Using photopolymerisable compositions to connect light guides, method of connecting light guides and device for realising said method
SUBSTANCE: photopolymerisable composition contains a polymerisable component, e.g., a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and a reducing agent, e.g., an amine, with the following ratio of components, pts.wt: polymerisable component 100, ortho-quinones 0.005-0.1, reducing agent 0.5-10.0, for connecting light guides. The invention also relates to a method and a device for connecting light guides using said composition.
EFFECT: use of the present invention simplifies, speeds up and reduces the cost of connecting light guides, and enables to achieve higher quality.
11 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
The invention relates to fiber optics and concerns the application photopolymerizable compositions for connectione of LEDs with the core having a higher refractive index. The invention also concerns the development of the method connectione of LEDs using photopolymerizable compositions and devices for implementing this method.
Fiber-optic communication line (FOCL) is a type of communication system in which information is transmitted by optical dielectric waveguides, known as "optical fiber" or "fiber". Fiber-optic network is an information network, connecting elements between nodes which are fiber-optic line. When mounting the optical communication channels have to deal with the problem of direct connection of optical fibers, because of technological length of the optical fiber is usually not exceed a few kilometers. The actual length of the lines has a length of tens to hundreds of times greater. In the optical cable may damage the fibers under the influence of aggressive environmental factors or the result of the activity of rodents. In this case, replacement of the entire process of the segment of cable is impractical. Rational is the restoration of damaged fiber is the local point. However, connectiona fibers in the field is challenging enough. To the connection of optical fibers are increased requirements, which must ensure the reliability of the connection, and therefore the whole system. It is important that this connection was easy and affordable.
Today mostly used 2 ways to connect optical fibers: detachable and non-detachable. Depending on quality requirements, reliability, mobility, all-in-one connection of the individual optical fibers are three methods of gluing, welding and the use of mechanical connectors.
When gluing the fibers transverse homogeneity (index of refraction) of the formed adhesive layer leads to the necessity of providing a thin gap between the carefully prepared by the ends of spliced optical fibers and their precise positioning. The procedure for installing the connector on adhesive technology contains about two dozen technology operations and in General consists of the preparation of optical fiber fixing the optical fiber inside the connector adhesive composition, removing excess fibers, grinding and polishing. The need for careful implementation of these procedures related to the fact that homogeneous refractive index insert gradient in the fiber can significantly change the modal composition of the propagating therein radiation and lead to energy losses.
A similar defect waveguide channel arise when welding optical fibers. The mentioned method is essential when creating splitters and adders radiation (see, for example, RF patents №№2046383, publ. 20.10.1995,, 2104569, publ. 10.02.1998 year). Welding optical fibers based on the fusion of optical fibers by an electric arc, with their subsequent connection. To perform this operation using a special welding machines. Their main difference lies in the methods used, precise alignment of the welded fibers. Although welding is the quality of the permanent connection of the fiber to its implementation requires expensive equipment and highly qualified personnel (see, for example, patent RF №2056061, publ. 10.03.1996 year).
Currently, widespread mechanical method of connecting optical fibers by using the so-called splices (splice, see, for example, patent RF №2182345, publ. 21.02.1997 year). The simplest splice is an elongated structure with a channel for input of the bonded fibers. Fiber is served from opposite ends. The channel itself may contain a gel to fill the gaps between the fibers. After contact of the fibers usually additionally produce their mechanical fixation due to different latches. The attenuation signal is La, made in such compounds, more than at welding, but less than when connecting using conventional optical connectors. In addition, unlike welded splices, splices allow multiple use and do not require a large space to perform the operation, which is important when working inside small structures. In General, introduced by playsam loss is not more than 0.2 dB.
But the achievement of these quality indicators is only possible with the use of special tools for the manufacture of high-quality chips fiber and precision polished ends of the optical fibers. All the above methods of connecting optical fibers fundamentally violate the transverse gradient distribution of refractive index in place of joining optical fibers. In addition, they are time-consuming, long time, require precise and expensive equipment, highly qualified personnel.
The proposed method of solving the problem of connectione optical fibers allows forming polymer connector with gradient distribution profile of the refractive index, consistent with optical fiber under the action of light radiation emerging from the ends of spliced optical fibers in the process of photopolymerization.
Known photopolymerizable composition is I, including polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and reducing agent, for example amine), which is used to obtain copies relief of precision optical surfaces type microrasbora, relief-phase holograms, Fresnel lenses, code disks made on light-sensitive materials, as well as for obtaining variety of decorative materials, color and lighting effects (see RF patent №2138070, MKI G03H 1/20. publ, 20.09.1999,, bull. No. 26).
The task, which is aimed by the invention is the achievement of higher quality due to the fact that eliminates the violation of the geometry of the fiber at the interface as, for example, during welding, due to the formation of the transverse gradient of the refractive index of the core and shell of the fiber at the interface. At the same time, the task easier, faster and cheaper way of connectione optical fibers by reducing the number of operations, such as grinding the end faces of optical fibers and their precise longitudinal positioning, and also by eliminating the need to use high-precision and expensive equipment.
This problem is solved due to the fact that optical formation connecterra elements of the light flux propagating from t rcov standard optical fibers, used photopolymerizable composition including a polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, ortho-quinones and reducing agent such as amine, in the following ratio of components, parts: polymerization-capable component - 100, ortho-quinones - 0,005-0,1, reducing agent is 0.5 to 10.0.
As orthogonal composition may contain orthobenzoquinone formula:
where R1=H, alkyl With1-C4, Ph; R2=H, Me, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br, NO2; R3=H, alkyl (C3-C4, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br; R4=H, alkyl (C1-C4, Cl, Br, NO2.
As orthobenzoquinone composition may contain orthobenzoquinone formula:
where R1=H, t - Bu; R2=H, MeO; R3=H, MeO; R4=H, t - Bu.
As orthinine composition may contain xanthine formula
and derived tetrahydronaphthalene formula:
The composition may further comprise an initiator of thermopolymerization, inert with respect to the regenerating agent, in amounts of from 0.2 to 10.0 parts
The composition may further contain polymeric additives, such as polymethylmethacrylate, datril, polyvinyl chloride, in the amount of 1.0 to 50 parts
This task is PE is also highlighted by that the developed method connectorbase optical fibers, whereby the ends of the optical fibers is introduced into a reactor filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition, the composition of which is given above, Orient the fibers facing each other and record their abutting ends by any distance not exceeding the area of geometric optics for initiating beams emerging from the joined ends of the optical fibers, and then in the opposite ends of the optical fibers enter the originating monochromatic radiation of the visible spectrum wavelength of not more than 650 nm (preferably 500-650 nm) and carry out the irradiation of the composition in the gap between the abutting ends of optical fibers within the time required for the formation of nonuniform refractive index of the connector.
In a preferred embodiment, in the case of connectione standard optical fibers with core diameter of 10 μm abutting ends of the fibers are oriented opposite each other, while not required precision of contact between the end faces to each other, and the distance between them can be up to 200 microns.
This problem can be solved also due to the fact that the developed device for connectorbase fibers containing the reactor, providing a transverse self-positioning ends of spliced optical fibers and filled with liquid photopolymerizable HDMI is on, which of the above hosting connectively the fiber end faces, two laser source visible range with a wavelength of not more than 650 nm, the radiation which initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the fibers, and the system sets the exposure time and quality control connector, which includes a source of laser radiation with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, the sensor controlling the radiation and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers located at the end of the fiber, and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating radiation and output controlling radiation located on the end of the second fiber.
In the preferred embodiment, for implementing a mode of positioning itself ends of the connected optical fibers and, accordingly, facilitate technology connectorbase the reactor is made in the form of a tubular capillary with an inner diameter, pozvoliaushie to enter abutting optical fibers without axial displacement. In the case of reactor geometry which does not provide positioning itself spliced optical fibers, it is necessary to use an additional device for positioning.
In the preferred embodiment, as the optical systems one is belt driven input initiating and controlling radiation and concurrent input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation can be used to open the optical system, consisting of lenses and semi-transparent mirrors or fiber optic splitters.
In the preferred embodiment, to minimize light losses, the wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line. This is necessary in order to accurately determine the time of formation connectionuser channel specifically for the working wavelength.
As optical systems of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation and concurrent input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation can be used to open the optical system consisting of lenses and semi-transparent mirrors or fiber optic splitters.
The photodetector may comprise a photodiode, an input window of which, to prevent the initiating radiation, closed optical filter, which transmits only control the emission wavelength of more than 650 nm.
This control system and its operating algorithms allow you to automatically set the exposure time of the composition.
The novelty of the claimed invention is identified empirically property known compositions to implement the modes of the self formation of a thin optical beam source with significant diffraction raskhodimost the Yu and the formation of light ausiralia polymeric waveguide structures. This property provides the ability to connect the optical fibers in the layer photopolymerizable composition radiation of the visible range, which is injected into the connecting fibers. In the connecting element is an optical formation of a refractive index gradient along the radius profile. The connecting element is a polymeric connector, which is a polymeric structure, which has a larger refractive index in the core of the waveguide channel and less on its periphery. This structure is obtained with the use of known composition.
The depth of polymerization photopolymerizable composition, and hence its refractive index is determined by the dose impinging optical radiation. It was found experimentally that the optimum is the introduction into the opposite ends of the optical fibers of the initiating laser radiation in the visible range of the spectrum with a wavelength of less than 650 nm. When the wavelength of the initiating radiation more than 650 nm polymerization is not. In the preferred embodiment, this value is 500-600 nm for the maximum speed of photopolymerization and, accordingly, formation of the connector with the core having a higher refractive index compared with the peripheral region of the connector.
To determine the time of formation to the of nectar at the end of a single optical fiber simultaneously with the initiating radiation injected controls the laser light with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, exposure photopolymerizable composition are to maximize the intensity transmitted through the connection controlling laser radiation, indicating about the formation of a stable to a working radiation connector.
For the establishment of an efficient connector wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line.
The sources of information, including patent and scientific literature, the authors claimed invention was not found using photopolymerizable compositions for connectorbase optical fibers.
There is a method of using photopolymerizable composition in fiber optic systems for forming microlenses on the end faces of optical fibers (see RF patent №2312381, MKI G02B 6/26. publ. 10.02.2005 year). In the above-mentioned source describes how the matching of optical fibers with sources and detectors of radiation through focusing these lenses radiation in the region of the end faces of the optical fibers.
Composition known photopolymerizable compositions described in the patent of Russian Federation №2138070.
According to the mentioned patent, the composition is prepared by dissolution of 0.02 parts of 3,6-di-tert-butyl benzoquinone-1,2 100 parts of purified inhibitor from α,ω-methacrylate-(b is ethylene glycol)-phthalate followed by the addition and thorough mixing 1 parts dimethylethanolamine. The finished composition after storage, air bubbles poured into a tubular reactor with an inner diameter equal to the thickness of the spliced fibers. Since the end of the fiber standard device is removed the area of the containment. Chop off a section of the fiber, leaving a protective sheath end of the fiber length approximately equal to half the length of the reactor. The same is done with other connected fiber. Fiber is fixed in the tube outside the terminals. In the opposite end faces of the optical fibers enter the emission of semiconductor lasers with a wavelength of 630 nm, with the end of a single optical fiber simultaneously with the initiating radiation injected controls the laser light with a wavelength of 1500 nm. The exposure is carried out to achieve the maximum intensity of the control laser radiation, indicating about the formation of effective connector. In accordance with the monitoring information being made of a polymeric connector losses do not exceed 0.2 dB.
1 shows a device for connectorbase optical fibers. The device comprises a reactor 1 is filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition which contains connectively the optical fibers 2 and 3, two of the initiating source of laser radiation 4 and 5, a control system that includes a laser light source 6 and fotop amnic 7, which consists of a photodiode 7a and filter 7b, which transmits only control the radiation and the optical system 8 simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers and the optical system 9 simultaneous input initiating and withdrawal of controlling radiation located at the end of the second fiber. The sources of the initiating radiation 4 and controlling the radiation 6 is embedded in the optical system 8, which is located at the end of the light guide 2. As mentioned above, at the end of the light guide 3 is an optical system 9. As noted above, 8 and 9 - open optical systems, each of which is composed of microlenses 8A and 9a, respectively, and semi-transparent mirrors 8b and 9b, respectively.
The device operates as follows. The reactor 1, is made in the form of a tubular capillary fill fluid photopolymerizable composition and place in it the abutting ends of the fibers 2 and 3, respectively. The sources of the initiating laser radiation 4 and 5 embedded in the optical system 8 and 9, disposed on opposite ends of the joined optical fibers 2 and 3, respectively. Radiation mentioned lasers simultaneously initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the optical fibers. Also simultaneously with the laser 4 and 5 include a power control) is ing 6, located at the end of the light guide 2, the radiation intensity which is recorded by the photodetector 7, located on nastechena the end of the light guide 3.
Initiating radiation emerging from the laser 4 and 5, passes through a semi-permeable mirror 8b and 9b, focused by the microlenses 8A and 9a on the ends nettiquete ends of the optical fibers 2 and 3, passes through the above-mentioned fibers and enters the reactor photopolymerizable composition. Under its influence in the gap between the joined optical fibers is formed of a polymeric connector 10. Simultaneously controlling the radiation emerging from the laser 6, is reflected from the surface of the semitransparent mirror 8b is focused by the microlens 8A at the end nastychenko the end of the optical fiber 2 passes through the light guide 2, forming the connector 10, the light guide 3, the microlens 9a and reflecting semi-transparent mirror 9b, enters the photodetector 7. To prevent the initiating radiation on the photodiode 7a of the input window is closed by the filter 7b, which transmits only control the emission wavelength of more than 650 nm. The achievement of the maximum value of the controlling radiation measured by the sensor, indicates the formation of a connector, then turn off the source of the initiating radiation 4 and 5.
Figure 2 shows a reactor 1 with photopolymerizable composition, is hosting the ends connectively optical fibers 2 and 3 and formed or forming polymer connector 10.
Made of polymeric connector losses do not exceed 0.2 dB.
In the invention illustrates the use photopolymerizable composition for forming optical connecterra elements of the light flux propagating from the ends of standard optical fibers.
A method of connectione optical fibers, according to which there is a formation of waveguide structures under the influence of light radiation emerging from the ends of the fiber, and in the process of photopolymerization forming a gradient distribution profile of the refractive index, consistent with the optical fiber. The depth of polymerization of the composition, and hence its refractive index is determined by the dose impinging optical radiation.
Developed device for connectorbase fiber optic cable, which provides the positioning of the ends of the optical fibers in the volume photopolymerizable composition, exposing the composition of the radiation emerging from the ends of the optical fibers, and the quality control of the forming of the connector and, accordingly, sets the time of irradiation of the composition.
1. Application photopolymerizable composition comprising polymerization-capable component, such as a monomer or mixture of monomers, orthinine and a reducing agent such as amine, in the following ratio of the components is tov, parts: poliarizatsionnoy component 100, orthinine - 0,005-0,1, reducing agent is 0.5 to 10.0, for connectorbase optical fibers.
2. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as orthinine it contains orthobenzoquinone formula
where R1- H, alkyl C1-C4, Ph; R2- H, Me, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br, NO2; R3- H, alkyl C3-C4, MeO, Ph, F, Cl, Br; R4- H, alkyl C1-C4, Cl, Br, NO2.
3. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 2, characterized in that as orthobenzoquinone it contains orthobenzoquinone formula
where R1- H, t - Bu; R2- H, MeO; R3- H, MeO; R4- H, t - Bu.
4. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as orthinine it contains xanthine formula
and derived tetrahydronaphthalene formula
5. Application photopolymerizable composition according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that it further comprises the initiator of thermopolymerization, inert with respect to the regenerating agent, in amounts of from 0.2 to 10.0 parts
6. Application photopolymerizable composition according to claim 5, characterized in that it further comprises a polymeric additives, such as polymethylmethacrylate, dacre is, polyvinyl chloride, in the amount of 1.0 to 50 parts
7. How connectorbase optical fibers, whereby the ends of the optical fibers is introduced into a reactor filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition according to claims 1-6, Orient the fibers facing each other and record their abutting ends by any distance not exceeding the area of geometric optics for initiating beams emerging from the joined ends of the optical fibers, and then in the opposite end faces of optical fibers introduced simultaneously initiating monochromatic radiation of the visible spectrum wavelength of not more than 650 nm, preferably 500-650 nm, and carry out the irradiation of the composition in the gap between the abutting ends of optical fibers within the time required for the formation of nonuniform refractive index of the connector.
8. How connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 7, characterized in that when connectioni standard optical fibers with core diameter of 10 μm abutting ends of the fibers are oriented opposite each other and fixed at a distance not exceeding 200 microns.
9. Device for connectorbase fibers containing the reactor, providing a transverse self-positioning ends of spliced optical fibers and filled with liquid photopolymerizable composition according to claims 1-6, which is placed connectively the fiber end faces, two is a laser source visible range with a wavelength of not more than 650 nm, radiation which initiate polymerization of the composition in the gap between the fibers, and the system sets the exposure time and quality control connector, which includes a source of laser radiation with a wavelength of more than 650 nm, the sensor controlling the radiation and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating and controlling radiation in one of the connected optical fibers located at the end of the fiber, and the optical system of simultaneous input initiating radiation and output controlling radiation located at the end of the second fiber.
10. Device for connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 9, characterized in that the reactor is made in the form of a tubular capillary with an inner diameter that allows to introduce a spliced fiber without axial displacement.
11. Device for connectorbase fiber optic cable according to claim 9, characterized in that the wavelength control of the laser radiation must match the wavelength of the radiation, which will continue to work costacabana fiber optic line.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: airborne electronic system of aircraft includes at least two instruments provided with possibility of information exchange at least by means of one bidirectional synchronous communication electric bus in which information exchange between instruments is performed by means of optic bus having the possibility of being connected to electric interfaces of the above instruments. Optic bus of airborne electronic system includes at least one optic cable containing at least one optic fibre and containing the connector on each end; at that, the above connector contains conversion device of electric signals to optic signals and conversion devices of optic signals to electric signals.
EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics, signalling.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making alarm signals and devices for indicating overshoot of given deformation limits of the surface of monitored objects. The method of making signalling devices which are triggered by interruption of light flux during deformation of the surface of a monitored object includes an emitter which is optically connected through a flexible linear optical guide with a photodetector, and involves making and assembling the said components on the surface of the monitored object. After making the flexible glass optical guide with polished lateral surfaces, a thin light-reflecting layer is deposited on the said lateral surfaces and the glass of the optical guide is subjected to radiation toning with electromagnetic X-ray or gamma-radiation with dose of up to 10 kGy. The optical guide is then rigidly attached to the surface of the monitored object and a beam of fine-focused pulsed or continuous laser radiation with focal distance several times larger than the wavelength of the optical guide is transmitted through the optical guide. Wavelength of the laser radiation corresponds to the transparency range of the glass and the laser radiation has energy of up to 50 mJ. The radiation is transmitted for 60 s, which is sufficient for formation of a narrow channel in the glass on the entire length of the optical guide. During formation of the channel, transparency of the glass along the axis of propagation of the processing laser radiation is restored.
EFFECT: increased reliability of operation of signalling devices made using the proposed method.
FIELD: physics; communication.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical-fibre communication engineering, particularly to plug and socket connectors of optical fibres with an optoelectronic element and can be used for increasing reliability of connecting a reception and transmission module to an optical cable and reliability of receiving information in a field optical-fibre transmission system by reducing loss of power of the optical signal at the interface between the optical fibre and the reception and transmission modules. The plug and socket connector of the field optical-fibre transmission system has a socket part with a male thread and a stepped channel under the optical cable on one side, and a stepped channel under the optoelectronic element on the other side, an insulating socket with contact elements and two cap screws.
EFFECT: minimal loss of average power of optical signals where the optical fibre is connected to reception and transmission modules with multiple connections as a result of branching of the field optical-fibre transmission system.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: fastening element (10) connects several wire boards (20) at a specified distance. Fastening element (10) includes body (15) and optical waveguide (12), which passes through body (15). Fastening element (10) contains light-receiving unit (50) and light-emitting unit (40). Using fastening element (10), optical signal passes along optical waveguide (12) of fastening element (10). At the same time insert of the second section of fastening element provides for connection to any other fastening element. Moreover, end surface of optical waveguide of fastening element is optically connected to end surface of optical waveguide of other fastening element.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
24 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: electronics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: optical connection module for connecting an optical component to substrate contains substrate; auxiliary support, connected to aforementioned substrate, containing heat-isolating material; optical component, adjusted relatively to the first laser and soldered to aforementioned auxiliary support with usage of heat from the second laser; contact area, located between aforementioned heat-isolating material and aforementioned optical component; laser auxiliary support, connected to aforementioned substrate; and a first laser, connected to aforementioned laser auxiliary support. Optical component is an optical fiber, while aforementioned optical connection module is a module for connecting the first laser to the optical fiber. Aforementioned contact area and aforementioned heat-isolating material ensure local transfer of heat during soldering for even melting of solder alloy and for limiting transfer of heat into aforementioned substrate. Aforementioned optical component is picked from a group which includes optical fiber, mirrors, lenses, detectors, micro-electro-mechanical devices and isolators. Method for manufacturing an integration optical connection module includes creating a substrate, applying a pattern and etching first zone of aforementioned substrate, creating a heat-isolating material in aforementioned first zone of aforementioned substrate, polishing aforementioned heat-isolating material and aforementioned substrate for creation of a flat surface, including a part of substrate and the heat-isolating part, connection of contact area, including at least one metallic layer, to aforementioned heat-isolating part, positioning of first laser on aforementioned part of substrate and adjustment and connection of optical component to aforementioned contact area. Aforementioned optical component is connected to aforementioned contact area with usage of solder alloy, which is heated using the second laser.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, ensured operation of high power laser.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: television engineering, possible use in systems for observation of quickly progressing processes.
SUBSTANCE: device for producing a series of image frames, contains fiber-optic transformer and chamber with matrix photo-receiver, optically linked and serially connected, which photo-receiver operates in mode for transferring charge packets from photo-electric transformation area to buffer storage area. Areas of photo-electric transformation and buffer storage are divided on alternating sections, while closely to each photo-electric transformation section, buffer storage section is positioned, number of rows in which is k times greater than number of rows in section of photo-electric transformation, where k - number of received frames, and fiber-optic transformation at output is divided on blocks, representing orderly rows of optical fibers, ends of which are mated and optically connected to sections of photo-electric transformation.
EFFECT: decreased time interval between frames in device for producing a series of image frames.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fiber-optical information transfer systems.
SUBSTANCE: optical signal comes from fiber line along core of fiber light guide, reflects from slanted cut of end of fiber light guide, passes through optical transparent substance, gets to receiving surface of optical receiving element. Optical signal is not reflected from limit of between cover of fiber light guide and optical transparent substance. Fiber light guide is turned for an angle, excluding normal falling of beams on surface of optical receiving element.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher efficiency, higher precision.
FIELD: lighting units.
SUBSTANCE: array can be used for illuminating local surfaces and especially for illuminating objects when high quality of illumination is required. Light-emitting diodes are disposed in case along optical axis of array to provide coincidence of central axes of luminous fluxes of those light-emitting diodes with described optical axis. To improve efficiency of amplification of luminous fluxes the back sides of light-emitting diodes are provided with light-reflecting attachments made in form of cones or paraboloids either funnels. Inner surface of cone has light-reflecting coating. Case can be made in form of flask or cylindrical tube or it can have grades. Light-emitting diodes can be divided to groups which have different radiation spectra, for example, red, green and blue. There is current regulator in any power circuit of each group. Light-emitting diodes can have ultraviolet or infrared radiation spectrum. When forming total luminous flux the luminous flux from light-emitting diodes after being reflected from light-reflecting attachments enters light-reflecting coating applied onto inner surface of case; then the flux enters collimating lens.
EFFECT: reduced sizes; improved fidelity and safety; reduced power consumption.
20 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: thermal detector has an illuminating and a receiving light guide, the first ends of which are connected to a light source and a photodetector, and second ends to a guided Y fibre-optic splitter, the common input/output of which is fitted with a heat-sensitive element, having a mirror surface and made in form of an opaque blind made from material with shape memory effect, attached by one end to the butt-end of a measuring light guide. The blind is given reversible shape memory at flexure. In the initial state, below the direct martensitic transformation temperature, the free end of the blind is tightly pressed by the mirror side to the butt-end of the measuring light guide, thereby completely covering the aperture of the light guide. In a state higher than the inverse martensitic transformation temperature, the free end of the blind deviates by an acute angle from the plane of the butt-end of the measuring light guide.
EFFECT: faster operation owing to reduction of the size and weight of the heat-sensitive element, simplification, reduced loss when transmitting reflected light flux to the receiving light guide and high sensitivity owing to significant change in intensity for small temperature changes.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has two collimating units which can turn relative each other around an axis of rotation, and one optical element which compensates for rotation. A first power splitter receives input signals and splits said signals into at least two signals for transmission over at least two optical channels through the collimating units and the optical element compensating for rotation. After passing through the second collimating unit, the signals are combined into one signal in a second power splitter. A version of the apparatus has an optical attenuator which is connected to one component from the first collimating unit, the second collimating unit and the optical element compensating for rotation, or a gear which rotates the optical attenuator. In one of the versions, the attenuator is controlled by a controller.
EFFECT: minimisation of change in attenuation in a rotary joint during rotation, as well as provision for transmission of analogue optical signals which carry information encoded in the amplitude or level of the signal.
17 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optical cable connector has an invar housing in form of a bushing on whose two sides of which there are two nodes through which cables pass. The node which can rotate consists of a shaft with a stepped hole along the axis, bearings and a spacer bushing. The rigidly mounted node consists of a bushing superimposed with a ferrule. The ferrule has a lateral recess which is filled with gel and is closed with a casing. Cleared ends of the cables are placed in the lateral recess.
EFFECT: more reliable operation and miniaturisation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extraction.
SUBSTANCE: fibre-optic rotating connector with a symmetrical structure has a housing in which there is a first and a second fibre-optic waveguide. The first fibre-optic waveguide is mounted in the first optical terminal piece which is fixed in bearing housings with possibility of rotation. There is a spacer ring between the bearings. The second fibre-optic waveguide is mounted similarly. The optical terminal pieces are pressed to each other by springs and coupling nuts. Displacement between optical axes of the fibre-optic waveguides is the limiting value of the radial beat of the inner ring of the roller bearing is defined by the expression: where α is the radius of the fibre-optic waveguide, Pi is the power at the end of the transmitting waveguide, Pp is the power at the end of the receiving waveguide, z is the distance between ends of interfaced waveguides, NA is the numerical aperture of the fibre-optic waveguide, r=α+z·tgα is the radiation field distribution radius in the plane of the end of the receiving waveguide, sinα=NA.
EFFECT: simple design, reliability, low optical loss.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fibre-optic connector has first and second half couplings for sealing first and second sections of optical fibre on whose butt ends there are first and second pairs of step-up and step-down optical multi-layer transformers. There is an air gap between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers. Layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers are made from materials with different refraction indices and are measured from outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers adjacent to the air gap towards the butt ends joined to optical fibre sections. Thickness of each layer is equal to a quarter of the medium wave Xo of the signal transmitted over the optical fibre and the number of layers is selected based on conditions given in the formula of invention.
EFFECT: lower level of power loss arising due to insufficiently close contact or welded joint at the position of the joint and wider range of apparatus for this purpose.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fibro-optical connector comprises first and second half-couplings to receive first and second sections of optical fiber. First and second pairs of step-down optical multilayer transformers are arranged on end faces of said sections. Air gap is arranged between outer layers of said first and second pairs of said transformers. Layers of first and second pairs of aforesaid transformers are made from materials with differing indices of reflection and are counted from outer layers of aforesaid transformers in direction of the end faces of connected sections of optical fiber. Thickness of every layer makes one fourth of average signal wave λ0 transmitted over optical fiber, while the number of layers is selected subject to conditions covered by invention claim.
EFFECT: reduced power loss, expanded performances.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: physics; optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for splitting optical fibres, specifically to manual portable instruments. The mechanism for breaking optical fibres contains apparatus for breaking fibres and one or more clamping elements which can clamp an optical fibre at one end, which should be cut off, and apply a pulling force so as to stretch the fibre when breaking it. The mechanism is designed such that, the clamping element(s) can also push the broken part of the fibre using devices which enable the clamping element(s) to continue applying a pulling force to the cut off part of the fibre after breaking. The clamping element or each clamping element releases the cut off part when moving the cut off part of the fibre.
EFFECT: high quality joining and reliability of fibres.
11 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering .
SUBSTANCE: device for introduction of laser emission in fibre, which contains optical single-mode or multimode fibres equipped with microlenses that are shaped of transparent materials, differs because microlenses are made of optical glass, refractive exponent of which is higher than the refractive exponent of light conducting thread of fibre, in the shape of sphere that embraces light conducting thread at the end of fibre, and the end surface of fibre is made in the form of polished cylindrical surface, besides, axis of cylindrical surface intersects with fibre axis and is perpendicular to fibre axis.
EFFECT: increases coefficient of emission introduction and reduces dependency of introduction coefficient on misalignment.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the mode of manufacturing lens in the shape of peaks on the end-faces of single-mode and multi-mode optical fibers.
SUBSTANCE: the manufacturing mode is in plotting drops of polymerized substance on the end-face plane of the fiber, radiation of the plotted drop with a source of light for realization light photo polymerization. At that before exposure they choose one or several desired modes subjecting the optical fiber to mechanical strains, at the stages of plotting the drop and radiation they execute control and management of the form and the sizes of the peak, before the radiation stage they hold out the mixture at the given temperature for achieving viscosity of the mixture which allows to get the needed height of the drop, regulate duration of exposure and/or intensity of the light for regulating the end radius of the curvature of the peak.
EFFECT: provides possibility to get peaks of different heights and different radiuses on the end-face planes of the optical fibers and also provides possibility to control the indicated parameters of the peaks in time of their manufacturing.
26 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electroconductive adhesive contains epoxy resin modified with an organosilicon compound in furyl glycidyl ether as binder, polyaminoamide as a hardener, nickel carbonyl powder modified with an amine as filler.
EFFECT: invention increases adhesion strength of electroconductive adhesive during shearing owing to fewer defects in the adhesive joint, use of nickel carbonyl powder modified with an amine ensures uniform distribution of particles in the volume.