by maintaining the prescribed curvature career in the plan. This allows you to increase the angles of repayment of the sides between the ends all over the ore Deposit and, thereby, reduce the overall volume of removal of overburden.

In such conditions it is almost impossible to create a stationary transport communication, efficient use of conveyor transport, cyclic-flow technology and without which, as practice shows, it is impossible to ensure efficient mining of deep ore quarries great Cycling is.

The implementation of the method is presented in figure 1-3.

Steeply dipping elongated along the strike of ore deposits (1) work in the quarry (2) to the final mark the bottom of the quarry (3) two adjacent altitude areas. The height of the upper zone

hB=H-hHm

where H is the design depth of the pit, m;

hH- the height of the curve in terms of pit in its lower part, a necessary and sufficient to ensure the stability of the bead height H under the project by the angle α.

The upper zone, with the regulatory factor of sustainability is fulfilled with external stacking longitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery to the design of the circuit (2) and in the direction of the fall deposits (arrows). Redemption outside of the pit is under design by the angle α.

After mining in the upper zone of the quarry in its front part made of the depth hBand reaches its full path (2), is testing the lower zone of the quarry.

In this case, initially created Glubokaya a recess (4) with a radius of curvature of the pit at the bottom, is equal to RC. Overburden also placed in the inner blade (5)having a curvilinear in plan, profile, moving behind the development of mining activities and which is used to maintain the curved shape of the quarry in its lower part.

By optimizing the ratio of trapping and shearing forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, reduces high-altitude zone, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit, redeemable under the project by the angles α, the values of hH. This allows safe testing of the upper zone of the career of height hB=H-hHlongitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery and in the direction of the fall deposits, with maturity of the pit under the design angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part.

One of the most important issues in the implementation of the proposed method of field development is calculating the height of the curve in terms of pit in its lower part, is necessary to ensure the sustainability of the bead height H under the project by the angle α.

Consider the plot of the flanges on the marginal contour of the quarry, the upper part of which the height hInis rectilinear in plan outline, and the bottom is rounded (figure 4 - a Complex shape in plan and height of the wall of the open pit).

The factor of stability of flat in terms of a Board is determined as the ratio of the restraining forces to add is suggesting

where

Pi- weight vertical blocks of single width, which are separated by the prism of possible collapse;

Si- the area of block number i;

γ is the bulk density of the breed;

αi- the average angle of inclination of the sliding surfaces within the i-th block;

and φ is the cohesion and angle of internal friction on sliding surfaces;

Li- the length of the inclined base of the i-th block.

Prism possible collapse on the plot side, having a curved shape in the plan, is a complex geometric body defined by the following parameters: RihihB(5 is a prism of a possible collapse of the complex shape of the pit). Dividing the prism of possible collapse into blocks with vertical side faces, get prism with inclined bases, two faces are flat, and the other two are halves of a cylindrical surface (Fig.6 - Elementary unit prisms possible collapse when curved in plan the form of a pit).

In this case, trapping and shearing forces acting on the prism of collapse, with some approximation can be defined:

;

where;

γ is the coefficient b is the lateral thrust;

- medium weight force acting on the side elementary prisms;

The factor of stability of the volume of a prism the possible collapse

where S is the area of the side faces of the prisms possible collapse.

To simplify the solution with some margin adopt the horizontal force that creates friction on the ends of the prisms possible collapse, equal only to the value of the lateral thrust of the array, although around round production is stress concentration.

Imagine the expression obtained in the form of three components

Analysis of equation (7) shows that the coefficient of stability margin curved in plan pit represents the sum of the three coefficients, one of which is equal to the factor of stability of flat in terms of side nPLsecond and third - growth of this ratio due to, respectively, the forces of adhesion and friction acting on the ends of the volumetric failure wedge

where;

Evaluate the influence of the forces of internal friction and clutch acting on the ends of the volume of the prism collapse, the value of nABOUTby comparing them with each other. This will take is harakteristiki rocks meet the conditions of the Lacustrine deposits. The magnitude of the friction forces two orders of magnitude less than the forces of adhesion. Therefore, in practical calculations performed with the usual accuracy, friction forces can be neglected.

Thus, when assessing the sustainability of curvilinear in plan of the pit, you can use the formula

It is obvious that, when assessing the stability of the complex in plan and height of a Board having a flat shape in the upper part and curved in plan - in the lower part (figure 5), the factor of its stability can be determined from the expression (10)by writing it in the following form:

where S is the area of the side faces of the prisms of the possible collapse of the curvilinear in plan part of the Board;

Ri- the radius of the bead at a depth of hi;

with the clutch in the array;

T is the total shear force acting on the lens of the possible collapse over the entire height defined by the solution of the plane problem.

The analysis of the formula (11) shows that the increase of the factor of stability Board due to the action of the adhesion forces on the ends of the volume of the prism collapse reaches its maximum when the radius of the bead Ribecomes minimum. In connection with the above we can draw the following conclusions.

Well - known is how mine the deposits, uses the effect of lateral clamping breeds to improve the angles of slope of the sides on the path of maturity, have drawbacks that limit their use, which include reducing the efficiency of the development of deep quarries primarily due to the inability of the stationary transport communications, as well as reducing active front of mining operations.

- Developed the way mine has significant technical advantages, allowing to increase the angles of the redemption side, to reduce the amount of overburden and to optimize the mining equipment, although complicating the technology of mining lower horizons career.

- When setting the side end position angles satkoski ledges are accepted: in the upper fractured zone - 55°; in the zone of moderate fracture - 60°; deeper than 150 m - 65-70°.

The method of detuning outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, as well as providing accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board, wherein the testing of the upper zone of the career is having longitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery and in the direction of the fall deposits, with the maturity of the pit under the design angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part, without any restrictions on the parameters and the form of career notches, and the balance between restraint and shear forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, provides a reduction in high-altitude areas, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit.



 

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