Vacuum sputtering plant

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum sputtering plant comprises a resistive source of an evaporated material connected to a power supply unit, and facing with the first side towards the substrate, on which a semiconductor structure is generated, and with the second one - to a receiver of charged particles connected to a negative terminal of a source of accelerating voltage, to a positive terminal of which voltage is connected. The receiver of charged particles may be arranged in the form of a plate of a refractory metal.

EFFECT: higher stabilisation of an evaporation speed, reproducibility of sputtered material layers by thickness and higher quality of manufactured structures.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to techniques for the production of films in vacuum and can be used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, in particular, silicon-based molecular beam deposition.

One of the methods used for growing epitaxial layers of silicon method is based on the sublimation of the sprayed material by resistive heating of the evaporated source material in a vacuum. This method is in contrast to gas-phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, based on the evaporation of the electronic bombardment of coating material from the crucible, characterized by the possibility of obtaining improved semiconductor structures due to the possibility of generating a source of sputtered material deposited particles with the same energy, and by reducing the likelihood of contamination of the grown layers impurities formed due to the decomposition gases and evaporation of the material from which made the crucible. Improving the quality izgotavlemyh structures by resistive heating of the evaporated source material is also related to the fact that the growth of the layer structure is carried out under conditions of evaporation of the atomized stream. In addition, vacuum deposition, implement sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy, a simpler design is about and for more convenient operation.

In the manufacture of semiconductor structures is the task of ensuring the reproducibility of their parameters, which involves, in particular, with the need to maintain a constant deposition rate of sputtered material on the substrate. The latter is determined largely by the rate of evaporation of particles from the resistive evaporator. Therefore, one of the problems arising in the manufacture of semiconductor structures using resistive evaporators is to maintain a constant evaporation rate, because the process of evaporation by reducing the thickness of the resistive source increases its temperature and, therefore, increases the rate of evaporation. This fact necessitates the control of such process parameters as temperature resistive source of sputtered material or the rate of evaporation of the sprayed material from the source. Knowledge of these parameters allows the change of the temperature of a resistive source of sputtered material to stabilize the rate of evaporation and, consequently, the deposition rate.

The known device by which they control and regulate the rate of evaporation and control the thickness of the deposited film in the manufacturing process of semiconductor structures by sublimation method.

The known device, which is cenvat rate of evaporation by resistive evaporator according to the intensity of molecular flow, generated by the evaporator. So, it is known use for these purposes quadrupole mass spectrometer (Rupp I., Messaroch J., Eisele I. J. Cryst. Growth 1998. v.183. p.99). The quantitative relationship between the indicators of the mass spectrometer and the actual evaporation rate is estimated on the basis of test structures and the results of their research using other methods (for example, x-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal or atomic force microscopy). Quadrupole mass spectrometer using a computer with special software allows to obtain a high stability of the rate of evaporation resistive evaporator at a given level. The software allows the growth of structures in fully automatic mode without operator intervention.

The disadvantages arising from the use of quadrupole mass spectrometer, are reducing the accuracy of measurement of evaporation rates of changing their greatness in the process of one cycle of deposition, and the high cost of the quadrupole mass spectrometer equipment, leading to expensive vacuum deposition in General.

More widespread control of the evaporation rate with ionization sensor output signal which is proportional to the speed of evaporation (for example, Ashbrook, Niyavaran. Technology and equipment DL the production of microelectronic devices. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1983). These sensors are characterized by low inertia, which allows you to use the sensor for feedback from the evaporator and to carry out automatic adjustment of the speed of evaporation. In addition, the registration of the measured parameters do not require correction involving the control samples.

The principle of the ionization sensor is based on the fact that the deposition rate of a film of sputtered material and the number of ions formed when it is irradiated by an electron beam of constant intensity, proportional to the density of molecular flux of evaporated substances. Ionization sensor is installed in the vacuum chamber volume; its main element is the ionizer, which is the anode in the form of a cylindrical grid located along the axis of the filament acting as a cathode, with one side of the grid facing the source of the sprayed material and the other is closed by a disk, perform the function of collector ions. This sensor uses the emission of electrons from a heated tungsten filament. The electrons are accelerated in the space of the cathode-anode, between which is applied a voltage of 150-200 C. the collector is supplied with a negative voltage of 20-50 C. the Flow of evaporated particles enters the ionizer parallel to the anode and ionize by collision with power is AMI. Produced ions are captured by the collector, causing the ion collector current proportional to the flux density of particles. The sensor is calibrated on the basis of empirical data. For stable operation of the sensor emission current should be stable. Errors in the sensor readings may be caused by stray electrons from the hot evaporator. To eliminate these errors, the evaporator serves a positive potential 150-200 In a relatively sensor. When using ionization sensors one of the problems is the estimation of the contribution to the total ion current current due to ionization of residual gas molecules, which leads to a distortion of the recorded information. To eliminate the influence of the current, caused by ionization of residual gas molecules on the recorded information carry out mechanical modulation of molecular flow sensor, by means of rotating with constant frequency metal valve installed at the inlet to the sensor.

The disadvantage of vacuum deposition using ionization sensors is the need to introduce into the vacuum volume special device for forming a flow of ions of the evaporated substance to increase the sensitivity of the sensor is placed in the space between the resistive source and the substrate, the and which form the semiconductor structure. The presence of this device leads to contamination of the growing layer and has a negative effect on the parameters izgotovliaemye structure.

Known vacuum deposition, in which means are provided for stabilizing the speed of evaporation of the sprayed material containing connected to the power supply resistive source arranged opposite to the substrate on which is formed the semiconductor structure, and means of controlling the temperature of a resistive source, made in the form of a thermocouple, connected to the unit generating control signals, the output of which is connected to the power supply (JP 6158287 (A), 1994-06-07). For fixing thermocouple resistive source of sputtered material includes a conductive substrate on which is placed the sprayed material, while thermocouple is in contact with this conductive substrate. Stabilization of the rate of evaporation of the sprayed material is carried out by regulating the current applied to a resistive source, in accordance with the temperature measured by thermocouple.

The disadvantage of this setup is due to the use of thermocouples for temperature control of a resistive source. The need to hard mount thermocouple on the resistive source of sputtered material requires the use of the substrate, which is the source for raznaya impurities, affecting the quality of the formed semiconductor structure. In addition, a thermocouple as a temperature measurement, have specific disadvantages (need individual calibration, the readings of thermocouples is influenced by the current-carrying elements, and others). These circumstances influence the characteristics izgotavlemyh semiconductor structures and, consequently, on their reproducibility.

The technical result achieved when using the present invention is to increase the stabilization of the rate of evaporation, the reproducibility of the layers of the sprayed material thickness and improving the quality of manufactured structures, including by reducing the risk of contamination of spray patterns impurities, the source of which are the elements introduced into the vacuum volume to stabilize the rate of evaporation.

The technical result is achieved by the installation of vacuum deposition, containing resistive evaporator spraying material facing the first side to the substrate on which is formed the semiconductor structure, and the control means, the latter includes a receiver of the charged particles, is connected to the negative terminal of the accelerating voltage source, and a resistance connected to the positive terminal of the accelerating voltage source, and the receiver of saragani the particles facing the second side of the evaporated source material.

In the simplest scenario, the receiver of the charged particles may be in the form of a plate of refractory metal.

It is advisable to enter in the setup connected in series-connected resistance of the amplifier, the power comparison with the reference voltage and the driver control signal, the power supply unit to perform a controlled and its controlled input connected to the outputs of the driver control signal.

It is also the power supply through a network switch to connect with a timer.

The basis of the invention is the proposal to use to stabilize the rate of evaporation napylyaemogo material receiver of the charged particles (ions)that when the resistive heating source due to thermionic emission evaporate from its surface along with the neutral atoms and molecules. When applying to the receiver accelerating voltage in a resistive circuit, the source - receiver ion flows a current proportional to the temperature of the resistive evaporator and, therefore, proportional to the rate of evaporation, which allows the control of the evaporation rate by measuring the ion current. However, the most appropriate use of ion current to stabilize the rate of evaporation, keeping it constant by changing the current flowing through a resistive source. the La, it is proposed to use the accelerating voltage source, to the negative terminal of which is connected to the receiver of the charged particles, and to the positive terminal of the resistance, with control of the ion current is to change the current flowing through the resistance current, ie voltage drop across the resistance.

Stabilization of the rate of evaporation in accordance with the claimed invention is carried out by means, not contributing to the output flow of the sprayed material polluting its impurities, since the only potential source of such impurities introduced into the vacuum volume of the installation and which is the element of stabilisation schemes imposed from the zone of the formed thread and is set by a resistive source, opposite to that which faces the substrate on which is deposited sputtered film.

On the accompanying figure schematically shows a variant of the inventive vacuum deposition, equipped with a scheme of automatic stabilization of resistive evaporation source.

The installation includes placed in the volume of the vacuum chamber 1 resistive evaporator 2 of the sprayed material facing one (first) side of the substrate 3, on which the manufactured semiconductor structure located between the evaporator 2 and the substrate 3, the damper 4, which in the mode of formation of poluprovodnikov patterns shifted and which will offer the access to the substrate 3 evaporated from the source 2 to the particles. Near the evaporator 2 from the side (second side)opposite to the side facing the substrate 3, a receiver 5 charged particles. In the simplest scenario, the receiver 5 is made in the form of a plate of refractory metal (tungsten, molybdenum and others).

The evaporator 2 is connected to the power 6 power, executed, managed and powered from the mains via a mains switch 7. 5 receiver of the charged particles is connected to the negative terminal of source 8 accelerating voltage, the positive terminal of which is connected with the resistor 9, the second end of which is grounded.

Scheme of automatic stabilization of resistive evaporation source includes serially connected is connected to the resistance 9 and the amplifier 10, the device 11 comparison and the imaging unit 12 of the control signal, the output of which is connected with a controlled input unit 6. The second input device 11 of comparison is connected to the source 13 of the reference signal.

Auto stop formation process on the substrate 3 a layer of sputtered material of a specified thickness, you can use the timer 14 is connected to the network switch 7.

The block 15 is the power source of the heater (not shown) of the substrate 3.

Stabilization of the resistive evaporation source 2 is as follows.

At the initial moment of lying is neither the evaporator 2 is connected to the unit 6 for heating it to a temperature in which the evaporation material of the evaporator 2, the valve 4 is in position overlying the access of particles evaporated from the source 2, on the substrate 3. Simultaneously with the evaporation of neutral atoms and molecules from the surface of the evaporator 2 due to thermionic emission of evaporated ions, which in the space of the evaporator 2 - 5 receiver form the ion current is fed to the receiver 5 accelerating potential 100-300 In from the source 8. Due to the occurrence of ionic current across the resistance 9 appears the voltage used in the future as a reference to maintain the ion current constant. Then to the unit 15 connects the heater substrate 3 is heated to the desired temperature, turn the timer 14, the flap 4 is translated into a position that allows access to the particles evaporated from the source 2, on the substrate 3, and begins the process of deposition of the film on the substrate 3.

The voltage across the resistor 9 in the initial moment of time corresponds to the temperature of the evaporator 2 and, consequently, the speed of the evaporation source 2.

In order to avoid increasing the rate of evaporation of the evaporator 2 when reduced in size due to evaporation is reduced, the current flowing through the evaporator 2, while maintaining a constant ion current between the source 2 and the receiver 3. For this purpose, the voltage across the resistance is tion 9, proportional to the ion current, after amplification by amplifier 10 is supplied to the device 11 comparison, which it is compared with a reference voltage corresponding to the voltage across the resistor 9 in the initial moment of time, and the differential signal output device 11 is supplied to the imaging unit 12 of the control signal, which controls the block 6, which reduces the current flowing through the evaporator 2.

Upon reaching the time required to obtain a layer of a semiconductor structure of a given thickness, the timer 14 outputs a signal to the network switch 7 to turn off the unit 6 power.

Thus, in the inventive installation is to stabilize the rate of evaporation, contributing to the production of high-quality semiconductor structures with reproducible parameters, which is especially important when used as the sprayed materials doped with impurity. The dispersion of the formed film thickness is less than 6 nm when the film thickness of 0.3 μm.

The invention can also be used to control the concentration of dopant in the film forming semiconductor structures, in particular, on the basis of silicon. Resistive evaporation of the silicon wafer is formed a flow of ions Si+the number of which depends on the temperature resistance of the silicon source and the constant CA is orauser the potential on the substrate can be easily controlled by the magnitude of the ion current.

The inventive installation is useful for evaporation of silicon, at the same time, it is also applicable to the evaporation of other materials, which are characterized by thermionic or emission, including for evaporation of metals.

Scheme stabilize the rate of evaporation can be used in installations with evaporation of the sprayed material from the crucible heated by an electron beam. During the evaporation of particles from the melt part of them is exposed to electrons and ionized. This flow of ions depends on the flux of atoms evaporated substances and can also be controlled.

1. Installation of vacuum deposition, containing connected to the power supply resistive evaporated source material facing the first side to the substrate on which is formed the semiconductor structure, and control means, wherein the control means includes a receiver of the charged particles, is connected to the negative terminal of the accelerating voltage source, and a resistance connected to the positive terminal of the accelerating voltage source, and the receiver of the charged particles is directed to the second side of the evaporated source material.

2. Install vacuum deposition according to claim 1, characterized in that the receiver of the charged particles is made in the form of a plate of Tugolukov the metal.

3. Install vacuum deposition according to claim 1, characterized in that it introduced connected in series-connected resistance of the amplifier, the power comparison with the reference voltage and the driver control signal, and the PSU is managed, controlled input connected to the output driver control signal.

4. Install vacuum deposition according to claim 1, characterized in that the power supply through a power switch connected to the timer.



 

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4 cl, 1 dwg

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