Construction method of non-working open-pit wall
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of safety berms, which mutual arrangement and width provide equality of stable and constructional angles of slope of non-working wall within zone specified by open-pit depth and providing location rockslides and rockfalls on berm which are not to be removed during functioning of the wall. At that development of upper zone of open-pit is done using longitudinal and transverse panels with mining works performance from the central part of open-pit to its periphery and towards bank fall with diminishing of open-pit walls under specified angles obtained considering allowance for wall curvature in its lower part without any limitations by parameters and form of pit-end extraction. Optimisation of proportion of retaining and shearing forces effective on the weakest surface of potential rockfall provides reducing of high-altitude zone developed by sections curvilineal in plan to the zone minimal but sufficient for provision of stability of non-working open-pit wall.
EFFECT: rising angles of walls diminishing, reducing volume of overburden operations and optimisation of mining-and-transport equipment operation.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for tuning out outside of the pit.
There is a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the construction of neočiŝaemyj safety berms, and on the site of an adjunction to transport the berm build their variable width (patent RF №2084633, IPC IS 41/26, 1997).
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of taking such width of the safety berm, which would be sufficient to accommodate therein the talus and tumbled rock for the whole period of existence of the quarry, only then we can achieve that goal, when really a safety berm will not be subject to clearance from the scree.
There is also known a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the construction of a berm, divided detecting areas having the form of truncated prisms formed along the entire length of the track transport berm (RF patent No. 2206748, IPC 7 IS 41/26, 2001).
The disadvantage of this method is the large amount of work on the construction of a berm complex forms, as well as catching sites are not so, to change the direction of movement of the falling stone.
There is also known a method of detuning outside of the pit, including the division of a coil transport berm, constructed from the bottom is arera on the inner and outer zones, the internal area of a coil constructed with horizontal safety berms, passing in the outer zone on inclined orbits of the safety berm (RF patent 2171893, IPC IS 41/26, 2001).
A disadvantage of the known method are the large amounts of gornoobogatititelnyh works. Depending on the geometric parameters of the bottom of the quarry increases the amount gornoobogatititelnyh works and a number of inclined safety berms constructed at each horizon, and this leads to a significant reduction of the angle of the pit.
Closest to the proposed invention the technical essence is a way of tuning out outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, and also provide accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board (RF patent No. 2084633, IPC IS 41/26 from 20.07.1997,).
The disadvantage of this method is the increase in Stripping operations, while ensuring equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside the Board and the need to implement mechanisms to work on cleaning the berms on the coy working platform at the base of the redeemed of the ledge and the problem of removal of debris and collapsed rocks.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of detuning outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, and also provide accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board by optimizing the ratio of trapping and shearing forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, ensures reduction of the high-rise zone, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit, redeemable under the project the angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part.
The technical result is achieved as follows.
In accordance with the recommendations (Galkin A.M., Galkin, V.A., Popov V.I. experience in the design and construction of the pit with sloping safety berms): Tsvetmetinformatsiya, 1977. - 35 C.) for contouring deposits on transverse sections from the hanging sides deposits accepted the slope of the end flanges β=55°. The angle of repose of the final Board, at the optimum shape of the pit is determined by glam fall deposits, is variable and ranges from 45° to 55°.
Development of the lower horizons career though and complicates the technology of mining, but it gives the reduction in overburden and transportation costs.
At the approach to the limiting circuit working ledges Strawalde, so that their height is increased to 30 m
When setting the side end position angles satkoski ledges are accepted:
in the upper fractured zone - 55°;
in the zone of moderate fracture - 60°;
deeper than 150 m - 65-70°.
When building the quarry must be taken into account gaining the angles of slope in the final position in connection with the placement outside the pit wall systems revealing the workings.
Given that in real terms due to the shedding of the upper part of the shelf drop-offs within the crushed layer to 38-400, the actual angles of satkoski will be slightly lower than the design values.
Sustainability concave in plan pitwall higher than rectilinear. This is because when curved in plan the form of development due to the lateral forces of thrust (crushing rocks have additional holding force which creates resistance to the displacement of the failure wedge. The geological structure of the rocks composing the Board of quarries and configuration quarry hollows, determines not only the methods of assessment of their stability and, basic principles and calculation scheme which has been developed in the Institute research Institute (Ameen, Amiotte, Vasenin. Rational profile pit. Horn. INF.-analyte. bull. No. 1, 2002 - S-145), but also the methods of forming the pitwall and technology development fields, allowing the use of side effect of crushing rocks to increase the angles of slope of the sides on the path to maturity.
Sloping and steep deposits of minerals, elongated along the strike of the ore bodies, can work in the quarry three sections.
The plots given curvilinear in plan form, limited rectilinear excavation front between the ends of the pit. One of the sections - the first, located on the flank of the Deposit is mined primarily in the second, the Central plot, mining reach the ore zone, and the third, another langova land reserves are being finalized. Overburden from the second and third section are transported both external and internal dump, located in the mined-out space of the first section.
Thus, the field of operations of the flank areas of career, the first and third are moving towards each other until the drawdown with an average plot. The average pit stationary, and the blade on it is not etsip is changing. Fill the internal stockpile overburden is followed by podviganiem mining in the posting with the same speed. Internal dump overburden is intended to preserve, maintain the preset for career curvilinear forms. The career development field to limit the depth in this case begins with a section located at one of the ends of the quarry, which plan is attached a curved shape with a radius
where RBthe curve radius exhaust section, m;
RH- the average radius of the site, m;
N - depth plot, m;
α is the angle of the slope outside the Board for the pit, with the amendment on its curvature, hail.
When this limit the depth of the pit
where N90- the height of the vertical cracks detachment, m;
φ is the angle of internal friction of rocks, hail.
In subsequent angularity of a career path at mining sites should be maintained by regulating the amounts of dumping overburden in the inner blade. The controlled length of straight part of the side (L)located between the ends, should be 0≤L≤2h. When L=0 the configuration of a career in terms of approaching a round or elliptical shape and the action of the lateral thrust maximum, i.e. such as to all the career path. The optimal distance in the range of 0≤L≤2h for each career is chosen based on the feasibility analysis.
When L>2h meaningless use of krivolineynoe ends career plan for increasing angles of maturity of the boards on this straight, because the extra resistance failure wedge created by the forces of lateral thrust.
Sequential mining end, elongated along the strike of the ore Deposit, a separate curved in plan areas of career, for a given length of straight in front of mining operations and subsequent filling out space, increases resistance outside of the pit due to the additional resistance to displacement of the failure wedge created by the forces of lateral thrust by maintaining the prescribed curvature career in the plan. This allows you to increase the angles of repayment of the sides between the ends all over the ore Deposit and, thereby, reduce the overall volume of removal of overburden.
In such conditions it is almost impossible to create a stationary transport communication, efficient use of conveyor transport, cyclic-flow technology and without which, as practice shows, it is impossible to ensure efficient mining of deep ore quarries great Cycling is.
The implementation of the method is presented in figure 1-3.
Steeply dipping elongated along the strike of ore deposits (1) work in the quarry (2) to the final mark the bottom of the quarry (3) two adjacent altitude areas. The height of the upper zone
where H is the design depth of the pit, m;
hH- the height of the curve in terms of pit in its lower part, a necessary and sufficient to ensure the stability of the bead height H under the project by the angle α.
The upper zone, with the regulatory factor of sustainability is fulfilled with external stacking longitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery to the design of the circuit (2) and in the direction of the fall deposits (arrows). Redemption outside of the pit is under design by the angle α.
After mining in the upper zone of the quarry in its front part made of the depth hBand reaches its full path (2), is testing the lower zone of the quarry.
In this case, initially created Glubokaya a recess (4) with a radius of curvature of the pit at the bottom, is equal to RC. Overburden also placed in the inner blade (5)having a curvilinear in plan, profile, moving behind the development of mining activities and which is used to maintain the curved shape of the quarry in its lower part.
By optimizing the ratio of trapping and shearing forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, reduces high-altitude zone, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit, redeemable under the project by the angles α, the values of hH. This allows safe testing of the upper zone of the career of height hB=H-hHlongitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery and in the direction of the fall deposits, with maturity of the pit under the design angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part.
One of the most important issues in the implementation of the proposed method of field development is calculating the height of the curve in terms of pit in its lower part, is necessary to ensure the sustainability of the bead height H under the project by the angle α.
Consider the plot of the flanges on the marginal contour of the quarry, the upper part of which the height hInis rectilinear in plan outline, and the bottom is rounded (figure 4 - a Complex shape in plan and height of the wall of the open pit).
The factor of stability of flat in terms of a Board is determined as the ratio of the restraining forces to add is suggesting
Pi- weight vertical blocks of single width, which are separated by the prism of possible collapse;
Si- the area of block number i;
γ is the bulk density of the breed;
αi- the average angle of inclination of the sliding surfaces within the i-th block;
and φ is the cohesion and angle of internal friction on sliding surfaces;
Li- the length of the inclined base of the i-th block.
Prism possible collapse on the plot side, having a curved shape in the plan, is a complex geometric body defined by the following parameters: RihihB(5 is a prism of a possible collapse of the complex shape of the pit). Dividing the prism of possible collapse into blocks with vertical side faces, get prism with inclined bases, two faces are flat, and the other two are halves of a cylindrical surface (Fig.6 - Elementary unit prisms possible collapse when curved in plan the form of a pit).
In this case, trapping and shearing forces acting on the prism of collapse, with some approximation can be defined:
γ is the coefficient b is the lateral thrust;
- medium weight force acting on the side elementary prisms;
The factor of stability of the volume of a prism the possible collapse
where S is the area of the side faces of the prisms possible collapse.
To simplify the solution with some margin adopt the horizontal force that creates friction on the ends of the prisms possible collapse, equal only to the value of the lateral thrust of the array, although around round production is stress concentration.
Imagine the expression obtained in the form of three components
Analysis of equation (7) shows that the coefficient of stability margin curved in plan pit represents the sum of the three coefficients, one of which is equal to the factor of stability of flat in terms of side nPLsecond and third - growth of this ratio due to, respectively, the forces of adhesion and friction acting on the ends of the volumetric failure wedge
Evaluate the influence of the forces of internal friction and clutch acting on the ends of the volume of the prism collapse, the value of nABOUTby comparing them with each other. This will take is harakteristiki rocks meet the conditions of the Lacustrine deposits. The magnitude of the friction forces two orders of magnitude less than the forces of adhesion. Therefore, in practical calculations performed with the usual accuracy, friction forces can be neglected.
Thus, when assessing the sustainability of curvilinear in plan of the pit, you can use the formula
It is obvious that, when assessing the stability of the complex in plan and height of a Board having a flat shape in the upper part and curved in plan - in the lower part (figure 5), the factor of its stability can be determined from the expression (10)by writing it in the following form:
where S is the area of the side faces of the prisms of the possible collapse of the curvilinear in plan part of the Board;
Ri- the radius of the bead at a depth of hi;
with the clutch in the array;
T is the total shear force acting on the lens of the possible collapse over the entire height defined by the solution of the plane problem.
The analysis of the formula (11) shows that the increase of the factor of stability Board due to the action of the adhesion forces on the ends of the volume of the prism collapse reaches its maximum when the radius of the bead Ribecomes minimum. In connection with the above we can draw the following conclusions.
Well - known is how mine the deposits, uses the effect of lateral clamping breeds to improve the angles of slope of the sides on the path of maturity, have drawbacks that limit their use, which include reducing the efficiency of the development of deep quarries primarily due to the inability of the stationary transport communications, as well as reducing active front of mining operations.
- Developed the way mine has significant technical advantages, allowing to increase the angles of the redemption side, to reduce the amount of overburden and to optimize the mining equipment, although complicating the technology of mining lower horizons career.
- When setting the side end position angles satkoski ledges are accepted: in the upper fractured zone - 55°; in the zone of moderate fracture - 60°; deeper than 150 m - 65-70°.
The method of detuning outside of the pit, including the formation of protective berms, the relative positions and widths which provide equality of sustainable and constructive angles of repose outside Board within the selected depth of the quarry area, as well as providing accommodation on the berm talus and tumbled rocks, not subject to destruction during the whole period of functioning of the Board, wherein the testing of the upper zone of the career is having longitudinal and transverse panels with the development of mining operations from the Central portion of the pit to its periphery and in the direction of the fall deposits, with the maturity of the pit under the design angles obtained with allowance for the curvature of the bead in its lower part, without any restrictions on the parameters and the form of career notches, and the balance between restraint and shear forces acting on the weakest surface possible collapse, provides a reduction in high-altitude areas, working curvilinear in plan areas to a minimum, but sufficient to ensure the sustainability outside of the pit.
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of non-working projections, transport offramp, horizontal and inclined safety berms. Inclined safety berms are formed in places of their junction to transport offramp. Slope of sections of inclined safety berms is restricted in compliance with technical characteristics of machines and mechanisms used for cleaning of safety berms from rockslides and rockfalls.
EFFECT: reduction of volume of development operations and improvement of conditions of mechanical cleaning of safety berms from rockslides and rockfalls.
3 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for bulldozer mining of placer mineral fields including capping works with continuous transverse entries by bulldozers and arrangement of dumps at cut boards, production works, sands dressing. Capping operations of minerals are carried out by mining at the distance from the point of exit line crossing with the line of the sand surface contour to the point of crossing of the ledge slope line with the line of sand surface contour. And peat components of the inner exit are removed layerwise in a top down manner by longitudinal entries of a bulldozer with their further transportation into dumps.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of capping works by a bulldozer method.
SUBSTANCE: open-pit field in its water-bearing part is developed alternatively from above-water and under-water faces by an excavating machine installed on the pontoon used earlier during development of open-pit field in its non-watered part. Undeveloped pillar of the open-pit field is left in its water-bearing part.
EFFECT: increasing the development efficiency of water-bearing mineral deposits without performing any additional operations.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the frozen condition a delineated section of a tailing storage facility is broken into cuts by development of ventilated trenches created for the entire width of a bucket with a backhoe excavator. Then dry tails are excavated for the entire width of the cut, which is equal to the minimum width of the traffic way, with the backhoe excavator installed on the upper site of the excavation cut.
EFFECT: increased intensity of tails mining and reduction of costs.
SUBSTANCE: first, regular hexagons with the sides equal to diameter of the main wells are marked on plane of extraction field. Then, external and central circles with diameter equal to diameter of extraction wells are marked at tops and in the centre respectively of the above hexagons. Besides, each boundary circle of one hexagon adjoins three circles of two neighbouring hexagons as per close packing scheme. After that, core of central well is drilled in the centre of hexagon by means of core method with pre-drilling of service well. System of cracks directed perpendicular to axis of wells is made out of the cavity of the above well at the depth of core drilling of external wells, or slot raise with diameter equal at least to 2.4 of the extraction well diameter is cut. After that, cores of the rest six extraction wells with the centre at tops of hexagons are drilled and lifted. Therefore, core drilling cycle of six of seven wells excludes technologically complex and time-consuming operation of core removal from rock mass.
EFFECT: improvement of drilling capacity of core of large diameter due to their preliminary cutting prior to the beginning of the well drilling.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: after the deposit is stripped, extraction field is separated into a mesh with rhombic cells with sides and a short diagonal, which are equal to diameter of the main well. First, service wells with diameter of not less than 93-112 mm are drilled in mesh nodes as centres; then, the main wells of large diameter are drilled concentrically to service well; core is pulled off the rock mass, lifted to the surface and removed from core barrel. After that, cores of large diameter are supplied to concentration plant and washed out with high-head hydraulic guns, and the pulp formed after excess water overflows from sediment trap is supplied to concentrating devices used during drag extraction of diamonds. After diamonds are extracted, shanks are dehydrated on centrifuges and supplied with the elevator to the warehouse from where they are taken for laying of drilled wells.
EFFECT: avoiding uncontrollable losses of diamonds during extraction, and reduction of formation of new mechanical defects on diamond crystals at kimberlite disintegration.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves development of upper part of the pit along temporary lines using dump trucks with stiff frames to the intermediate contour determined with conditions of efficient use of the latter, and further development of the pit using articulated dump trucks and steeply inclined haulage berms. Formation of boundary contours of the pit is performed based on its mining through complete design depth with steeply inclined haulage berms with movement of mined rock directly to external dumps and storage areas.
EFFECT: higher development efficiency due to reduced volumes of overburden operations at increase in complete extraction of deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method for extraction of hard mineral resources from deep-lying water-flooded deposit consists in open-pit field drilling by rows of multi-functional wells oriented in a certain way that are used for down-hole hydraulic mining of mineral in the period of overburden operations at dry-excavated pit, as well as for supplementary exploration of mine field, parameters monitoring and drying of rocks.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of traditional methods for mine fields development via geo-technological methods.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening of mineral resources, advance boring of auxiliary wells of minor diameter and then of main wells concentric with them by core drill of large diameter, separation of cores from mass, their lifting to the surface and further shattering and disruption. Wells are drilled using thermal influence, for instance by thermo-friction method, and cooling of bits by cleaning agent; when temperature of face and well walls is 100°C and below, SAS solution is grouted into well; then when cores of large diameter are lifted in cold season they are influenced by natural cold below 0°C, further disruption is performed under positive temperature.
EFFECT: defrosting of permafrost kimberlites by heat of technical processes accompanying technical cycle of diamonds production, and freezing of kimberlite using natural cold.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dump of mine rock of technogenic gravel deposit includes small-grain dump formed in the worked-out area on a bedrock and pebble rock on the surface of small-grain dump. At that, along the perimeter of small-grain dump there formed is water-proof clay barrier. Besides, heat exchanger in the form of tubes oriented along dump longitudinal axis is arranged on the bedrock. Tubes are provided with the devices intended to supply the air to them and discharge the air from them. Vertical inspection wells equipped with casing pipes are made along the dump vertical axis. Top of dump is made in the form of a platform or a chute oriented along dump longitudinal axis.
EFFECT: higher gold extraction efficiency during re-development of gravel deposit.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg