Method of increasing efficiency of aerobic waste water treatment
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in biological and physical-and-chemical treatment of waste water or in industrial water supply. The method is realised via aeration, sorption and oxidation of contaminants in starting waste water on charge material. The charge material used is dispersed natural schungite mineral which is added at the same time as the waste water to be treated and/or into an aerobic bioreactor. Contaminants are oxidised by dissolved oxygen directly on the surface of schungite and by microorganisms immobilised on the charge material.
EFFECT: high efficiency of treatment.
2 tbl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the field of wastewater treatment aeration and can be used in biological and physico-chemical wastewater or industrial water supply.
The known method of aerobic biological treatment of wastewater in the bioreactor with immobilized microorganisms. As the boot process efficiency aeration and microbial oxidation of contaminants in the bioreactor using quartz sand, dolomite material, activated carbon, solid substrates coal (Application Germany N 3917595, CL C02F 3/06, 1990).
A disadvantage of the known method are the increased costs due to the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen due to the use of insufficient downloads, which requires greater power consumption for additional aeration.
There is also known a method of aerobic wastewater treatment carried out in the presence of the rolling carrier of microorganisms in the form of a porous polymer or copolymer material containing 5-60% activated carbon with a density less than a density of the flowing cleaning liquid with activated sludge and aeration oxygen-containing gas with the subsequent removal of the aeration tank treated water and free of sludge and holding him as carriers of microorganisms developed NAU is but-production environmental enterprise "Ecopolis" (Patent of the Russian Federation 2039013 C1, C02F 3/08, 1992).
The disadvantage of this method of water purification for the Patent of the Russian Federation 2039013 C1 are higher costs for the process due to its high content (5-60%) rolling carrier of microorganisms in the form of activated carbon and the need for subsequent discharge from the sludge mixture and return to the process.
Closest to the proposed method is a method of aerobic wastewater treatment by adsorption and oxidation of immobilized microorganisms in the suspended layer of the boot material in the form of coal, clinoptilolite, crushed limestone and other (RF Patent 2079447, C02F 3/02, 1994).
The disadvantage adopted for the prototype method aerobic wastewater treatment are increased costs for the implementation of the whole process, due to the use of inefficient and costly downloads.
The purpose of the claimed invention - improving the efficiency of the process of aerobic wastewater treatment by reducing costs for aeration.
This objective is achieved in that in the known method of aerobic wastewater treatment, including the supply of wastewater, aeration, sorption and oxidation of impurities on the boot material as the boot material dispersed use natural mineral shungite, which is introduced simultaneously with the purified waste water and/or in eobny bioreactor, and oxidation of the contaminants are dissolved oxygen directly on the surface of shungite and immobilized on the boot material by microorganisms.
The method is as follows.
Raw water containing impurities, is fed into the aeration zone. In the source water or directly in the aeration zone is entered dispersed boot material in the form of natural material shungite. In the zone of aeration is the sorption and oxidation of contaminants dissolved oxygen directly on the surface of shungite and immobilized on the boot material by microorganisms.
Example 1. Water contaminated with inorganic compound, sodium sulfite, having a pH of 7.5 and temperature of 20°C, were subjected to purification by aeration in the aerobic reactor of 300 DM3when the height of the water layer of 0.45 m and air flow rate Q=130 l/min by the claimed method and manner of the prototype. Purification of water from sodium sulfite were at a concentration of boot materials 1.0 g per 1 l, with the introduction of them into the bioreactor.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the process led by the ratio of mass transfer of oxygen and the cost of the boot material (table 1).
|Indicators of process wastewater is water aeration from inorganic impurities|
|Name||Wastewater treatment method with the boot material|
|shungite||without downloading||Leca||clinoptilolite||asset-th coal|
|The mass transfer coefficient, h-1||15.61||11.56||7.20||8.17||5.36|
|The cost of loading, RUB/t||32000||-||15000||24600||85000|
The inventive method (table 1) mass transfer coefficient effective way with the boot material for the prototype. Cost of the boot material costs are higher on the clay and activated carbon, than shungite, but lower than on the sand. The way with stones on the mass transfer coefficient effective way to prototype with expanded clay (15.61/7.2) at 2.17 times. This means that to achieve an equal effect with the claimed method is trebuetsya in 2.17 times more load on the prototype, ie (2.17×15000) 32550 rubles, i.e. the cost of materials, the inventive method is more effective because it corresponds to the purpose of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the process of aerobic wastewater treatment by reducing costs for aeration.
Example 2. Domestic waste water after grates and sand trap having a pH of 7.5 and temperature of 20°C, were subjected to purification in the aerobic reactor of 300 DM3when the height of the water layer 0.45 m and air flow rate Q=130 l/min with a biomass concentration of 2 g/l of dry matter of the claimed method and manner of the prototype. Treatment is conducted at a concentration of boot materials 1.0 g per 1 liter when introducing them in the original wastewater. The process evaluation conducted on the amount of dissolved oxygen at a cost of 1 kilowatt hour of electricity (table 2).
|The amount of oxygen produced during the purification of domestic wastewater at 1 kilowatt hour of electricity|
|Name||Wastewater treatment method with the boot material|
|shungite||without downloading||Leca||the sand||asset-th coal|
|Oxygen, KGO2/ kW×h||0.1||0.057||0.050||0.047||0.021|
|Efficiency (shungite / other material)||1||1.75||2.0||2.13||4.77|
From the data of table 2 should significant economic efficiency of the energy costs for implementation of the proposed method, which is also consistent with the objectives of the invention.
The way aerobic wastewater treatment, including the supply of wastewater, aeration, sorption and oxidation of impurities on the boot material, characterized in that as the boot material dispersed use natural mineral shungite, which is injected simultaneously with the purified waste water and/or aerobic bioreactor, and the oxidation of the impurities are dissolved oxygen directly on the surface of shungite and immobilized it by microorganisms.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for biological treatment of domestic waste water and industrial waste water of similar composition, and can be used in public utilities and on industrial plants. The station for two-step biological treatment of waste water according to the first version has a cylindrical shape and comprises a production building 28 and a block of process reservoirs, which is divided into four process segments with possibility of independent parallel operation of their process lines which are in form of radial channels. The process reservoirs of each segment represent: a pre-anoxide zone 4, an anaerobic zone 3, an anoxide zone 5, a highly-loaded aerotank-mixer 6, a two-step thin-layer desilter device 8, an aerotank-nitrifier-displacer 13, a settler-clarifier 15, a pre-filter with a charge 21, a rapid filter with a suspended layer of granular charge 25 and a thin-layer settler. The two-step desilter 8 in the first version employs the principle of counter-flow of a sludge mixture in shelves of the thin-layer elements, having a different shape of the inter-shelf section. In the second version, the station comprises a production building and a block of process reservoirs, in which there are two rectangular sections arranged in parallel with possibility of their independent parallel operation. The composition of the treatment process lines of the second version is identical to that of the first version. The difference is the use of a two-step thin-layer desilter with direction of movement of the sludge mixture based on the principle of descending and ascending streams.
EFFECT: separation of processes of oxidising carbon-containing substances and nitrogen of ammonium salts in series-arranged separate process reservoirs.
17 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates treatment and decontamination of whatever effluents and may be used in treatment plants of minor settlements, cottages and camps, educational and medical centers, etc. Proposed system comprises settler with thin-layer modules, high-rate trickling filter with granular packing, plasma chemical reactor with HV pulse generator with pulse repetition frequency of 0.1-0.2 Hz, wells communicated with pipelines, manifolds and sewage pump station, grids, sand trap, catalytic electrochemical reactor, biological pond with compressor and botanical site with higher aquatic vegetation, clean water pump station, manifolds to feed cleaned water into filtration trenches. Catalytic electrochemical reactor is composed of standard high-rate trickling filter with distribution and collection system. Filter packing represents alternating and screen-isolated electrically negative granulated material, for example, manganese-alumina catalyst AOK-7541 and electrically positive carbon-bearing granulated material, for example, active carbon AC-3.
EFFECT: closed-circuit nonpolluting water supply system, reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of residential waste water and may be used in minor residential areas, cottage settlements, camps, etc, as well as settlements located in permafrost zones. Proposed plant comprises effluents feed pipeline, grating, sand trap, primary settler, disc biofilter, secondary settler, decontamination assembly made up of contact reservoir and active chlorine generator arranged there ahead, sand and silt sites, drainage pump station, dechlorination assembly, biological ponds, botanic site, pump station to feed cleaned water to residential area, and filtration trenches for soil irrigation purposes. Disc biological filter comprises alternating perforated biodiscs from electropositive and electronegative materials, aluminium and copper respectively. Area of perforation makes 10-20% of biodiscs area.
EFFECT: closed-circuit water treatment system, higher efficiency of cleaning.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbons are removed at the stage of waste flotation cleaning. Then water waste with pH within 7.5 to 12 units is discharged from flotation cleaning, perform reactant treatment by carbon-dioxide gas and sulphur acid with its following supply into stripping-tower equipped with live reflux at the top or circulating upper refluxing and direct supply of water vapour into the cube. Note that carbon-dioxide gas and waste is supplied into agitator equipped with the nozzle that depending upon the quality of initial waste by sulphide sulphur operates either in saturation mode, when carbon-dioxide gas consumption is maintained from condition of obtaining balanced gas saturation of the waste or adsorption with stripping gas discharge from the agitator and its supply directly to the column. Discharged waste cleaned from sulphide sulphur and ammonia nitrogen is directed to the biological cleaning. Acid gas is directed to obtainment of elemental sulphur.
EFFECT: method provides optimal conditions of water wastes cleaning from ammonia nitrogen by sulphide sulphur content that meet the requirements of biological treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to treat household waste water or waste water with similar composition to household waste water, concentrated with organic contaminants. In order to realise the method, initial waste water undergoes mechanical treatment with extraction of dispersed mechanical impurities. The obtained water undergoes anaerobic treatment with content of dissolved oxygen not higher than 1 mg/l, followed by aerobic treatment using free-flowing sludge with concentration of 4-6 g/l with content of dissolve oxygen of 2-4 mg/l. After intermediate settling, the formed water-sludge mixture undergoes floatation in the presence of a bioreagent containing a culture of Zoogloea bacteria and Chlorella algae, immobilised on a metal support, followed by final settling. The obtained treated water is taken for decontamination. The residue after intermediate and final settling, which contains active sludge, is recirculated for anaerobic treatment. The excess active sludge undergoes aerobic stabilisation, followed by mechanical drying. The method is realised in a single block-modular structure, fitted with aeration, airlifting and recirculation systems.
EFFECT: invention enables to cut treatment time and volume of the formed residues, increase degree of purification of waste water from contaminants to the maximum allowable concentration set for water bodies for fishing purposes.
1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: system for biological filtration of man-made and natural water bodies has a regeneration zone in form of an artificially made natural filter for removing dirt and biological contaminants. Depending on the configuration of the regeneration zone, the filter has a wall or a shaft made from large rocks and/or blocks of insoluble rocks which form a reservoir filled with layers of granite gravel, crushed rock and screenings of fractions ranging from coarse to fine, as well as fine fractions of sand and schungite screenings. The layers are interlaid with geotextile. Mats on which Microzim bacteria are grown are laid. Pond water and coastal plants capable of cleaning water are grown on the surface of the regeneration zone. A plate-like water inlet is installed in the lower part of the system, said inlet being connected to a pump such that as water from the water body falls in the regeneration zone, is passes through all layers from top to bottom. The regeneration zone can be made in coastal places. The filtration area can be 1/3 of the water body.
EFFECT: invention facilitates self-treatment of a water body for several years while maintaining the natural balance.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in mining industry during transportation, benefication and procurement metallic ore and mining metal ore. The method involves the following stages: a) at the first treatment step (I), hydrogen sulphide is passed through waste water and heavy metals contained in the waste water are removed in form of sulphides, b) at the second treatment step (II), calcium sulphate is precipitated from waste water, c) calcium sulphate from the second treatment step (II) is removed and part of the calcium sulphate is taken for a third treatment step (III), where sulphate is converted to hydrogen sulphide using sulphate-reducing bacteria, d) hydrogen sulphide formed at the third treatment step is returned to treatment step (I). In the preferred version, calcium aluminate is used to precipitate sulphates.
EFFECT: method simplifies the process of treating waste water and recycling the formed residues.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to saturation of various gas, liquid, gel, solid, also powdery and mixed media with ingredients released by vegetation plants, and may be used to improve environment of offices, living quarters, water reservoirs, and also in food industry, pharmaceutics, fishing industry and agriculture, also to improve quality of air in premises, to make drinks, food products and additives, medicines, perfumes and cosmetics, for inhalations, taking baths, increasing stability and productivity of fish, other useful species and microorganisms, and also to prepare agents for plants treatment. The method of medium treatment is disclosed by its saturation with useful substances released by plants, including supply of gaseous media into a chamber with vegetating or cut plants and sending the gaseous medium saturated with phytoextracts through the treated media, besides, periodically reduced pressure or alternating low and high pressure of the specified gaseous medium is developed in the chamber with vegetating or cut plants, and a device to treat medium by means of its saturation with useful substances released by plants, comprising a facility to inject the gaseous medium, a chamber for vegetating or cut plants connected with an appropriate pipeline to the specified facility at the suction side, besides, the specified facility at the injection side is communicated with at least one receptacle of the treated medium, where the chamber for vegetating or cut plants is connected with an appropriate pipeline also to the injection facility at the injection side.
EFFECT: increased release of phytoextracts by plants, and also, if required, maintenance of high intensity of this process with further reduction of exposure level by stimulating factors of environment.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes detoxication of waste water residue with a humic reagent taken in amount from 0.3 wt % to 10.0 wt % per dry substance of waste water residue. Additionally the product of waste water residue detoxication with humic reagent is treated with a preparation of biologically active microorganisms taken in amount from 0.05 l to 1.00 l per ton of dry substance of waste water residue.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase efficiency of method for production of organo-mineral fertiliser due to reduction of content of inorganic and organic toxicants in it, and due to their additional disinfection, to stabilise used residue of waste water, to eliminate rotting and unpleasant odour.
6 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment and can be used to biologically disinfect domestic waste water. The disinfection process is carried out in aerated containers in three steps. At the first step, household effluent is mixed with active sludge in a bioreactor 1 under the following conditions: active sludge volume from 20 to 60%, contact time 90 minutes, oxygen concentration not less than 3 mg/l. At the second step, the stream of household effluent and active sludge are mixed with fresh active sludge and industrial effluent in ratio 45:10:45 in a mixer 2. At the third step, new portions of active sludge and industrial effluent act on the treated stream of household effluent in an aerotank 3 such that, the volume of the active sludge in the aerotank 3 is kept not less than 60%.
EFFECT: invention enables to disinfect household effluent and achieve degree of purity which meets sanitary-hygienic and environmental requirements for discharge into water bodies.
5 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment and can be used in biological purification plants and post-treatment of household waste water or some other waste water with similar composition. The biomass carrier 3 - brush polymer elements are attached to holders 2. The holders 2 on all sides are fitted with a protective shield 4, which is primarily made in form of a mesh fabric. Waste water is fed into a bioreactor. The water being treated circulates through holders 2 and comes into contact with the immobilised biomass fixed on the carrier 3.
EFFECT: invention improves working capacity of the bioreactor, reduces the cost of the process.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to waste water treatment and can be used in chemical and biological industry. Biological treatment of liquid is carried out in reactor 100. Reactor 100 has packing layers 102, the first layer consisting of hollow elements 120 and the second consisting of porous carrier elements with 6-8 pores per centimetre. The stream of liquid is fed into the reactor 100 through a distributor 130. Gas is fed through a diffuser 138. The purified liquid comes out through an outlet 134.
EFFECT: invention enables to avoid excess penetration of the liquid through the reactor, increases degree of purity of the liquid.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: working element for loading a biofilter has a corrugated sheet 1, having slits 2 lying in groups 3 across the sheet 1, and the direction of the slits 2 coincides with the longitudinal direction of the sheet 1. In each group 3 of slits in parts of the sheet 1 lying between two neighbouring slits there are corrugations of different height. The face of each corrugation is mated with a ridge which lies in approximately the same plane for each group of corrugations. The part of the sheet 7 between two neighbouring groups of corrugations does not have slits. The slits can also be paired on the faces of the corrugations of the sheet or on two neighbouring faces, wherein parts of corrugations lying between paired slits are depressed relative the faces.
EFFECT: high efficiency of biochemical treatment of waste water, low material consumption and high total surface area without increase in weight.
7 cl, 14 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: textile, cotton.
SUBSTANCE: this invention refers to the materials used as carriers of the active bio mass for the water procession, mainly the procession of industrial and domestic waste waters. Bio mass carrier material is made as a nonwoven fabric of the bound with each other by the needle puncturing and/or by the thermally chemisorption, bicomponent and polypropylene synthetic fibres with the linear density from 0.9 to 6.8 dtex. A nonwoven fabric is a three-layer structure, two external layer whereof contains polypropylene or the mixture of bicomponent and polypropylene fibres. The internal layer contains chemisorption fibres. Chemisorption fibres are unreclaimable waste of the initial procession and combing. Additionally, the ration of the surface density of the layers is 1:1:1.
EFFECT: invention improves the active characteristics of the materials in respect of the sorption of different polluting components contained in the waste waters.
4 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices used for purifying waste water. The bioreactor has a container with at least one opening through which waste water to be purified flows. Inside the container there is filler material with large volume of pores and a mixture of microorganisms which decompose organic contaminants. The mixture of microorganisms contains photosynthetically active microorganisms and luminescent microorganisms. The mixture also contains nanoparticles.
EFFECT: provision for reliable decomposition of organic contaminants in a relatively unsophisticated reactor.
23 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises helical-spiral adapter 1 made from polymer material selected from materials that feature cushioning properties. Top part of adapter 1 is attached to upper assembly 2 that features average specific density smaller than that of effluents. Note that lower part of adapter 1 is attached directly to reservoir bottom or to lower assembly 3 that features average specific density smaller than that of effluents.
EFFECT: increased specific surface of biofouling.
10 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns medium for removal or reduction of non-organic nitrogen compounds, particularly nitrates, from biological aquaculture water, represented by biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer, and direct application of the medium in aquariums for plant and fish cultivation in aerobic environment. In preferable version, polycaprolactone is added to bottom ground in pellet form in amount from 20 g to 200 g per 100 litres of aquaculture water in aerobic conditions. Bottom ground consists of gravel with particle size from 1 to 8 mm, while poly caprolactone is added to aquaculture water in powder, powder suspension, paste composition or large-scale coating form. Biodegradable PCL polymer is added to aquaculture water in amount of 5 to 20 mg per litre of water. Filtering medium for biological aquaculture water applied directly in aquariums under aerobic conditions contains PCL. Filtering medium is preferably used in the form of homogeneous mix of filtering material, such as gravel with particle size from 2 to 5 mm, and PCL in amount from 25 to 75 volume %.
EFFECT: application of polycaprolactone in biological aquaculture water under aerobic conditions ensures almost continuous denitrification.
FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: device includes case 1, housing 2, drive 3, grid, made in form of rotating hollow-body drum 4 with spacings 3mm, through which sewage water is filtered, discharge pipe 5, rake 6, made with special knives, fitting drum side and removing refuse from it, slope 7, tray 8 and container 9. Inside case 1 in housing 2 conductometer sensor of liquid level is installed, due to which device operates in automatic mode.
EFFECT: simplification of construction and improvement of processed sewage water quality and possibilities of device servicing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aeration devices of minor purification installations used in separate small houses, cottages and country houses. The device contains capacity 1, biological loading, a sewage feed branch pipe, an air feed system including compressor 2 with distribution valve 3, small-bubble aerator 10 consisting of horizontal pipe 12 with a micro-punched elastic cover and a feed pipeline connected to the air feed system. Every biological loading is made in the form of section 4 and consists of, at least, two vertically arranged frames 5 with flexible spear-like structural elements 6 interconnected by racks 7. Every top frame 5 is furnished with floats 8 arranged at its top part and connected with cross-beams 9, while small-bubble aerators 10 are fixed on the bottom frames 5 and attached to the lower part of each biological loading 4 by racks 7. Every small-bubble aerator 10 is furnished with a cylindrical sinker located coaxially inside a horizontal pipe filled with a material with density considerably exceeding that of a liquid in the aforesaid capacity. Small-bubble aerators 10 are connected by means of air ducts 11 with distribution valve 3 and compressor 2.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of sewage purification and simpler design.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the sewage biochemical purification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field the sewage biological purification by the methods of the biochemical oxidation of the organic substances in the aerotank-displacer. The method provides for after-oxidization of the organic substances in the three-stage bioreactor of the after-purification with the active sludge return from the first stage of the bioreactor of the after-purification into the head of the sewage disposal plants. The first stage of the bioreactor of the after-purification is the aerated stage with the intensity of aeration of no less than 3 m3/m2·h, and the fibrous carriers of the biomass in the cartridges are disposed in the staggered order. On the first stage of the bioreactor of after-purification use the fibrous carriers of the biomass with the percent share of the polyamide fibers with the diameter of more than 200 microns - 100 %, and on the second and third stages - the percent share of the polyamide fibers with the diameter of more than 200 microns do not exceed 80 %. The technical result of the invention is the increase of the oxidative power of the facilities of the biochemical purification without any increase of their volume, provision of the stable operation of the facilities at variations of the hydraulic loading and the sharp jumps of the concentrations of the toxic compounds at the inlet of the sewage purification plants.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased oxidization power of the the biochemical purification facilities without any increase of their volume, provision of the stable operation of the facilities at variations of the hydraulic loading and the sharp jumps of the concentrations of the toxic compounds at the inlet of the sewage purification plants.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial effluents. Oil products are separated in separators 3, 4 and afterpurified in ultra filtration unit 10. Clarified alkaline effluents are directed into electrolytic cells 13. alkali is concentrated in electrolytic cell cathode chamber 14 while sulphides are reduced to elementary sulfur in anode chamber 15. Concentrated alkali and sulfur are discharged into service bins 17, 20, respectively. Downstream of electrolytic cells 13, effluents are treated in reverse-osmosis unit 22. Purified water is collected in tanks 23. Concentrate is fed back into tank 21 for clarification.
EFFECT: alkali recover, water purification and elementary sulfur without use of extra reagents.
2 cl, 1 dwg