Peat container

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: peat container according to the first invention comprises a wall and a bottom. The wall and the bottom are made using peat, the binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, and a mixture of water and peat is at least once passed through a dispersing agent at a differential pressure in the dispersing agent of 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa. The peat container according to the second invention comprises a wall and a bottom. The wall and the bottom are made using peat, the binder. The binder is made in the form of a mixture of water, peat, and hydrophobic substance, such as octadecylamine. The mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substance is at least once passed through the dispersing agent at a differential pressure in the dispersing agent of 0.1·105 Pa to 25·105 Pa.

EFFECT: with this implementation of both inventions the container hardness is increased, which enables to maintain its integrity during transportation, storage and use for its intended purpose; the container resistance to moisture is increased which enables to increase the time of dissolving wall and bottom of the container in the ground and the time of useful effect on plants.

2 cl, 17 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, to creating a highly effective organic fertilizer in the form of containers based on peat, in particular, in the form of pots, cups, cassettes and other

The level of technology.

Known peat pots (http://www.tdlikom.ru/catalog_gl.html?itemid=2862), which are containers whose walls are made of peat-wood pulp, different configuration (round, square), of various sizes, pieces or bonded in blocks of 6 or 12 pieces. Peat pots are manufactured in accordance with TU 0392-046-02997983-2002 from raised peat milled peat with the addition thereto wood pulp, chalk (to reduce the acidity of the peat).

Data peat pots have insufficient mechanical strength and water resistance. They are analogues for both the claimed inventions.

Known peat capacity, namely peat pot, consisting of milled peat, GOST R 51661, carton box brand or G according to GOST 7933-75, chalk natural GOST 17498-72 (http://volgogor.narod.ru/). Peat container includes a sidewall and a bottom, which are made with the use of peat and a binder. Binder is a cardboard box.

This peat capacity has insufficient mechanical strength and water resistance. This companyemail is the prototype for both the claimed inventions.

Features common to the inventions and prototypes, the following: turf capacity of the containing wall and bottom, which are made using peat binder.

Disclosure of the invention.

The purpose of both inventions is increasing duration of fertilizers in the wall and the bottom of the tank to the plants in the soil.

The first invention the problem is solved due to the fact that peat is the capacity of the containing wall and bottom, which are made with the use of peat, binder, and from the prototype differs in that the binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, with a mixture of water and peat, at least once passed through disperser when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA.

In the second invention the problem is solved due to the fact that peat is the capacity of the containing wall and bottom, which are made with the use of peat, binder, and from the prototype, characterized in that the binder is made in the form of a mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substances, in particular of octadecylamine, and a mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substances at least once passed through disperser when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA.

The technical results of both inventions are:

a significant increase in the hardness of the container that retains the its integrity during transportation, storage and intended use;

a significant increase in the resistance capacity to moisture, which can increase the time of the dissolution vessel (wall and bottom) in the land and time efficiency in plants.

All technical results are confirmed experimentally.

The differential pressure "P" is determined by the formula:

P=|P1-P2|,

where P1 is the pressure at the inlet disperser;

P2 is the pressure at the outlet of the disperser.

Depending on the design of the dispersant P1 may be greater than P2, and Vice versa.

As a liquid use water, in particular water, river water, various aqueous solutions, aqueous mixture.

For the first invention, the mixture of liquid and peat (and for the second invention, the liquid mixture, peat and hydrophobic substances) once or several times to skip through the disperser. For the second invention, the liquid mixture, peat and hydrophobic substances once or several times to skip through the disperser. It was experimentally confirmed that when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA in the dispersant is cavitation process.

Passing through the dispersant mixture is subjected to the cavitation treatment (high pressure thousands of atmospheres and high as several thousand degrees temperature. Cavitation treatments the ka mixture is carried out in the zone or zones of cavitation dispersant.

Such a dispersant is often called the cavitator.

Peat contains lignin in the liquid mixture with peat also contains lignin. In the dispersant under specified pressure differences in the cavitation process is increasing the concentration of lignosulfonic acid, pyrolysis of lignin with the formation of resins and polyoxo. The longer the mixture is subjected to dispersion, the more you get from lignin lignosulphonic acids, resins and polyoxo.

Peat is a carbonaceous material.

After dispersion (processing the mixture into the disperser) get extremely effective binder on the basis of lignosulphonic acids, resins and polyoxo derived from lignin.

The experiments, which were conducted by the authors showed that with increasing time dispensational processing of the mixture in the end, the hardness and the resistance obtained in further containers is growing. And the addition of hydrophobic substances contributes to a significant improvement of the water resistance.

So, in a single processing a mixture of 50% water and 50% peat, containing 50% moisture, that is 75% water and 25% dry peat by weight) in the dispersant hardness Brinell received containers is estimated at 125-130 HB. At tenfold processing the mixture into the disperser hardness Brinell received containers is estimated at 230 to 250 HB.

Interest agains the water and peat may be different, depending on the design of the dispersant and drive power dispersant or pump installation.

Peat containers can be manufactured in the form of pots, cups, tape and other items of the form.

List of figures.

Figure 1 shows a longitudinal section of a dispersant with one channel for fluid motion.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of a dispersant, in which one channel for the fluid is divided into two channels, and then these two channels merge into a single channel.

Figure 3 shows a longitudinal section of the dispersant with the channel for the fluid. Plot with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel on its surface in contact with the liquid stream contains a region containing alternating along the length of the area of the protrusions and recesses, and region contains one protrusion whose height is greater heights of the other tabs.

Figs.4, 5 and 6 presents various shapes of projections and recesses.

Figure 7 presents the dispersant that was used in the manufacture of the binder.

On Fig presents a rectangular cross section a-a channel dispersant.

Figure 9 presents the cross section b-B of the body that divides the channel into two channels.

Figure 10 shows a longitudinal section of peat containers.

Figure 11 presents the cross-section In the peat container of the property.

On Fig-15 presents the various forms of cross-sections of peat containers.

On Fig presents a scheme for obtaining a binder.

On Fig shows a photograph of two granules based on peat with holes. These pellets are made of peat capacity to experiment by plugging the hole bottom.

The implementation of the invention.

In General, the stated peat containers may be performed using peat, sawdust, wood chips, charcoal, dung, chalk, cardboard and glue.

Further examples of obtaining peat capacity of the peat. The examples describe experiments that the authors conducted during the development of inventions.

The peat production capacity consists of several stages.

1 stage. Preliminary preparation of peat.

At the stage of preliminary preparation of peat is its screening to prevent contact with equipment (production line) of particles, the size of which can lead to clogging of the technological line. Particle size is determined by the equipment used. So, on the pilot production line at the peat processing plant maximum particle diameter of peat coming in disperser, does not exceed 10 mm

After this stage, the part of peat supplied to equipment preparation the mixture to obtain a binder, and the rest is used directly for the subsequent reception of peat containers.

If the equipment for the production of containers allows the use of peat particles larger than allow dispersant, for example, in the production of lump peat using unit shelochnogo lump model ASC-M the maximum size of the particles of peat supplied to the molding, does not exceed 0.5 of the diameter of the formed piece, which corresponds to 10 mm or 25 mm depending on the diameter of the mouthpieces on formulate, in this case, the peat coming for the production of binders, or undergo additional screening, or screening of this peat is allocated in a separate line.

stage 2. Preparing a mixture of peat with water. The manufacture of the binder.

2.1. Pre-mixing of the water with peat in certain proportions to feed this mixture to the disperser. This can facilitate the automation process and can improve the efficiency of dispersant (cavitator).

Pre-prepared mixture in the desired proportions is served in the receiving tank inlet disperser (cavitator), then through the pump, the mixture is taken from the receiving tank, is fed into the disperser, and then after dispersant flows back into the receiving tank. Processing a mixture of a dispersant (cavitator), C is (depending on its design and quality requirements of the output mixture, occur in one or more cycles. When mnogonitochnoy mode, the processed mixture after dispersant flows back into the receiving tank several times, for example two, three, ten times.

2.2. It is possible to work without pre-mixing water with peat. Without prior preparation in the receiving tank dispersant is filled with water. Peat is poured into the water with the dispersant (cavitator).

2.3. Possible preliminary preparation of the mixture directly into the receiving tank (mixing with a spatula), but it will take some time, during which the dispersant (cavitator) will not work.

2.4. For the second invention in mixture with a hydrophobic substance.

3 stage. Mixing peat and prepared (processed dispersant mixtures - binder. Mixing time depends on the method of forming peat containers. For example, when forming peat capacity low pressure (for example, using roller presses)when it is necessary to ensure that the moldable mass is not pilipala to the form, mixing time can be up to 15 minutes During compaction of the peat containers with screw or other presses (for example, using unit shelochnogo lump model ASC-M), when provided high enough (more than 2·105PA) the pressure on the mixture in EMA mixing decreases sharply.

stage 4. The formation of peat containers is carried out using a molding machines of different design execution. With subsequent drying of the peat containers.

The above-described manufacturing process of peat capacity similar to the process of pelletizing or briquetting peat as fuel. It should be noted that if necessary, peat containers can be used as fuel.

An example of manufacturing a binder.

Source material:

10 kg of milled peat with a moisture content of 50% (5 kg - peat and 5 kg of water);

8 kg of water.

Download dispersant source material:

First, in the receiving tank 55 (see Fig) is filled with water, turn the pump 56 and through the pump the water is pumped through the dispenser 57. Water from the receiving tank 55 passes through the disperser, and then returns to the receiving tank 55. Gradually, approximately 3 minutes into the receiving tank when the pump and disperser is filled with ground peat (this is done for the inlet disperser not clogged). The processing time of the mixture after filling all peat is 2 minutes. After this binder to obtain peat containers ready. With the implementation of the second invention in water is added to 1% (by weight) of octadecylamine.

An example of mixing a binder with peat.

The mixer has economical the A.

32 kg of peat (with a humidity of 50%) is taken 5-8 kg binder.

Stirring for 15 minutes

The number of possible batch - 3 batch in an hour.

Example pressing.

Next, the resulting mixture of peat with a binder comes in a roll press. Through the press, you can skip up to 30 kg of mixture per minute. Considering 70% of the output of peat containers - 20 kg peat containers per minute. The remaining 30% of the mixture back into the press. Low productivity and low output caused by the necessity to adjust the flow of the mixture on the rolls. Because of the stickiness of the mixture is sticking to the walls of the receiving tank press (tank not adapted to mix with such viscosity) and auger feed ineffective, as calculated on less sticky mixture. Have one worker is constantly on the receiver press and to adjust the flow.

During the experimental work was carried out comparative analysis of the claimed peat containers with counterparts from waste charcoal.

Granular fertilizer from waste charcoal, wood flour, binder - lignosulfonate, 80% aqueous lime-clay mixture. This composition is the most resistant to moisture compared with all known peat pellets and tanks. Its hardness and resistance to moisture are possible to accommodate the modern peat pellets and tanks. Therefore, the authors decided to compare the features of the claimed capacities with this fertilizer. Moreover, in the experiments was made of the experimental samples in the form of granules with holes and thick-walled containers (granules with a hole and bottom). See figure 10 and photo on Fig.

The comparison results are posted in table 1 below. In the table the values of hardness and resistance to moisture are average values of ten measurements. Just was made 30 experimental tanks according to the first invention, 20 experimental tanks according to the second invention, as well as 30 vessels of similar.

Table 1
Comparative analysis of peat containers with their counterparts
No.The composition of the peat containersThe Brinell hardness, HBResistance to moisture, h*
1Declared peat capacity. Peat (32 kg at 50% humidity) and binder (5 kg) based on peat and water, obtained after processing** disperser. Humidity dried containers 15%.150/90
2Declared peat capacity. Peat (32 kg at 50% humidity) and binder (8 kg) based on peat and water, obtained after processing** disperser. Humidity dried containers 15%.180140
3Declared peat capacity. Peat (32 kg at 50% humidity) and binder (15 kg) based on peat and water, obtained after processing** disperser. Humidity dried containers 15%.210165
4Declared peat capacity. Peat (32 kg at 50% humidity) and binder (15 kg) based on peat, water and octadecylamine (1%)obtained after processing** disperser. Humidity dried containers 15%.210840
5
Declared peat capacity. Peat (32 kg at 50% humidity) and binder (15 kg) based on peat, water and octadecylamine (10%)obtained after processing**
the dispersant. Humidity dried containers 15%.
210More than 2000
6Capacity based on waste wood coal and wood is uki (32 kg). Binder-lignosulfonate, 20% aqueous lime-clay mixture. Humidity dried containers 15%.353
7Capacity based on waste wood coal and wood flour (32 kg). Binder-lignosulfonate, 60% water - lime-clay mixture. Humidity dried containers 15%.555
8Capacity based on waste wood coal and wood flour (32 kg). Binder - lignosulfonate, 80% aqueous lime-clay mixture. Humidity dried containers 15%.757
*) the complete destruction of the containers, placed in a container of water.
**) five-time processing of the mixture in the dispersant.

Comparative analysis the authors carried out during experiments with fuel cells based on peat (see RF patent 2413755).

The specific weight of the obtained containers based on peat has a value of from 0.4 to 1.5 t/m3.

For significant (as can be seen from table 1) increase the stability of containers to moisture in the binder can be added Oct Acillin or other hydrophobic substance. When using octadecylamine (1%, 10% or more in the binder) the residence time of the containers (without destruction) in water is - months. The number of hydrophobic substances, in particular of octadecylamine, the binder may be from 0.1 to 10%. The above data are confirmed by experimental results.

In the book Ganiev Russia, having got, Kormilitsyn VI, Ukrainian LE Nonlinear wave mechanics. Wave technology of preparation of alternative fuels and efficiency of their combustion. M: SIC "Regular and chaotic dynamics", 2008, 116 pages the constructional schema dispersant. In the book on page 35 shows the operation modes of the dispersant when mixing water with oil. The data on the pressure drop across the dispersant from 2.21 to 12.85 ATM, from 2.21·105PA to 12.85·105PA.

In the subsequent when creating a mixture of water and peat in the experiments was fixed modes of operation in a wider range of pressure differentials, namely from 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA. This proven range and included in the invention.

When the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA was observed (visually) the cavitation mode. Dispersant for these experiments was made of organic glass. Changed the pressure in the claimed range by opening or blocking valve in the pipe feeding the mixture from the pump to di is purgator.

With the aim of improving the quality of the binder, it is advisable to increase the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA and above. For small installations it is advisable to use small dispersers (with a flow rate of 1 to 7 t/h). If this is acceptable mode dispersion at a pressure drop of from 0.1·105PA to 2.5·105PA. In large industrial installations it is advisable to use large dispersers (with a flow rate of 25-50 t/h) and to provide a pressure drop from 2.0·105PA to 25·105PA.

In research in creating a binder used different ratios of water and peat. Table 2 shows some examples of the original composition of the binder components. For feeding the mixture into the disperser was used centrifugal pump. The data in the table are rounded to integers.

Table 2
The composition of the binder
No.The weight of the peat kgThe moisture content of the peat, %The weight of water, kg
115505
2105 8
385010
415020
50.15030
625505

When used on a large industrial enterprises large dispersant feed them a mixture of peat and water, it is advisable to carry out a powerful plunger pumps. The total water content in the initial mixture can be reduced to a minimum, almost to the humidity values used peat.

According to our data, the mix No. 6 in table 2 is the ultimate mixture, which can be run by the centrifugal pump through the disperser. The mixture viscosity resembles thick cream.

For the manufacture of containers can be used any peat (fen, horse, transition), corresponding in General to the property requirements of peat as a raw material for the production of organic fertilizer, humidity 45 to 75%.

Peat capacity - capacity, made using the receiving peat. For manufacturing capacity can be applied to other substances, in particular sawdust, wood chips, chalk, cardboard. While peat in the tank by weight must be greater than 25% (from 25.001% to 100%) of the weight of the container.

The size of the tank 10 to 200 mm

The size of the peat capacity - the distance between the most remote of its parts.

Peat containers used for growing vegetables and flowers.

Seedlings planted in the soil with peat capacity that protects the root system of seedlings from damage, providing hundred percent survival rate and accelerated development of plants. Thanks peat containers reduced the cost of products.

The method of application of peat containers on the sample pot:

Pots filled wetland nutrient soil, then sow seeds, plant bulbs or seedlings. Cultivated plants are often watered constantly keeping the soil moist. Grown seedlings planted in a permanent place in the soil together with the pot. Due to the high moisture resistance of the declared capacities they have long not destroyed during continuous exposure to moisture.

Peat pots are used for growing seedlings of different crops: vegetables (cucumber, tomato, zucchini, squash, melons etc), flower (chamomile extract, Coleus, GE is Ani, gladiolus, Tulip, and other), fruit, forest and ornamental (gooseberry, currant, raspberry, blueberry, rose, and others).

Peat pots are peat-capacity cylindrical (see figure 10) or conical shape. This is a dry molded and extruded peat products are transportable, has a long shelf life.

Figure 10 shows a longitudinal section of the vessel. Capacity can be run in length from 10 to 200 mm, the Boundary of the cross-section of the vessel may be made in the form of a circle (see 11). The diameter of the boundaries of the cross-section capacity can be from 10 to 200 mm On Fig-15 presents the various forms of cross-sections of vessels. Containers may perform thick-walled (see Fig).

In the production of the authors worked out the production of containers with diameters of 30 and 50 mm and the diameter of the hole 10 and 20 mm (see photo on Fig). Experimentally verified the vessel diameter from 10 to 100 mm

Thus, when implementing the invention will provide a significant increase in the hardness of the tanks. This will maintain their integrity during transportation, storage and use.

There will also be a significant increase in resistance vessels to moisture. This allows you to increase the time of their dissolution in the land and time efficiency in plants. The main is dostatkom analogues, that with prolonged exposure to water tanks are destroyed. The claimed invention this disadvantage is absent.

The second invention in containers is a hydrophobic substance. This substance increases the resistance of the vessels to moisture (see lines 4 and 5 of table 1) while maintaining their strength characteristics.

The main element of the technological line for the production of the claimed peat capacity is disperser.

The authors worked constructively disperser (see figure 1-9).

Let's give the definition regarding dispersant and dispersion process.

Dispersant - a device for mixing two or more substances.

The dispersing - mixing. In the inventive dispersant mixing of the mixture is carried out at the expense of its cavitation.

An area of intense dispersion region in the flow of the mixture, where intense stirring of a mixture. This area of intensive dispersion is also called the stage of dispersion, or the region of cavitation or cavitation zone, or zone of intensive dispersion.

The body of the dispersant is a basic element of dispersant, which is a channel or channels for the fluid, in particular a mixture containing peat and water. The mixture may contain other components.

A mixture of the product of mixing, mechanical connection is Oia any substances.

The mixture of water and peat will be called simply a mixture.

The liquid mixture is the product of mixing, mechanical connections of any liquid substances.

The term "channel" refers to a hollow space or cavity, for example, in the form of a pipe.

The channel in the dispersant for the movement of the mixture - space or cavity, for example, in the form of a pipe, which moves the mixture during operation of the disperser. The channel contains sections, in particular section with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel area with increasing reduced cross section of the channel. Channel dispersant contains the minimum flow section of the channel, which during operation of the disperser are formed cavitation or an area of intense dispersion inside the channel.

Plot with decreasing reduced cross-section of the channel section of the channel, where the channel length (in the direction of movement of the mixture or liquid dispersant) area flow area of the channel decreases. The definition of "plot with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel" describes a device channel in a static state.

The plot with increasing reduced cross-section of the channel section of the channel, where the channel length (in the direction of movement of the mixture or liquid dispersant) area flow area of the channel increases. The definition of "plot with increasing prepodneseniem channel" describes a device channel in a static state.

Plot with decreasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel - section along the length of the channel (in the direction of movement of the mixture in the dispersant), in which the flow area from one cross section to another cross-section decreases.

The plot with increasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel - section along the length of the channel (in the direction of movement of the mixture in the dispersant), in which the flow area from one cross section to another cross-section increases.

The flow area of the channel cross-section channel, through which passes the mixture. The cross-section of the channel is a part-sectional dispersant, which is built perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the channel in the area. The flow area is characterized by the area of the orifice.

Disperser shown in figure 1 includes a housing 1 with channel 2 for the movement of water, liquid mixture, the mixture and the channel in the direction of movement of the mixture contains a plot with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel 3 (the length of the section indicated by the position 4), the minimum flow section of the channel 5, the plot with increasing reduced cross section of the channel 7 (the length of the section indicated by the position 8).

The term "in the direction of movement of the mixture" means that the sites are located one behind the other (figure 1 is the left - on the right is about) in the direction of movement of the mixture during operation of the disperser.

Figure 2 plots 20 and 26 are located one behind the other in the direction of movement of the mixture. Figure 2 plots 23 and 27 are also located one behind the other in the direction of movement of the mixture.

The direction of movement of the mixture in figure 1 indicated by item 10, as indicated in figure 2 position 19.

Rifle - grooves on the surface of the channel.

Cross rifle - rifle performed on the surface of the channel in the transverse direction (90°) relative to the longitudinal axis of the channel.

The direction of movement of the mixture in the channel direction from the entrance of the dispersant to the exit of the dispenser.

Channel dispersant on the surface in contact with a stream of the mixture (see, for example, patent RF №2293599), area can contain.

The area is part of the channel surface nonzero square.

The length field is the length of the field in the longitudinal direction of the channel, in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel (in a straight line between the end points of the region).

The length of the section with decreasing reduced cross-section of the channel length of the plot (in a straight line between the end points) in the longitudinal direction of the channel, in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel.

The length of the section with increasing reduced cross-section of the channel length of the plot (in a straight line between the end points) in the longitudinal direction of the channel, in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the channel.

Demopedia the ledge.

First of all, build a longitudinal section passing through the area of interest on the surface of the channel. The line of intersection of the plane and the channel surface is called the boundary of the longitudinal section. The protrusion is defined on the boundary of a longitudinal section, in particular on the border of the longitudinal section of the channel, or portion of the channel region on the surface of the channel.

If the cross-section between two points, at the same time belonging to the border section and the median line of the boundary section between the boundary section and the middle line is part of the section, say that between these points on the boundary of the cross section is a protrusion. They also say that the section contains a tab on the border of the section or at the border section between two points is a ledge. This definition (we replaced the cross section on the longitudinal section) published online at: http://newtechnolog.narod.ru/articles/30article.html.

Let us define the recess.

First of all, build a longitudinal section passing through the area of interest on the surface of the channel. The line of intersection of the plane and the channel surface is called the boundary of the longitudinal section. The recess is defined on the boundary of a longitudinal section, in particular on the border of the longitudinal section of the channel, or portion of the channel region on the surface of the channel.

If Sech the Institute between two points, at the same time belonging to the border section and the median line of the boundary section between the boundary section and the middle line is the area (space)adjacent to the border section and non-section, then we say that between these points is deepening. This definition is published on the Internet at: http://newtechnolog.narod.ru/articles/30article.html.

Alternating along the length of the protrusions and recesses is when the tab should deepen and so on, with the at least two protrusions and recesses, at least two.

The surface in contact with the flow of the mixture, the inner surface of the channel, which is in contact with the flow of the mixture.

The differential pressure disperser is the difference in the readings of pressure gauges on the inlet and outlet of the disperser at his work.

The dispenser includes a housing 1 (see figure 1) with channel 2 for movement of the mixture as a mixture, a mixture containing water and peat or water, peat and a hydrophobic substance; and the channel in the direction of movement of the mixture contains a plot with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel 3 (the length of the section indicated by the position 4), the minimum flow section of the channel 5.

Cross-section, which is built perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the channel and passing through the minimum flow section of the channel 5, the indicated position 6 (indicated by the dotted line in f is 1).

Position 7 marked the area with increasing reduced cross-section along the channel length (the length of the section indicated by item 8.

Plot with decreasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel on its surface 9 in contact with the thread 10 mixture contains region 11 (see figure 2), containing alternating along the length of the area of the projections 12 and recesses 11, and region contains one protrusion 14, the height greater than the heights of the other tabs on this area.

Region 11 is located at a distance of 15 (see figure 3) from the minimum flow area of the channel 5. In particular, if the region is located at a distance of 0.1 mm is the distance from the range from 0.001 to 1 mm, the closer the region 11 to section 5, the smaller it can be.

The length field has a value of L, which is determined by the formula:

L=nS,

where n is the value that takes a value from 0.1 to 0.5;

S is the length of the section with decreasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel.

When S=100 mm, L can take the values 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm Can be other lengths.

An area of intense dispersion indicated by the position 16 in figure 3.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of the dispenser. The dispenser includes a housing 17 (see figure 2) with the channel 18 for movement of the mixture.

The channel in the direction of travel 19 of the mixture is divided into two ka is Ala. The first channel includes a portion 20 with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel (the length of the section indicated by the position 21), the minimum flow section of the channel 22. Position 26 marked the area with increasing reduced cross-section along the length of the first channel.

The second channel contains a plot 23 with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel (the length of the section indicated by the position 24), the minimum flow section of the channel 25.

Position 27 marked the area with increasing reduced cross-section along the length of the second channel.

The dispersant may be shaped so that it contains the channel 28 (see figure 1) for the fluid (or gas, steam) in an area of intense dispersion. Feeding can a hydrophobic substance. Submit can air, which contributes to the increase of nitrogen in the binder and in the vessel as a whole.

Figure 2 shows a dispersant shaped so that it has two channels 29 and 30 for the fluid (or gas, steam) in the field of intensive dispersion for sections 22 and 25. The body, which divides the channel into two channels, made in the form of a pipe 40 with two channels (holes) 29 and 30.

Figs.4-6 presents alternating protrusions and recesses of different types. The tabs with the greatest height indicated by the positions 31, 32 and 33.

The height of the protrusion 31 is indicated by position 39. The height of the small ledge marked positions is she's 37. Height is measured from the median (middle line 34 see http://newtechnolog.narod.ru/articles/30article.html.

In addition, figure 5 and 6 the median line indicated positions 35 and 36.

The depth of the recess 38 is also measured from the midline.

The protrusions and recesses can be rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular, round shape (almost any shape in longitudinal cross-section of the channel. The depth of the recess may amount to 0.005 ÷ 5 mm, when the thickness of the body dispersant greater than the depth of the recess is not less than 10%. The height of the protrusion may amount to 0.005 mm ÷ 5 mm when the diameter of the orifice channel, exceeding the height of the protrusions is not less than 100%.

The protrusion maximum height is designed so that its height exceeds the height at least the height of the protrusion 1.1÷10 times.

On the surface of the channel in contact with the flow of the mixture can be made transverse rifle. Rifle can be rectangular, triangular, round (or round) shape in a longitudinal cross section of the channel. The depth of the flute may be the amount of 0.005 - 5 mm, when the thickness of the body of the dispenser.

The geometrical characteristics of protrusions, recesses and riffles are selected from conditions wrap their flow of the mixture, namely with regard to the flow velocity, braking pressure, the density of the mixture, and where the location is by the protrusions, deepening (rifle) regarding the minimum flow area.

The main objective of these devices is the maximum perturbation of the flow front of the zone of intensive dispersion (cavitation) as near the channel walls, and the depth of flow of the mixture.

In practice (at the time of filing this application for examination in FIPS) approved the design of the dispersant with a channel diameter of 5 to 100 mm, the length of the tapering section (section with decreasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel) from 50 to 1000 mm, depth riffles and holes from 0.001 to 5 mm, a height of the protrusions from 0.001 to 5 mm

At this depth value 0.001÷0.004 mm give a small effect. It is better to perform the depth from values of 0.005 mm and deeper. The height of the protrusions value 0.001÷0.004 mm also give a small effect. It is better to perform the height of the projections since the magnitude of 0.005 mm and above.

It was experimentally confirmed that noticeable (instrumentally and visually) the effect of the ledge with a maximum height when its height exceeds the height at least the height of the protrusion at 1.05÷10 times. However, exceeding 5% has little effect. It is better that the height of the maximum height of the protrusion above the height of the lowest ledge in 1.1÷10 times.

Mixing flow 10 mixture of the dispersant is in the interaction of it with the tabs 12, 14 and recesses (grooves) 13 and in the zone of intensive dispersion of the mixture (in the region of cavitation) 16. Cm. figure 3.

In the process of wrapping a mixture of tabs 12, 14 and recesses 13, the flow of the mixture stirred (you can say turbulizers). Moreover, the tabs low altitude carry out mixing near the inner surface of the channel. And a ledge high altitude mixes layers of the stream, moving closer to the center of the stream.

Moving further through the duct length is reduced with decreasing cross-section along the length of the channel (along the narrowing of the channel) 3 (see figure 3), the mixture is accelerated to a speed of 10 m/s and above. Experimentally tested the acceleration of the mixture to a speed of 50 m/S.

The velocity of the mixture increases, and the pressure in the flow is reduced. The reduction of pressure below the saturated vapor pressure causes steam bubbles in the zone (area) of the thread 16. Subsequently the mixture is inhibited is adjudged to be in an area of high pressure. Braking on the plot with increasing reduced cross-section along the channel length for section 5.

When braking a mixture of steam bubbles (cavitation bubbles) klapivad, providing an effective crushing of the mixture components and their mixing.

Figure 1 shows the channel 28. On this channel in the zone of cavitation (intense cavitation) may be liquid, gas or steam. For example, when the dispersant on the channel in an area of intense cavitation serves water vapor. The steam creatures the NGOs intensify cavitation processes in the dispersant.

Or when the dispersant through the channel into the fluid flow at the site with increasing reduced cross-section along the length of the channel serves water vapor.

Figure 2 shows two channels 29 and 30. Through these channels in the zone of cavitation can be liquid, gas or steam.

The authors performed a comparative test dispersant with different designs of protrusions and recesses.

When developing applications, experiments were carried out on the dispersant with a transparent body. The design of the dispersant is similar to the design shown in figure 1 and figure 3. The mixture was pumped through a disperser using a pump.

The area containing alternating along the length of the area of the protrusions and depressions is located at a distance of 0.1 mm from section 5 (see figure 3). The length of the field is 20 mm, the width of the region is 10 mm, the Number of projections is 20. The number of recesses 19.

The tabs are made of a height of 0.5 mm One protrusion located in the center of the region, is height-adjustable and has the ability to rise to a height of 5 mm above the median line boundary of the longitudinal section. The diameter of the projection - 2 mm.

The length of the section with decreasing reduced cross section of the channel is 40 mm

The length of the section with increasing reduced cross section of the channel is 40 mm

Outer diameter of the channel at the entrance to the dispersant and at the outlet of the disperser - 60 mm

Diameter minimum bore - 5 mm

The length of the zone 16 intensive cavitation designated position 41.

The length of the zone was determined visually through the transparent body of the dispenser. When the dispersant on the length of the zone amounted to a value of from 3 to 7 mm

In the experiment varied height adjustable ledge and the velocity of a fluid (50% diesel and 50% water).

On the inlet and outlet of the disperser installed the gauges. The flow rate was regulated by a valve located in the piping between the pump and disperser.

The flow rate was measured using a flow meter types SP-1.

The results of the experiments are given in table 3.

The table analysis showed that with increasing height of the protrusion of the flow velocity at the minimum flow cross-section, which provides for the establishment of intensive cavitation is reduced. This allows to reduce the capacity of the pump for pumping the mixture through a disperser to 20%.

In addition, with increasing height of the ledge there is an increase in the volume (area) of the region of intense dispersion in the mixture during its movement inside the channel. This improves the quality of the dispersion.

The experiments showed that increasing the number of projections is increased up to 2, 3, etc. in one longitudinal section does not result in gain is in effect.

Table 3
The dependence of the rate of establishment of intensive dispersion from the geometrical characteristics of protrusions and recesses (provided the pressure drop across the dispersant 2.1 ATM)
No.Height adjustable ledge mmThe flow velocity at the minimum flow cross-section, m/sThe length of the zone of intense cavitation mm
1Tabs no19.03
20.518.03
30.617.53
40.6517.53
51.016.74
61.516.34
72.016.05
82.515.75
93.015.35
103.514.36
114.014.06
124.513.87
135.013.37

Figure 7 presents a dispersant, which was used during the test and testing process to obtain a binder. This dispersant was used for testing processes for production of liquid fuels based on fuel oil and water.

The channel 42 has a rectangular shape (see Fig). The position of the 43 designated body, which divides the channel into two channels. In the tests, the flow rate of the mixture inlet disperser took the values from 6 to 20 m/s Position 44 also marked the body, which is th divides the channel into two channels. The body 43 is rotated by 90° relative to the body 44. Body 43 holes 45 (diameter 1÷2 mm) for submission to the channel (in the zone of cavitation) of the mixture components. The components are fed through the pipe 46. Body 44 holes 49 (diameter 1÷2 mm) for submission to the channel (in the zone of cavitation) of the mixture components. The components are fed through the pipe 47. Through the pipe 48 into the flow can also be supplied component of the mixture.

The channel has a height of 50 and a width of 51. In the experiments, the channel had a width of 8÷20 mm, a height of 4÷10 mm Diameter body 43 had a value of 4÷10 mm Diameter 52 of the body 44 had a value of 4÷6 mm

Fillets of channel 53 and 54 were calculated according to the methodology described on page 38÷44 source: Richter L.A. Gas paths of thermal power plants. M: Energy, 1969. Fillets provide an irrevocable turn of the flow that is important for maintaining stable cavitation.

Thus, the declared capacity in comparison with the prototype provide:

- a significant increase in the hardness of the product;

- a significant increase in the resistance vessels to moisture.

1. Peat is the capacity of the containing wall and bottom, which are made with the use of peat, binder, this binder is made in the form of a mixture of water and peat, with a mixture of water and peat, at least once passed through disperser when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA.

2. Peat is technology, containing wall and bottom, which are made with the use of peat, binder, this binder is made in the form of a mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substances, in particular of octadecylamine, and a mixture of water, peat, hydrophobic substances at least once passed through disperser when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105PA to 25·105PA.



 

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