Absorbing apparatus

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to friction absorbing units of freight car automatic couplers. Absorbing apparatus comprises barrel-like casing with boss on bottom inner side, pressure cone, two friction wedges with bearing plate, pairs of moving and fixed plates, all arranged in said casing symmetrically with its inner walls. Besides, absorbing apparatus comprises retaining-return device composed of a stack of polymer resilient elements arranged together with bearing plate and wedges between pressure cone and casing bottom and tightened up by bolt passed through central hole. Every said polymer resilient element represents variable-cross-section body of revolution with stepped hole along axis of revolution. Section with maximum OD is located between two different-size end of said body to divide outer lateral surface of the latter into two adjacent parts. Distance from said section to smaller end makes 0.30-0.55 of that to larger end.

EFFECT: absorption capacity increased for classes T2, T3.

8 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to railway transport, in particular to a friction absorbing apparatus of hitch devices freight cars.

Known friction draft gears, in which the function of the retaining-return device perform springs (Nicholas LN, Koglin astray freight shock Absorbers rolling stock. M., engineering, 1986, p.53, 27), as well as devices in the form of a package of elastic elements made of polymers (patent RU 61669 U1, 61G 9/08, 10.03.2007; EN 2128301 C1, F16F 7/08, 61G 9/02, 27.07.1999; EN 2145558 C1, B61G 9/06, 20.02.2000; EN 2173273 C2, 61G 9/06, F16F 1/40, F16F 3/00, 10.09.2001; EN 2283791 C1, 61G 9/10, 61G 9/18, 20.09.2006; EN 2380257 C2, 61G 9/18, 20.05.2009; US 6478173 B2, B61G 9/18, 12.11.2002). The use of elastic elements of the polymers was possible to improve the power characteristics of the retaining-return device and thereby absorbing devices in General, and with the additional introduction of shims under the patent RU 2380257 C2, B61G 9/18, 27.01.2010 - to stabilize the values of energy absorbing devices at a level appropriate to the class T1. However, the concave appearance of the received power characteristics due to the shape of the applied elastic elements of the polymers did not allow to achieve higher energy intensities, corresponding to classes T2 and T3, which is the main drawback of such shock-absorbing devices.

Adopted as a prototype friction polymer clay is hydrated absorbing device draft gears-110 (see the journal "Vestnik of VNIIZHT", 2005, №4, UDC 629.4.028.86), comprising a housing in the form of a Cup with a boss on the inner side of the bottom along the longitudinal axis of the housing, are accommodated in the housing symmetrically his inner walls of the pressure cone, a pair of friction wedges with base plate, a pair of movable and stationary plates, and a retaining-return device in the form of a package of elastic elements of the polymer (thermoplastic elastomer), located together with the support plate and wedges between pressure cone and the bottom of the case and tightened the bolt through their Central holes.

The disadvantage of this technical solution is concave type of power characteristics of the retaining-return device and the absorbing apparatus in General, due to the imperfect shape of the applied elastic elements, which limits the values of the indicators energy absorbing mechanism on the level corresponding to the class T1.

The technical result, which is aimed invention is to increase the values of the indicators energy absorbing mechanism to a higher level classes T2, T3.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in absorbing apparatus, comprising a housing in the form of a Cup with a boss on the inner side of the bottom along the longitudinal axis of the housing, rasmusen the e in the housing symmetrically his inner walls of the pressure cone, a pair of friction wedges with base plate, a pair of movable and stationary friction plates, and a retaining-return device in the form of a package of polymer elastic elements arranged in conjunction with the support plate and wedges between pressure cone and the bottom of the case and tightened along the longitudinal axis of the bolt through their Central openings, each of the polymer elastic element is a body of revolution of variable cross section with a stepped bore axis of rotation, the cross section with a maximum outer radius located between the two different ends of a specified body parts and the outer side surface of the latter on two adjacent parts, and the distance from the specified section to a smaller end is 0,3 0,55...from the distance bigger butt.

Both adjacent portion of the side surface of each elastic element retaining-return devices are concave.

The ends of each elastic element represent a truncated conical surface with the angle between the generatrix and the base equal to 8...11°, and vertices, turned out of the element at the larger end and the inside of the smaller.

Retaining-return device absorbing apparatus consists of an even number of elastic elements forming one or more pairs, with adjacent e the elements of each pair facing each other big ends.

Retaining-return device absorbing apparatus consists of six elastic elements.

All elastic retaining elements-return device absorbing device is made of the same material and have the same dimensions, with the first element from the bottom of the body of the device is aligned with its hole on serving inside the boss, and each of the remaining elements is supplied from the side of the smaller end of the jumper with a hole for direct centering on the clamping bolt.

The larger end of each elastic element retaining-recoil absorbing device unit is equipped with at least two pairs of evenly spaced around the circumference at the edge of the center hole and striped deaf cylindrical holes and ledges of the same diameter to connect the elements in pairs.

The diameter of the center hole of the larger end of each elastic element retaining-return device absorbing device is 0,65 0,45...from the outer diameter of the latter, and the length of said hole is 0.2...0.3 of the total length of the element.

The comparison of the proposed technical solutions to the prototype allowed us to establish the presence of the distinctive features of the prototype characteristics, therefore, this solution meets the criterion of "novelty".

With mnost of the invention is illustrated by drawings, which figure 1 shows absorbing device in longitudinal section, figure 2 is a top view of the polymer elastic element in the free state, combined with a longitudinal incision in figure 3 - view of the elastic element of the larger end, figure 4 - performance polymer elastic element with a jumper in the hole from the side of the smaller end, figure 5, 6, 7 - retaining-return device comprising three pairs of polymer elastic elements in a free, pre-pojetom and compressed at full stroke state respectively, on Fig - power characteristics of quasi-static compression of the retaining-return device.

Absorbing device (see figure 1) includes a housing 1 in the form of a Cup with the boss 2 on the inner side of the bottom 3 along the longitudinal axis of the housing, are accommodated in the housing symmetrically his inner walls of the pressure cone 4 in contact with the friction wedges 5, resting on the support plate 6. Their lateral surfaces 7 of the friction wedges 5 are in contact with a pair of fixed plates 8 fixed in Windows 9 of the housing 1. Between the outer surfaces of the fixed plate 8 and the inner walls of the housing 1 a pair of movable friction plates 10. Between the support plate 6 and the bottom 3 of the housing 1 is placed a retaining-return device 11 in the form of a package of six polymer elastic elements 12 is an adjusting spacers 13, which together with the support plate 6, the pressure cone 4 and the friction wedges 5 tighten the bolt 14, wound through the center hole in the boss 2 of the housing 1, the elastic elements 12, the adjusting strips 13, the base plate 6 and the compression cone 4.

Each of the elastic elements 12 (see figure 2, 3, 4) is a body of revolution of variable cross section with a stepped hole And the axis of rotation, the cross section with a maximum outer diameter D located between the two different ends B and C of the specified body and divides the outer lateral surface of the latter on two adjacent parts G and D, and length l2from the specified section to the smaller face is 0,30 0,55...from a distance of l1to bigger butt B. Both adjacent parts D and E of the side surface of each of the elastic element 10 are concave.

The ends B and C of each of the elastic elements is a truncated conical surface with angles α and β between the surface and base equal to 8...11°, and vertices, turned out of the element at the larger end face B and the inside of the smaller end of the Century

Retaining-return device 11 is equipped with an even number of elastic elements 12 for the formation of one or more pairs. In figure 1, 5, 6, 7 shows a retaining-return device of the six elastic elements, which form three pairs,with adjacent elements of each pair facing each other large end faces of B (see figure 5).

All elastic elements 12 back-and-retaining device is made from a single material, for example from a mixture of thermoplastic elastomers Hytrel brands 4556 and 5556 in certain proportions corresponding to the desired power characteristics, and have the same dimensions, with the first element from the bottom of the housing 1 of the apparatus is aligned with its hole on serving inside the boss 2, and each of the remaining elements is supplied from the side of the smaller end of the strap 15 with a hole for direct centering on the clamping bolt 14. The larger end face B of each elastic element 12 is equipped with two pairs of evenly spaced around the circumference at the edge of the center hole and striped deaf cylindrical holes 16 and projections 17 of the same diameter to connect the elements in pairs.

Likewise can be made of smaller connection of the ends of the elastic elements adjacent pairs.

The diameter of the center hole D3of the larger end face B of each elastic element is 0,65 0,45...from the outer diameter D1the last, and the length l3said hole - 0,2...0,3 of the total length l of the element.

Improved form and specific dimensions of the elastic element 12 in a free state is defined from a condition of acceptance of a package of six elements in compression to complete the work is the second course form close to the cylinder inscribed in the internal dimensions of the housing 1 of the apparatus, and prevent relative local deformations of compression of the elastic elements more than 10% in the preliminary preload retaining-return the device to avoid large residual deformations of elastic elements and reducing the force preload.

Desired technical result was obtained through a series of analytical calculations of the power characteristics of the static compression of the elastic elements of thermoplastic elastomers Hytrel brands 4556 and 5556 with predetermined and precise in the calculation process the shape and size and dynamic compression of the absorbing apparatus in accordance with the updated dependence of the transmission coefficient (gain) of the stroke executed by a method of successive approximation, and confirmed by the real power compression characteristics of experimental samples reduced physical models of the elastic element, refer to the natural mind using theory of geometric similarity.

The Assembly of the absorbing apparatus can be made without shims 13, since the expected weight and the dynamic power characteristics of the device with the elastic elements 12 provide a sufficiently high values of intensity, with a stock evidencing compliance and apparatus class T2. In the case of the use of shims 13, to stabilize the value of efforts preload and closing apparatus at levels close to the maximum, it is possible to achieve matching device class T3.

It is also becoming feasible modernization spring-friction devices PMK-110A, PMC-110-K-23 and APM-110-K-23 operating the Park with their transfer from class t0 in class T2 by replacing the spring retaining-return device for a package of six elastic elements 10.

The use of the proposed shock-absorbing devices classes T2 and T3 in automatic coupling devices freight cars will significantly reduce the shock impact while operating cars and extend their trouble-free operation.

1. Absorbing device, comprising a housing in the form of a Cup with a boss on the inner side of the bottom along the longitudinal axis of the housing, are accommodated in the housing symmetrically his inner walls of the pressure cone, a pair of friction wedges with base plate, a pair of movable and stationary plates, and a retaining-return device in the form of a package of polymer elastic elements arranged in conjunction with the support plate and wedges between pressure cone and the bottom of the case and tightened along the longitudinal axis of the bolt through their Central openings, wherein each and the polymer elastic elements of the package is a body of revolution of variable cross section with stepped hole along the axis of rotation, the cross section with a maximum outer diameter located between the two different ends of a specified body parts and the outer side surface of the latter on two adjacent parts, and the distance from the specified section to a smaller end is 0,30 0,55...from the distance bigger butt.

2. Absorbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the two adjacent portion of the side surface of each of the elastic element are concave.

3. Absorbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the ends of each elastic element represent a truncated conical surface with the angle between the generatrix and the base equal to 8...11°, and vertices, turned out of the element at the larger end and the inside of the smaller.

4. Absorbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that its retaining-return device consists of an even number of elastic elements forming one or more pairs, with adjacent elements of each pair facing each other big ends.

5. Absorbing device according to any one of claims 1 and 4, characterized in that its retaining-return device consists of six elastic elements.

6. Absorbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that all the elastic elements are made of the same material and have the same dimensions, with the first element from the bottom of the Cabinet centres is : his hole on serving inside the boss, and each of the remaining elements is supplied from the side of the smaller end of the jumper with a hole for direct centering on the clamping bolt.

7. Absorbing device according to any one of claims 1, 4 and 5, characterized in that the larger end of each elastic element is provided with at least two gifts which are evenly spaced around the circumference at the edge of the center hole and striped deaf cylindrical holes and ledges of the same diameter to connect the elements in pairs.

8. Absorbing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the Central hole of the larger end of the elastic element is 0,65 0,45...from the outer diameter of the latter, and the length of said hole is 0.2...0.3 of the total length of the element.



 

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