Method of well extraction of coal and gas from formations prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena
SUBSTANCE: method consists in mining of the deposit with wells, creation of a cavity, and destruction and change-over of mineral product to hydraulic mixture. Mixture is mixed and hollow rock is deposited at the bottom of the formed cavity; coal-water suspension is pumped out to the surface and transported via pipes to the consumer. In order to destruct mineral product, high methane content of coal beds is used; at that, methane content in the formed cavity is controlled; and when the most explosion hazardous concentration of methane, which is equal to 10%, is achieved in that cavity, explosion is initiated. After mineral product is delivered to the consumer, the whole cycle of works is repeated. In order to prevent methane ignition, its concentration is reduced to explosion hazardous one by releasing methane via wells to the surface to consumers.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the safety and efficiency of mine works owing to using internal energy of mine rock massif.
The invention relates to underground mining of mineral deposits prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena, in particular to a downhole coal mines.
Famous underground mining of coal deposits, which consists in the development of capital workings from the surface, holding rifles and treatment workings in situ mineral, mineral extraction, and maintenance of ventilation mode and so on . The downside of it is the increased injury rate in the production of mining operations in high risk gas and geodynamic phenomena. Mine production is also characterized by long payback of capital costs.
Known downhole methods of extraction of natural resources, allowing the extraction of raw materials without the presence of people in a mining face. There is experience in the development of coal deposits by the method of underground gasification of coal . However, the disadvantage of this method is the difficulty in managing fire face at Vyazovaya coal seams and therefore the fullness of the development layer.
The closest in technical essence to the achieved result is a way of hydraulic borehole mining (HBM) minerals, different from the traditional ways of Drogobych (SGD), that excluded the environmental impact by preparing a slurry in situ mineral and leaving in worked out areas of waste rock. When the mining of minerals, such as coal, produce a powerful physical stimulation, including hydraulic fracture pressure water jet, achieving disintegration and translation in the mine destroyed the rock mass in the slurry .
The main disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the destruction of the fossil. The jet mineral with the removal of the jetting from the formation of minerals in the watered array does not provide high efficiency when creating a cavity.
The aim of the invention is to improve the safety and efficiency of mining operations during the development of mineral deposits prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena by borehole mining method using the internal energy of a rock mass, including mining and gas pressure, for the destruction of the fossil.
This goal is achieved by the use of gas and geodynamic energy array for the destruction of the fossil.
The method consists in the following. In the development of mineral deposits prone to gas and geo is geodinamicheskom phenomena, produce opening with wells. Then create a cavity with the use of physical impact (explosive, electro-hydraulic fracture and the like). For further destruction of minerals in the reservoir, are prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena, as a powerful physical effect uses its own natural energy, such as the high methane content of coal seams, which is a negative factor by traditional methods of production, plays a positive role in the destruction of the coal seam. When this control the methane content in the formed cavity. When reaching the most explosive concentration of methane 10% (methane is explosive at concentrations in the air from 5% to 15%) in this cavity initiate the explosion, seeking the destruction of the fossil. To prevent ignition of methane is reduced to an explosive concentration (5-15%) by the release of methane in wells to the surface to consumers, for example, using a mobile vacuum pumping station. Control of methane formed in the reservoir cavity is one of the known means, such as gas analyzers.
Further recovery of the coal to the surface is carried out by translation destroyed coal in Hydromash and further submission coal-water slurry on the surface is to be with the help of air or hydraulic ejector.
After pumping coal-water slurry to perform a second cycle of works: monitor the achievement of explosive concentration of methane in the newly formed cavity, re-initiate the explosion, repeat previously performed the operation.
When the methane concentration is more than 15% of it off, to prevent fire reduce its concentration to by explosive release of methane in wells on the surface to the consumer, where it is also possible further use for technological purposes.
The above sequence of operations carried out until then, until the collapse of the main roof (General landing). Then hit over the main roof cavity is formed equal to the volume of worked-out space, which when developing methane reservoir is filled with gas. The accumulated gas is also pumped through the pipes to the surface to the consumer.
This method allows for safe and efficient processing of deposits prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena, due to the use of the internal energy of the rock mass fracture minerals in borehole production and its transportation to the consumer.
Method of borehole mining of coal and gas from reservoirs prone to gas and geodynamic phenomena, which consists in the dissection have been discovered in the Oia wells creating a cavity, destruction and transfer of minerals in the slurry, mixing, deposition of waste rock at the bottom of the formed cavity, the pumping of coal-water slurry to the surface and transport it through the pipes to the consumer, characterized in that the destruction of the mineral is used for high methane content of coal seams, while controlling the methane content in the formed cavity, while achieving the most explosive concentrations of methane, equal to 10%, in this cavity initiate the explosion, after the delivery of minerals to the consumer the full cycle of work performed repeatedly; to prevent ignition of methane reduce its concentration to by explosive release of methane in wells on surface to consumers.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mining of a coal bed by chambers in an ascending order by a hydraulic method from surface and using underground mines, drilling machines, hydraulic monitors, and also a hydraulic elevator. At first a well is drilled from surface to the bed at the side of the roof, where pipes are placed for the hydraulic monitor, hydraulic elevator and methane suction, afterwards coal excavation starts in a split slot. Then another well is drilled in the produced slot along the coal bed, where pipes are installed for the hydraulic monitor and methane suction. Besides, in process of coal excavation in a chamber along bed rise with usage of underground mines the coal pulp arrives to an accumulating drift, which replaces the hydraulic elevator. At the same time methane is also sucked along the pipes to the surface.
EFFECT: wider area of method application, higher safety of minerals mining.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves lifting of elements of underwater mineral deposits consisting of flow of transporting medium, transportation of hydraulic fluid in supply airlift pipeline, supply of compressed air to mixer of lifting pipeline, creation of multicomponent mixture after compressed air is supplied to hydraulic fluid mixture and transportation of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting airlift pipeline. At that, first, phantom cross section is chosen in the flow intended for transportation of elements of underwater mineral deposits, and for chosen phantom cross section there specified is the range of change of pressure value. Flows of water and air-and-water mixture are created in supply and lifting pipelines by supplying compressed air with the compressor to mixer of lifting pipeline Value of actual pressure is monitored in the chosen phantom cross section, as well as actual range of change of the monitored value is determined. Compliance of the certain actual range to the specified one is checked, and elements of underwater mineral deposits are supplied to water flow of supply airlift pipeline in case certain actual range belongs to the specified one.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of underwater mineral deposits at big marine depths due to shortening the total start-up time of airlift plant; avoiding the disturbance of transportation of solid material and gumming of pipelines during airlift start-up.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to extract materials from thick underground formations is carried out by means of formation opening with a well, placement of a well hydraulic monitor unit in it, creation of a naturally balanced vault above a production chamber within the productive horizon and washout of formation rocks with pulp delivery to the surface. In order to increase efficiency of well hydraulic production of minerals, excessive pressure is pulled in the production chamber, which meets the following condition: Pchamb.≥Pform.+0.03 MPa, where: Pchamb. - pressure of working fluid in the production chamber, Pform. - formation pressure. At the same time the pressure in the chamber is continuously monitored with sensor installed in lower and upper parts of a movable pipe of the hydraulic monitor unit, and the excessive pressure in the production chamber is provided by control of the working fluid supply into the well, with high-quality of hydraulic insulation of the annular space with mortars based on bentonite powders with specific viscosity from 50 sec. until "non-liquid" state.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of well hydraulic production of minerals.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves mining activities performed during summer season by water jet by means of devices installed in underground cavities pre-drilled from surface of the well along longitudinal axes of pillars at certain distance from each other with pulp lifting to the surface and its supply via pulp line to flushing device in order to extract useful component and laying of dehydrated flushing remainders formed during washout process of sands so that distributed filling masses are formed. Pillar recovery is performed in two stages during two years. During the first year the pillars are recovered partially so that gaps are left between cavities washed out between them, which are developed using the same method in the next year; at that, in order to strengthen compression properties of filling masses, they are frozen with natural cold during winter period.
EFFECT: avoiding execution of underground mine workings at pillar extraction; possibility of selective development of technogenic deposit; arrangement of dehydrated flushing remainders in the worked out space and its complete use; avoiding cavings in the ground surface; recovery of rock mass continuity and stabilisation of its temperature mode; minimum contamination of environment; eliminating the necessity for execution of recreation works.
SUBSTANCE: method of hydraulic borehole mining of mineral resources at inclined position of beds involves construction of hydraulic mining and auxiliary wells. Hydraulic mining and auxiliary wells are located in lines along the strike of inclined beds and cross them. Bottoms of vertical hydraulic mining wells are drilled downstream, and bottoms of auxiliary wells having vertical and inclined parts of well, the vertical part is drilled to similar inclined beds and the inclined bed enters similar productive formations, both from upper beds and within productive formations, and is directed towards hydraulic mining wells. Distance between location lines of hydraulic mining wells and auxiliary wells is determined with stability of inter-layer beds-bridges of the worked out area of loose ore beds, and distance between hydraulic mining wells and between auxiliary wells is determined with technical drilling capability of inclined branches towards hydraulic mining wells providing disintegration of loose ores between location lines of hydraulic mining and auxiliary wells of all similar beds subject to development and crossed with hydraulic mining and auxiliary wells.
EFFECT: increasing the scope of mining operations, controlling the mining volume of ore mass as to depth of hydraulic mining well, reducing the scope of construction work of hydraulic mining wells and operating equipment on mining per unit of time.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device includes pulp lifting pipe string with pulp removal head, which is installed inside casing string of the well, air supply pipe string with nozzle provided on its lower end, which is installed inside pulp lifting pipe string with possibility of vertical movement through the head, water supply pipe string installed inside air supply pipe string and having the outlet through side surface of suction tip. Steam supply pipe is installed in upper part of water supply pipe string; there is flange coupling on casing string and pulp lifting pipe string, which tightens those strings between each other; air supply device with two cocks and pressure gauge is installed on casing string below flange connection; inside pulp lifting pipe string there installed is additional water supply pipe string the lower end of which is located on the level of lower end of suction tip and level metre the upper end of which is passed through flange coupling and tightening device, and the jack connected to one of inner pipe strings is installed on the head cover.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of underground reservoir in permafrost sedimentary rocks.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: development method of underground reservoir in permafrost sedimentary rocks involves drilling of sand permafrost formation with a well, installation of process columns in it, supply of water, compressed air, heat carrier via them, development of working-out-capacity by thermal destruction of frozen rocks and air-lifting of developed hydraulic fluid of sand to the surface with water supply for weighing of deposit to the air-lift suction zone and additional water to working-out-capacity with control of water-air boundary level position by regulating the flow of supplied water. Well head is tightened and excess pressure is increased in underground reservoir by supplying compressed air to the well; during thermal destruction of frozen rocks there used as heat carrier is steam which is supplied with constant flow together with additional water; additional water flow is changed to control the water-air boundary level position, and recirculated water forming during separation of sand from lifted hydraulic fluid is supplied to weigh the deposit.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of underground reservoir in permafrost sedimentary rocks.
SUBSTANCE: method includes coal bed extraction in sub-levels with the use of hydraulic mining and pressure tight bulkheads. First, sublevel drifts are put to the boarder of mine section, then, as far as the coal is extracted in the sublevel entry way there installed is portable pressure tight bulkhead with pipe and duct for the output of coal slurry and concurrent methane exhaustion from near-well bore area. Note that after sublevel working out methane exhaustion is continued from the ducts installed in pressure tight bulkheads.
EFFECT: complex and rational use of coal in subsurface resources ensured by concurrent methane extraction, reduction of coal prime cost, safe mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, in particular mechanised face complexes for underground development of mineral deposited in sloping beds. Mechanised face complex for production of mineral deposited in sloping beds, its development in large blocks and delivery of these blocks by escalators, includes sections of powered support, hydraulic cutting cleaning machine with rolls, providing for its motion, to cut the mineral from bottomhole massif in large blocks with the possibility to cut transverse slots while hydraulic cutting machine is immovable, and to cut back vertical slot by means of continuous motion of hydraulic cutting machine with actuators and hydraulic cutting heads joined via metal tubes, on which they are rigidly fixed, with water supply manifold, outgoing from multipliers that impart ultrahigh pressure to water, hydraulic booster installed with the possibility of its continuous feeding with water and emulsion by means of continuously joined hoses of hydraulic cutting machine to water supply and emulsion manifolds, layer of manifolds for provision of possibility to re-arrange specified manifolds as hydraulic cutting machine moves and changes its direction of movement in process of idle run. Hydraulic cutting machine is arranged with the possibility to cut longitudinal slots parallel to plane of bed, simultaneously to cutting of back vertical slot with application of special hydraulic cutting untis, hydraulic booster is arranged with the possibility to feed water of ultrahigh pressure at actuators providing for cutting of back vertical and longitudinal slots as hydraulic cutting machine moves, and while hydraulic cutting machine is immovable - with the possibility to feed all water to actuators providing for transverse hydraulic cutting, besides lengths of all sections along length of long face of continuous cutting of transverse slots at one side and back vertical and longitudinal slots at the other side are identical. At the same time complex is equipped with suspended platform joined at goaf side of the second escalator to move long face of hydraulic cutting machine along it by means of electric drive connected to driving sprocket engages with track chain arranged in cute also laid in suspension platform, and body of track chain holds all communications providing for operation of hydraulic booster: emulsion discharge and drain manifolds, water manifold and electric cable.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of cleaning face, provision of high safety level, reduced release of gas and dust into atmosphere of long face.
4 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry, particularly to development of placers of minerals including alluvial placers of valuable minerals and noble metals including gold, silver, platinum etc. The procedure includes making vertical borehole and drilling boreholes into zone of gravel product deposits which are washed out with hydro-monitors. Produced pulp is directed to the vertical borehole. The vertical borehole is drilled facilitating entry into underground mine working constructed below the placers in a zone of stable rock. Directional upward boreholes are drilled into the zone of placers from the said mine workings. The vertical and directional upward boreholes are cased with a through filter pipe and filter strings; also hydro-monitors are installed in the filter strings of directional upward boreholes. Screw or helical hollow pipe is axially transferred and rotated for cleaning a filter part inside the through filter string of the vertical borehole and for control of pulp flow from the placer. Flush fluid coming via pointed perforation in screw or helical hollow pipe is supplied along whole length of the filter part of the through filter string.
EFFECT: maximal complete development of placer and continuous extraction of mineral.
SUBSTANCE: underground development method of the Elginsky coal deposit involves separation of the deposit into upper and lower formations, performance of paired tunnels and paired inclined working-outs, use of one branch of inclined working-outs and tunnels for coal transportation from loading points to coal-preparation plant, development of the deposit using an underground method sequentially in downstream order. Paired tunnels are performed on the lowest formation H2 of the northern deposit part to geological breakdown; cross galleries are made after geological breakdown out of tunnels transversely to the formation spread of the south-eastern part; those formations are opened with inclined shafts and worked out with a storeyed development system with coal transportation via inclined winzes and slopes to cross galleries, and then tunnels.
EFFECT: invention allows ensuring the efficiency of development of the south-eastern part of the deposit, complete extraction of coal and possibility of applying that method at any stage of the deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: before the face enters the formation roof, wells are drilled towards each other on the side of extraction gates, in pairs as to formation and parallel to the support line at the distance from the well projection to the bottom of formation to the nearest point of removal chamber, which is equal to 0.7-0.8 of periodic step of convergence of the main roof; they are charged and blasted after the support line, by means of which a support is created on the side of worked-out space for a hanging plate of the main roof throughout the length of face by using the roof rocks fallen during blasting operations. Coal pillar arranged between mechanised support and removal chamber is provided with artificial flexibility and extracted under protection of the plate of the main roof, which is borne against the rocks fallen during the well blasting operations. The specified artificial flexibility is provided for the pillar by drilling from removal chamber of wells at the formation roof towards the face.
EFFECT: considerable improvement of safe operations at entry of the complex into removal chamber in wide range of conditions of coal beds occurrence.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: as face advances from special chambers passed above preparatory minings on the side of extraction galleries there drilled opposite each other are wells parallel to formation at the distance from lower plane of the main roof to wells, which is determined by the following formula: Lllr=l3(1+√Kl) / (Kl -1), where Kl - rock loosening coefficient of the main roof at their blasting with loosening; l3 - distance from the main roof to fallen rocks, m; lllr - line of least resistance of blasting cone, m. Then, they are charged and blasted after the support line in the worked-out space. At each explosion there created is support from roof rocks fallen out of funnels throughout the face length, by means of which free falling of main roof, which is torn by explosion, is prevented.
EFFECT: considerable increase in mining of gas-bearing formations by means of mechanised complexes in wide range of coal bed in bedding zone of coal formations.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of a mine field by arrangement of transport and ventilation mines, alternate arrangement of mine chambers from a transport to a ventilation mine with anchor fixation of a roof, suppression of chamber-to-chamber pillars by coal mining with a frontal type combine and transportation of broken coal within the mine chamber. Adjacent chamber-to-chamber pillars are suppressed simultaneously with straight bottoms with a lag of the straight bottom of the chamber-to-chamber pillar arranged at the side of the non-mined coal massif from the straight bottom of the chamber-to-chamber pillar arranged at the side of collapsed rocks, by the value not exceeding 10÷12 m, and formation of a ventilation department by the mined part of the chamber of the ventilation compartment located between straight bottoms of the specified pillars.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of mining due to reduced coal losses by means of total mining of chamber-to-chamber pillars with provision of works safety.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manage a hard-to-collapse roof includes drilling of long and short inclined wells from preparatory mines into roof rocks, their charging and explosion with the help of explosives beyond a reinforcement line in a mined space. During each explosion of charges a support is arranged in long wells for a board of hard-to-collapse layers separated from the massif from rocks that fall out of the blasting cone along the entire length of the mining face. When exploding charges in short wells, supports are arranged near mine sections, and using established supports, free collapse of the main roof board portion that breaks off the massif during explosion is prevented, as well as pushing out of gas accumulated in the mined space into the bottomhole space of the long face.
EFFECT: increased safety of gas bearing beds mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining operations, to powered development of thick steeply inclined coal formations. The method involves preparation of extraction pillar of gates, preparation of extraction strip by performing coal chute and ventilation workings from conveyor to ventilation gate, removal of erection chamber at interface of extraction strip to ventilation gate so that the formation is separated as to thickness into two inclined layers. Sections of the support are mounted in erection chamber on soil of each layer, and flexible covering in the form of mesh, which covers the interlayer patch and section of the support, which is installed at the formation bottom, is mounted on the layer soil at the formation roof. Coal is extracted in inclined layers at the roof and bottom of formation using a mining machine in flat layers with transportation of broken coal to the end slope at inclination of layer towards the nearest slope and to the nearest slope at layer inclination towards the end slope. The above machine is turned in the chamber performed beyond the limits of extraction strip. Coal pillars are destructed with actuating elements of sections of modular support, broken coal of the gate-end pillar is transported to conveyor gate via wells or with scrapers, and interlayer patch is divided into portions as the mining face of layer at the formation roof advances, destructed with pressure of broken rocks after the covering and delivered to working space of layer at the formation bottom.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency and safety of development.
SUBSTANCE: previously laboratory analysis is carried out on coal from a bed and its packs to detect availability of elements and substances in them that may create compounds with water; natural cracking is detected, as well as cleat in the coal bed; wells are drilled from a bottomhole by coal, with length more than by 1 m of the mine skirting cycle; water is injected into the bed with continuous measurements of the methane, water pressure, injection time; the mine is tunnelled for the value of the hydrated bed with the speed that does not exceed methane release within permissible norms; in the area of bed hydration blast holes are drilled in the sides of the mine at each cycle to detect the hydration area. During arrangement of the mine, parameters are varied, which are related to injection of water into bed, maximum reduction of the released methane, optimising arrangement of the mine.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of development of gas-bearing coal beds.
SUBSTANCE: method of development of thick steep coal bed in straps downstream includes preparation of extraction pillar by driving of conveyor and ventilation gates, preparation of extraction line by driving flank and near chutes along dip line near layer soil from conveyor to ventilation gate along both sides of line, driving of mounting chamber near ventilation gate, support pillar being left, mounting of expandable back-connected overlap of support in it, coal layer mining in mining face by development machine with actuating element designed as horizontal directed drum with cutters, forced transportation of coal along face by self-propelling car and ventilation of cleaning face due to mine ventilating pressure drop. Soil of each layer is tapered not exceeding slope angle allowed for development machine and self-propelling car, coal is transported along mining face by self-propelling car to flank chute when slope of extracted layer is towards near chute, or to near coal chute when slope of extracted layer is towards flank chute. Change in direction of layer slope is performed when self-propelling car and development machine are changed over and turned in chamber, which is driven outside mining line and used again during extraction of neighbouring mining line with balanced orientation of extracted layers.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency and safety of extraction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of extraction pillar with gangways, preparation of extraction strip - with end and neighbouring slopes along line of dip at formation soil between gangways, on both sides of strip, construction of erection chamber and erection in it of sections of modular support, mechanised slice mining of coal in mining face, forced transportation of coal along working face and ventilation of mining face due to common borehole depression. Mechanised extraction is performed with combined front-action machine with actuating element made in the form of horizontally oriented drum with cutters. Soil of each formation has the gradient of not more than allowable inclination angle for combined machine and self-propelled car. Coal transportation along the working face is performed using a self-propelled car to the end slope, at the gradient of extracted coal towards the neighbouring slope, or to the neighbouring coal lowering slope, at gradient of extracted coal towards end slope. Change of formation gradient direction is performed after the places of location of self-propelled car and combined machine are changed and they are turned in the chamber which is performed beyond the extraction strip and used again at extraction of neighbouring extraction strip with symmetric orientation of extracted formations. Coal pillars remaining within the limits of extraction strip are removed with cutting actuating elements of modular supports.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency and safety of coal extraction.
SUBSTANCE: method of working crossing by working face includes the following stages: performance of two extraction galleries and working, passed between them with formation footwalling; formation of artificial ground with floor installation for equipment movement and working crossing by working face with formation footwalling. Note that pneumatic cogs are delivered into the said working between extraction gates on which U-shaped wooden floor is laid. As working face approaches the working pneumatic cogs are filled with compressed air and the floor is lifted, after the working face crosses the working the pneumatic cogs are unloaded, the floor is descended to the ground of working and pneumatic cogs are extracted into extraction working.
EFFECT: increase of artificial ground creation efficiency in the working crossed by working face.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving of layer transporting and ventilation mines along soil and ceiling of bed, in massive and in extracted space, cutting of cleaning mines in cross-section of bed at angle of 27°, mechanized delivery of coal along bed mines to coal furnaces and vertical dropping of coal to furnaces. Extraction of slanted transverse bed is performed along bed diagonals having direction to horizon at angle of 27°, to provide for free sliding of coal without degradation. Delivery of coal from cleaning mine placed at angle of 60° to layer mine, to back field mine is performed by self-delivery from any place of extraction field along layer mine, field coal-lowering mine and field slanting coal furnace, being at angle of 27° to horizon. Field slanted coal furnaces are placed at distance from one another along 20 m normal. Field coal mines in form of fans of three mines are connected on field slanted coal furnaces at distance of fan start from one another of 60 m with output of mines ends to each layer mine of group of three above-lying slanted-transverse layers for whole diagonal length of extraction field at distance between mines outputs along layer soil of 60 m. Ceiling of cleaning mines may be supported without load, utilizing mechanical traction on the side of ventilation furnaces for pressing moveable support tool to layer ceiling.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg