Using photopolymerisable compositions to connect light guides, method of connecting light guides and device for realising said method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: photopolymerisable composition contains a polymerisable component, e.g., a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and a reducing agent, e.g., an amine, with the following ratio of components, pts.wt: polymerisable component 100, ortho-quinones 0.005-0.1, reducing agent 0.5-10.0, for connecting light guides. The invention also relates to a method and a device for connecting light guides using said composition.

EFFECT: use of the present invention simplifies, speeds up and reduces the cost of connecting light guides, and enables to achieve higher quality.

11 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to fiber optics and concerns the application photopolymerizable compositions for connectione of LEDs with the core having a higher refractive index. The invention also concerns the development of the method connectione of LEDs using photopolymerizable compositions and devices for implementing this method.

Fiber-optic communication line (FOCL) is a type of communication system in which information is transmitted by optical dielectric waveguides, known as "optical fiber" or "fiber". Fiber-optic network is an information network, connecting elements between nodes which are fiber-optic line. When mounting the optical communication channels have to deal with the problem of direct connection of optical fibers, because of technological length of the optical fiber is usually not exceed a few kilometers. The actual length of the lines has a length of tens to hundreds of times greater. In the optical cable may damage the fibers under the influence of aggressive environmental factors or the result of the activity of rodents. In this case, replacement of the entire process of the segment of cable is impractical. Rational is the restoration of damaged fiber is the local point. However, connectiona fibers in the field is challenging enough. To the connection of optical fibers are increased requirements, which must ensure the reliability of the connection, and therefore the whole system. It is important that this connection was easy and affordable.

Today mostly used 2 ways to connect optical fibers: detachable and non-detachable. Depending on quality requirements, reliability, mobility, all-in-one connection of the individual optical fibers are three methods of gluing, welding and the use of mechanical connectors.

When gluing the fibers transverse homogeneity (index of refraction) of the formed adhesive layer leads to the necessity of providing a thin gap between the carefully prepared by the ends of spliced optical fibers and their precise positioning. The procedure for installing the connector on adhesive technology contains about two dozen technology operations and in General consists of the preparation of optical fiber fixing the optical fiber inside the connector adhesive composition, removing excess fibers, grinding and polishing. The need for careful implementation of these procedures related to the fact that homogeneous refractive index insert gradient in the fiber can significantly change the modal composition of the propagating therein radiation and lead to energy losses.

A similar defect waveguide channel arise when welding optical fibers. The mentioned method is essential when creating splitters and adders radiation (see, for example, RF patents №№2046383, publ. 20.10.1995,, 2104569, publ. 10.02.1998 year). Welding optical fibers based on the fusion of optical fibers by an electric arc, with their subsequent connection. To perform this operation using a special welding machines. Their main difference lies in the methods used, precise alignment of the welded fibers. Although welding is the quality of the permanent connection of the fiber to its implementation requires expensive equipment and highly qualified personnel (see, for example, patent RF №2056061, publ. 10.03.1996 year).

Currently, widespread mechanical method of connecting optical fibers by using the so-called splices (splice, see, for example, patent RF №2182345, publ. 21.02.1997 year). The simplest splice is an elongated structure with a channel for input of the bonded fibers. Fiber is served from opposite ends. The channel itself may contain a gel to fill the gaps between the fibers. After contact of the fibers usually additionally produce their mechanical fixation due to different latches. The attenuation signal is La, made in such compounds, more than at welding, but less than when connecting using conventional optical connectors. In addition, unlike welded splices, splices allow multiple use and do not require a large space to perform the operation, which is important when working inside small structures. In General, introduced by playsam loss is not more than 0.2 dB.

But the achievement of these quality indicators is only possible with the use of special tools for the manufacture of high-quality chips fiber and precision polished ends of the optical fibers. All the above methods of connecting optical fibers fundamentally violate the transverse gradient distribution of refractive index in place of joining optical fibers. In addition, they are time-consuming, long time, require precise and expensive equipment, highly qualified personnel.

The proposed method of solving the problem of connectione optical fibers allows forming polymer connector with gradient distribution profile of the refractive index, consistent with optical fiber under the action of light radiation emerging from the ends of spliced optical fibers in the process of photopolymerization.

Known photopolymerizable composition is I, including polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and reducing agent, for example amine), which is used to obtain copies relief of precision optical surfaces type microrasbora, relief-phase holograms, Fresnel lenses, code disks made on light-sensitive materials, as well as for obtaining variety of decorative materials, color and lighting effects (see RF patent №2138070, MKI G03H 1/20. publ, 20.09.1999,, bull. No. 26).

The task, which is aimed by the invention is the achievement of higher quality due to the fact that eliminates the violation of the geometry of the fiber at the interface as, for example, during welding, due to the formation of the transverse gradient of the refractive index of the core and shell of the fiber at the interface. At the same time, the task easier, faster and cheaper way of connectione optical fibers by reducing the number of operations, such as grinding the end faces of optical fibers and their precise longitudinal positioning, and also by eliminating the need to use high-precision and expensive equipment.

This problem is solved due to the fact that optical formation connecterra elements of the light flux propagating from t rcov standard optical fibers, used photopolymerizable composition including a polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and reducing agent such as amine, in the following ratio of components, parts: polymerization-capable component - 100, ortho-quinones - 0,005-0,1, reducing agent is 0.5 to 10.0.

As orthogonal composition may contain orthobenzoquinone formula:

where R1=H, alkyl With1-C4, Ph; R2=H, Me, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br, NO2; R3=H, alkyl (C3-C4, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br; R4=H, alkyl (C1-C4, Cl, Br, NO2.

As orthobenzoquinone composition may contain orthobenzoquinone formula:

where R1=H, t - Bu; R2=H, MeO; R3=H, MeO; R4=H, t - Bu.

As orthinine composition may contain xanthine formula

and derived tetrahydronaphthalene formula:

The composition may further comprise an initiator of thermopolymerization, inert with respect to the regenerating agent, in amounts of from 0.2 to 10.0 parts

The composition may further contain polymeric additives, such as polymethylmethacrylate, datril, polyvinyl chloride, in the amount of 1.0 to 50 parts

This task is PE is also highlighted by that the developed method connectorbase optical fibers, whereby the ends of the optical fibers is introduced into a reactor filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition, the composition of which is given above, Orient the fibers facing each other and record their abutting ends by any distance not exceeding the area of geometric optics for initiating beams emerging from the joined ends of the optical fibers, and then in the opposite ends of the optical fibers enter the originating monochromatic radiation of the visible spectrum wavelength of not more than 650 nm (preferably 500-650 nm) and carry out the irradiation of the composition in the gap between the abutting ends of optical fibers within the time required for the formation of nonuniform refractive index of the connector.

In a preferred embodiment, in the case of connectione standard optical fibers with core diameter of 10 μm abutting ends of the fibers are oriented opposite each other, while not required precision of contact between the end faces to each other, and the distance between them can be up to 200 microns.

This problem can be solved also due to the fact that the developed device for connectorbase fibers containing the reactor, providing a transverse self-positioning ends of spliced optical fibers and filled with liquid photopolymerizable HDMI is on, which of the above hosting connectively the fiber end faces, two laser source visible range with a wavelength of not more than 650 nm, the radiation which initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the fibers, and the system sets the exposure time and quality control connector, which includes a source of laser radiation with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, the sensor controlling the radiation and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers located at the end of the fiber, and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating radiation and output controlling radiation located on the end of the second fiber.

In the preferred embodiment, for implementing a mode of positioning itself ends of the connected optical fibers and, accordingly, facilitate technology connectorbase the reactor is made in the form of a tubular capillary with an inner diameter, pozvoliaushie to enter abutting optical fibers without axial displacement. In the case of reactor geometry which does not provide positioning itself spliced optical fibers, it is necessary to use an additional device for positioning.

In the preferred embodiment, as the optical systems one is belt driven input initiating and controlling radiation and concurrent input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation can be used to open the optical system, consisting of lenses and semi-transparent mirrors or fiber optic splitters.

In the preferred embodiment, to minimize light losses, the wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line. This is necessary in order to accurately determine the time of formation connectionuser channel specifically for the working wavelength.

As optical systems of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation and concurrent input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation can be used to open the optical system consisting of lenses and semi-transparent mirrors or fiber optic splitters.

The photodetector may comprise a photodiode, an input window of which, to prevent the initiating radiation, closed optical filter, which transmits only control the emission wavelength of more than 650 nm.

This control system and its operating algorithms allow you to automatically set the exposure time of the composition.

The novelty of the claimed invention is identified empirically property known compositions to implement the modes of the self formation of a thin optical beam source with significant diffraction raskhodimost the Yu and the formation of light ausiralia polymeric waveguide structures. This property provides the ability to connect the optical fibers in the layer photopolymerizable composition radiation of the visible range, which is injected into the connecting fibers. In the connecting element is an optical formation of a refractive index gradient along the radius profile. The connecting element is a polymeric connector, which is a polymeric structure, which has a larger refractive index in the core of the waveguide channel and less on its periphery. This structure is obtained with the use of known composition.

The depth of polymerization photopolymerizable composition, and hence its refractive index is determined by the dose impinging optical radiation. It was found experimentally that the optimum is the introduction into the opposite ends of the optical fibers of the initiating laser radiation in the visible range of the spectrum with a wavelength of less than 650 nm. When the wavelength of the initiating radiation more than 650 nm polymerization is not. In the preferred embodiment, this value is 500-600 nm for the maximum speed of photopolymerization and, accordingly, formation of the connector with the core having a higher refractive index compared with the peripheral region of the connector.

To determine the time of formation to the of nectar at the end of a single optical fiber simultaneously with the initiating radiation injected controls the laser light with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, exposure photopolymerizable composition are to maximize the intensity transmitted through the connection controlling laser radiation, indicating about the formation of a stable to a working radiation connector.

For the establishment of an efficient connector wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line.

The sources of information, including patent and scientific literature, the authors claimed invention was not found using photopolymerizable compositions for connectorbase optical fibers.

There is a method of using photopolymerizable composition in fiber optic systems for forming microlenses on the end faces of optical fibers (see RF patent №2312381, MKI G02B 6/26. publ. 10.02.2005 year). In the above-mentioned source describes how the matching of optical fibers with sources and detectors of radiation through focusing these lenses radiation in the region of the end faces of the optical fibers.

Example

Composition known photopolymerizable compositions described in the patent of Russian Federation №2138070.

According to the mentioned patent, the composition is prepared by dissolution of 0.02 parts of 3,6-di-tert-butyl benzoquinone-1,2 100 parts of purified inhibitor from α,ω-methacrylate-(b is ethylene glycol)-phthalate followed by the addition and thorough mixing 1 parts dimethylethanolamine. The finished composition after storage, air bubbles poured into a tubular reactor with an inner diameter equal to the thickness of the spliced fibers. Since the end of the fiber standard device is removed the area of the containment. Chop off a section of the fiber, leaving a protective sheath end of the fiber length approximately equal to half the length of the reactor. The same is done with other connected fiber. Fiber is fixed in the tube outside the terminals. In the opposite end faces of the optical fibers enter the emission of semiconductor lasers with a wavelength of 630 nm, with the end of a single optical fiber simultaneously with the initiating radiation injected controls the laser light with a wavelength of 1500 nm. The exposure is carried out to achieve the maximum intensity of the control laser radiation, indicating about the formation of effective connector. In accordance with the monitoring information being made of a polymeric connector losses do not exceed 0.2 dB.

1 shows a device for connectorbase optical fibers. The device comprises a reactor 1 is filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition which contains connectively the optical fibers 2 and 3, two of the initiating source of laser radiation 4 and 5, a control system that includes a laser light source 6 and fotop amnic 7, which consists of a photodiode 7a and filter 7b, which transmits only control the radiation and the optical system 8 simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers and the optical system 9 simultaneous input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation located at the end of the second fiber. The sources of the initiating radiation 4 and controlling the radiation 6 is embedded in the optical system 8, which is located at the end of the light guide 2. As mentioned above, at the end of the light guide 3 is an optical system 9. As noted above, 8 and 9 - open optical systems, each of which is composed of microlenses 8A and 9a, respectively, and semi-transparent mirrors 8b and 9b, respectively.

The device operates as follows. The reactor 1, is made in the form of a tubular capillary fill fluid photopolymerizable composition and place in it the abutting ends of the fibers 2 and 3, respectively. The sources of the initiating laser radiation 4 and 5 embedded in the optical system 8 and 9, disposed on opposite ends of the joined optical fibers 2 and 3, respectively. Radiation mentioned lasers simultaneously initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the optical fibers. Also simultaneously with the laser 4 and 5 include a power control) is ing 6, located at the end of the light guide 2, the radiation intensity which is recorded by the photodetector 7, located on nastechena the end of the light guide 3.

Initiating radiation emerging from the laser 4 and 5, passes through a semi-permeable mirror 8b and 9b, focused by the microlenses 8A and 9a on the ends nettiquete ends of the optical fibers 2 and 3, passes through the above-mentioned fibers and enters the reactor photopolymerizable composition. Under its influence in the gap between the joined optical fibers is formed of a polymeric connector 10. Simultaneously controlling the radiation emerging from the laser 6, is reflected from the surface of the semitransparent mirror 8b is focused by the microlens 8A at the end nastychenko the end of the optical fiber 2 passes through the light guide 2, forming the connector 10, the light guide 3, the microlens 9a and reflecting semi-transparent mirror 9b, enters the photodetector 7. To prevent the initiating radiation on the photodiode 7a of the input window is closed by the filter 7b, which transmits only control the emission wavelength of more than 650 nm. The achievement of the maximum value of the controlling radiation measured by the sensor, indicates the formation of a connector, then turn off the source of the initiating radiation 4 and 5.

Figure 2 shows a reactor 1 with photopolymerizable composition, is hosting the ends connectively optical fibers 2 and 3 and formed or forming polymer connector 10.

Made of polymeric connector losses do not exceed 0.2 dB.

In the invention illustrates the use photopolymerizable composition for forming optical connecterra elements of the light flux propagating from the ends of standard optical fibers.

A method of connectione optical fibers, according to which there is a formation of waveguide structures under the influence of light radiation emerging from the ends of the fiber, and in the process of photopolymerization forming a gradient distribution profile of the refractive index, consistent with the optical fiber. The depth of polymerization of the composition, and hence its refractive index is determined by the dose impinging optical radiation.

Developed device for connectorbase fiber optic cable, which provides the positioning of the ends of the optical fibers in the volume photopolymerizable composition, exposing the composition of the radiation emerging from the ends of the optical fibers, and the quality control of the forming of the connector and, accordingly, sets the time of irradiation of the composition.

1. Application photopolymerizable composition comprising polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, orthinine and a reducing agent such as amine, in the following ratio of the components is tov, parts: poliarizatsionnoy component 100, orthinine - 0,005-0,1, reducing agent is 0.5 to 10.0, for connectorbase optical fibers.

2. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as orthinine it contains orthobenzoquinone formula

where R1- H, alkyl C1-C4, Ph; R2- H, Me, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br, NO2; R3- H, alkyl C3-C4, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br; R4- H, alkyl C1-C4, Cl, Br, NO2.

3. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 2, characterized in that as orthobenzoquinone it contains orthobenzoquinone formula

where R1- H, t - Bu; R2- H, MeO; R3- H, MeO; R4- H, t - Bu.

4. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as orthinine it contains xanthine formula

and derived tetrahydronaphthalene formula

5. Application photopolymerizable composition according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that it further comprises the initiator of thermopolymerization, inert with respect to the regenerating agent, in amounts of from 0.2 to 10.0 parts

6. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 5, characterized in that it further comprises a polymeric additives, such as polymethylmethacrylate, dacre is, polyvinyl chloride, in the amount of 1.0 to 50 parts

7. How connectorbase optical fibers, whereby the ends of the optical fibers is introduced into a reactor filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition according to claims 1-6, Orient the fibers facing each other and record their abutting ends by any distance not exceeding the area of geometric optics for initiating beams emerging from the joined ends of the optical fibers, and then in the opposite end faces of optical fibers introduced simultaneously initiating monochromatic radiation of the visible spectrum wavelength of not more than 650 nm, preferably 500-650 nm, and carry out the irradiation of the composition in the gap between the abutting ends of optical fibers within the time required for the formation of nonuniform refractive index of the connector.

8. How connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 7, characterized in that when connectioni standard optical fibers with core diameter of 10 μm abutting ends of the fibers are oriented opposite each other and fixed at a distance not exceeding 200 microns.

9. Device for connectorbase fibers containing the reactor, providing a transverse self-positioning ends of spliced optical fibers and filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition according to claims 1-6, which is placed connectively the fiber end faces, two is a laser source visible range with a wavelength of not more than 650 nm, radiation which initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the fibers, and the system sets the exposure time and quality control connector, which includes a source of laser radiation with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, the sensor controlling the radiation and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers located at the end of the fiber, and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating radiation and output controlling radiation located at the end of the second fiber.

10. Device for connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 9, characterized in that the reactor is made in the form of a tubular capillary with an inner diameter that allows to introduce a spliced fiber without axial displacement.

11. Device for connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 9, characterized in that the wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line.



 

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11 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering .

SUBSTANCE: device for introduction of laser emission in fibre, which contains optical single-mode or multimode fibres equipped with microlenses that are shaped of transparent materials, differs because microlenses are made of optical glass, refractive exponent of which is higher than the refractive exponent of light conducting thread of fibre, in the shape of sphere that embraces light conducting thread at the end of fibre, and the end surface of fibre is made in the form of polished cylindrical surface, besides, axis of cylindrical surface intersects with fibre axis and is perpendicular to fibre axis.

EFFECT: increases coefficient of emission introduction and reduces dependency of introduction coefficient on misalignment.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of manufacturing lens in the shape of peaks on the end-faces of single-mode and multi-mode optical fibers.

SUBSTANCE: the manufacturing mode is in plotting drops of polymerized substance on the end-face plane of the fiber, radiation of the plotted drop with a source of light for realization light photo polymerization. At that before exposure they choose one or several desired modes subjecting the optical fiber to mechanical strains, at the stages of plotting the drop and radiation they execute control and management of the form and the sizes of the peak, before the radiation stage they hold out the mixture at the given temperature for achieving viscosity of the mixture which allows to get the needed height of the drop, regulate duration of exposure and/or intensity of the light for regulating the end radius of the curvature of the peak.

EFFECT: provides possibility to get peaks of different heights and different radiuses on the end-face planes of the optical fibers and also provides possibility to control the indicated parameters of the peaks in time of their manufacturing.

26 cl, 13 dwg

Optical element // 2213987
The invention relates to optoelectronics and can be used in the processing of optical information from the optical fiber measuring networks

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: electroconductive adhesive contains epoxy resin modified with an organosilicon compound in furyl glycidyl ether as binder, polyaminoamide as a hardener, nickel carbonyl powder modified with an amine as filler.

EFFECT: invention increases adhesion strength of electroconductive adhesive during shearing owing to fewer defects in the adhesive joint, use of nickel carbonyl powder modified with an amine ensures uniform distribution of particles in the volume.

1 tbl

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