Method of estimating concentration of resin-like substances in suspension
SUBSTANCE: method involves titration of a suspension with a solvent which is soluble in water and dissolves the suspended resin-like substance until reducing light scattering, which is determined either visually or using optical devices which enable to measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
EFFECT: rapid estimation of the amount of resin-like substance suspended in water.
The invention is intended for use in experimental and industrial biotechnology, in particular to assess the concentration of retinoid substances in suspension, intended, including for reducing microbial contamination of feed and food, as well as air aerosols obtained by spraying suspensions. The objective is achieved by titration of aqueous suspensions of one of the polar solvents retinoid substances, such as ethyl, methyl, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and others, to dissolve the suspended particles, which is fixed on the transfer medium from turbid to transparent state (to reduce light scattering due to the dissolution of the light-scattering particles). The transition record, either visually, without the use of measuring tools, or by using optical devices (turbidity meters, colorimeters), which measures the amount of light transmitted through the suspension (solution).
Suspension natural retinoid compounds in recent times are increasingly used to reduce bacterial contamination food and feed fat emulsions, work surfaces and indoor air industries, as well as in the areas of medical, veterinary and agricultural purposes, in the office and residential premises[1, 2, 3].
Receive the Ute suspension retinoid substances, extracted from natural products , using, for example, ultrasound , and in all cases, the concentration of suspended substances is determined very roughly, that depends on a widely varying properties of the original product (for example, resin, pine , propolis  and others). No doubt, however, that the measurement of the concentration of retinoid compounds in suspension is essential for dispensing their effects on the microflora and the human and animal organisms.
There are many different ways of measuring the concentration of suspended substances .
Nephelometry, for example, based on the ability of colloidal systems diffuse light, allows to determine the concentration of the colloidal system and the average size of the colloidal particles. The effect of the turbidity meter is based on comparing the intensity of the light scattered investigated Sol, with the intensity of light scattered by a standard Sol. About the content of the substance in the test sample is judged either by the intensity of light scattering, determined by the number of light-scattering particles values (analysis method), or by weakening of the light flux formed by the suspension (turbidimetric method of analysis). Methods nephelometry allow only a rough estimate of a substance in suspension, as recorded l is nil number of particles, but not their sizes.
Some methods use relative measurements, as a rule, for the automatic control of production processes and do not allow to determine the absolute content of suspended matter [8, 9]. There are ways restricted, for example, for particles with pronounced magnetic properties , is obviously not suitable for measurement of retinoid suspensions of substances.
There are also methods titrimetric analysis based on the measurement of the amount of reagent needed to interact with the designated component in the solution in accordance with the stoichiometry of chemical reactions between them. The greatest distribution was received by titrimetry for rapid determination of high and medium concentrations of substances in solutions .
Each of the above methods are unsuitable for measuring the concentration of retinoid substances in suspension, contains the element, the combination of which allows you to determine the amount of suspended substances.
The present invention is directed to the implementation of the rapid assessment of the amount of suspended retinoid substance using simple laboratory equipment.
We stated the result is greater efficiency analysis by conducting a rapid assessment of the quantity of suspended platforms the aqueous resin like substance in the water is achieved by titration, for example ethyl alcohol or acetone aqueous suspension retinoid substance, to its transformation into a clear solution. Since the effect is reversible, then the method can be calibrated by titration, for example, alcohol solutions of water, before the formation of the suspension by lowering the solubility of the resin in the water-alcohol solution.
An example implementation of the invention
Aqueous suspension of resin larch titrated with ethyl alcohol until the disappearance of turbidity, shaking the sample after adding the next portion of the solvent, 1, or alcohol solution is titrated with water, shaking the sample after adding the next portion of water until turbidity, Fig.2. The concentration of the resin is determined by the calibration curve, Figure 3, is constructed taking into account the reversibility of the effect, i.e. adding to the alcohol solution of the resin in water until the turbidity of the solution. The turbidity of the solution is determined visually with or without the use of optical instruments for determining the turbidity of the liquid medium.
The calibration method is possible by using the reverse effect, i.e. the comparison of the results obtained by the claimed method, with the results of the titration of water-alcohol solutions retinoid substances with known concentration.
Thus, the set of distinctive features of the described method provides DOS is iunie the specified result.
As a result of the analysis of the level of technology assessment of the retinoid content of substances in an ultrasonic water suspensions source, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention, not found, therefore the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty". Easy solutions are not implemented to date, demonstrates the consistency of the proposed device the condition of "inventive step".
Thus, the above data suggest that the claimed invention designed for use in experimental and industrial biotechnology, in particular to assess the concentration of retinoid substances in suspension, has the above properties. For the inventive method, it is described in the above-mentioned claims, there are no obstacles to its implementation in practice using common and available funds. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "industrial applicability".
1. Hakobyan V.B. have been, Bambara M.V., Rahman A.A., Stupin, A., Filatova V.B. have been Ultrasound in the formation of aqueous slurries of refractory biologically active substances // proceedings of the XXII session of the Russian acoustical society session of the scientific the on Board speakers wounds. - M., 2010. - V.3. - S-127.
2. The Stupin, A., Georgians E.V., Nikitina AS, Kubatova O.Y Use of propolis in food emulsions obtained with ultrasound. Food industry, 2010, 2, p.54-56.
3. The Stupin, A., Bambara M.V., Braslavets V.R., Presence AV, Kropachev, GV Aerosol extraction of pine wood resin. Bulletin of the University (Novosibirsk state agrarian University), 2010,4, p.32-39.
4. Hakobyan V.B. have been, David ER, Sveshnikov, I.N., Pashinin AU, Stupin, A. Extraction of resin from pine sawdust. Biotechnology, 2010, No. 2, p.65-69.
5. Bambara M.V., Hakobyan V.B. have been, Sokolov Y.V. Spray method for producing nanoparticles. // Chemical and petroleum engineering. 2009, No. 2, s.
6. The Stupin, A. Suspension of natural resins and retinoid metabolism. M FGNU "Rosinformugol". 2010, 67 S.
7. Lopatin V.N., Priezzhev AV, Apanasenko A.D., Shepelevich N. Century, Lopatin V.V., Pozhilenkova PV, Department IV Methods of light scattering in dispersion analysis of biological systems. M.: FIZMATLIT, 2004, 384 S.
8. Ozerov DU, Afanas'ev M.M. Method for continuous measurement of the concentration of the cellulose fibers in the suspension and the device for its implementation. Patent No. 2067638. Publication date 10.10.1996.
9. Trifonov O.N., Panin MG, Enikeev INCLUDING, Bakulin VP, Electro-hydraulic control concentration of yeast suspension in the wine solution Patent No. 209882. Publication date 10.09.1997.
10. The concentration analyzer magnetic suspension. MA-2, http://www.promspravka.com/catalog/D/DL/33/2/20/5/53/prochieanaliz/anpr/anpr_3785.ht ml?regcus=1&1=0
11. MATIC I. Introduction to chemical equilibrium and kinetics. M, 1984,486 C.
A method of evaluating the concentration of retinoid compounds in aqueous suspension titration involving titration of a suspension of water-soluble and solvent suspended resin like substance with a solvent to reduce light scattering, recorded either visually or with optical instruments that measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.
EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: before testing in a heat chamber, samples of polymer materials are activated with UV radiation in the 248-365 nm wavelength range for 3-30 minutes with radiation power density of 1-15 mW/cm2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds is carried out while comparing the obtained chromatograms of gas samples collected from the heat chamber when testing samples of polymer materials with selected additives based on nanostructured bentonite powder and nanostructured bentonite powder intercalated with metal ions - magnesium (Mg2+ ), scandium (Sc3+), chromium (Cr3+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), tin (Sn2+), cerium (Ce3+) or a mixture of bentonite powders intercalated with ions of said metals. The results of comparing chromatograms of gas samples are used to evaluate the effect of nanocomponents on the predicted sanitary-chemical properties of the designed polymer materials.
EFFECT: realisation of the present invention widens technological capabilities and increases reliability of results of evaluating the effect of modifying mineral nanocomponents on predicted sanitary-chemical properties based on release of volatile organic compounds from the designed polymer materials.
8 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage the organoleptic analysis of tested samples is carried out. At the second stage the microscopic analysis of the material structure is carried out. At the third stage the chemical analysis of the tested samples is carried out by means of their treatment with an organic dissolvent selected from the group: butyl ether of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol at the ratio of sample-dissolvent equal to 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected dissolvent for 20-30 minutes. If a sample has dissolved fully, the conclusion is made that is pertains to leather-like materials, and if a sample has not dissolved, it is identified as leather.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable recognition of leather from leather-like materials.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-activation of surfaces of an article and a film. The article then pressed to the surface of the film made from non-light-stabilised polyethylene and then exposed to UV radiation until a brittle layer forms.
EFFECT: formation of a coating on an article, which is adhesively bonded to the surface of the article.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.
EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sorption of pharmacy drug derinate, representing sodium deoxyribonucleate in micropanel holes is carried out. After that analysed sample, which contains component C1q with unknown activity, is introduced into holes. Incubation is carried out and after washing and drying of panel into holes introduced are conjugate of enzyme with antibodies against component C1q and substrate of said enzyme. Activity of component C1q is calculated by amount of formed product of enzymatic reaction. Set contains flat-bottom micropanel with sorbed derinate, conjugate of enzyme with antibodies to human complement component C1q, substrate buffer and standard with known C1q activity.
EFFECT: method application makes it possible to increase reliability of determination C1q component with application as activator of available and stable preparation derinate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling the surface of soot with a polymer and determining the polymer adsorption value of the soot, where the polymer used is rubber. Soot dispersion is mixed with a rubber solution. Sieve diametres of the soot aggregates are determined. The specific surface of the soot is determined and relative wear resistance of the rubber is calculated from the given relationship.
EFFECT: faster and high information content of analysis.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to evaluation of protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas masks with respect to β,β'-dichlorethylsulfide by application of its simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide. Method includes application on one side of material of gas mask facial part of simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide drops with further analytic determination of the moment of accumulation in sample of limiting amount of simulator. Butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide in tested sample is caught by sorption substrate Quantitative determination of simulator is carried out with application of photocolorimetric method of analysis Limit of sensitivity of detecting butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide constitutes 1·10-3 mg/ml with inaccuracy not exceeding 15%.
EFFECT: technical result lies in possibility to carry out evaluation of protective properties of not only rubberised fabric, but also materials of facial parts of gas masks (rubbers) of various thickness, with increase of evaluation method safety
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring a set of technological parametres of a chemical process taking place in a chemical reactor. The method of determining at least one technological parametre of a chemical process taking place in a reactor 2, involves passing a sample of the process medium of the chemical process into a lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the said sample from the remaining process medium in the said reactor; circulation of the said sample in the said lateral circuit and its thermal processing therein to the required temperature; taking measurements of at least one technological parametre of the said sample, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or taking spectrometre measurements with provision for spectrometric data at the required temperature; controlling the chemical process based on the determined at least one technological parametre. The method is realised in a system which has an output 18 and an input 28; lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), connected to the reactor 2 through output 18 and input 28, which enable passage of the sample of process medium from the said reactor 2 to the said lateral circuit and back to the said reactor; a device 30 for circulating the said sample; valves V1, V2, V4, V5 for isolating the said sample in the said lateral circuit from the remaining process medium in the said reactor 2; a device for thermal processing 46, 50, 52, V7 the said sample in the said lateral circuit to the required temperature; and a device for measuring 38 at least one technological parametre, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or apparatus for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the said lateral circuit and apparatus for controlling the chemical process based on the measured technological parametres.
EFFECT: invention allows for taking a large number of measurements of different technological parametres, accurate measurement at temperatures different from temperature of the reactor, fast switching between measurements taken in inline and online modes, as well as prevention of clogging of equipment of the system.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises dividing formation fluid into water and hydrocarbon phases to produce solid hydrocarbon scale. Said division is executed by settling formation fluid at +4°C for 24-72 hours. Then, water phase centrifugation is carried out at 10000-14000 rpm for 15 minutes to use it for DNA isolation and subsequent molecular biological analysis.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for evaluating quality of lubricating oil has an oil tank with a cover, an oil pump, a heating element with a heat exchanger and a gear friction couple connected through oil pipes for feeding and discharging oil into a closed loop. In the oil pipe for discharging oil there is a sealed test chamber with test specimens of structural and sealing materials which can be adjusted on the setting angle relative the oil current. The test chamber has a removable cover in which there are cross beams for mounting the specimens, and thermocouples at the oil inlet and outlet of the chamber, and the removable cover of the oil tank is configured for installation inside above the level of the oil of the test specimens for evaluating effect of oil vapour thereon.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the device for obtaining additional data on the effect of aviation oil on structural and sealing materials when covered by oil and in oil vapour.
SUBSTANCE: described are versions of a method and apparatus for conducting such evaluation when determining the final degree of purity or final degree of contamination of fluid during sampling thereof. The described apparatus and method involve measuring the refraction index of the fluid over a certain period of time, curve fitting using refraction index measurement results or data values derived therefrom and calculating the final refraction index or final data value based on the fitted curve in order to calculate the final degree of contamination or purity of the fluid.
EFFECT: high information content and reliability of evaluation.
25 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure is based in usage of concentrator of micro-impurities in aerosol containing sprayer of examined oil, heating chamber, cooling chamber, channel for drainage of condensed fluid, and channel for exhaust of concentrated aerosol connected to source of spectre excitation. Also, aerosol of examined motor oil is generated by means of a jet-centrifugal sprayer. It is ignited with a high-voltage torch discharge directing it into a plasma-chemical reactor axially to axis of plasma flow for successive aerosol particles after-burning. Further, upon passing through the cooling chamber and filter produced solid, liquid and gaseous products are examined by methods of spectral analysis.
EFFECT: complete collection of wear products.
SUBSTANCE: emulsion is diluted with water at least in five stages, at that reducing the concentration of surface-active agent in two times after each dilution. The interfacial tension is determined. Creation of the curve of surface tension at the liquid-liquid interface of the surface-active agent concentration is carried out. Emulsion is held at each stage to its full coagulation. The repeated definition of interfacial tension and the definition of the desired amount of surface-active agent on the shift of the isotherm on the horizontal axis is conducted.
EFFECT: invention enables to optimise the content of surface-active agent in formulations of herbicidal preparations.
9 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling and preparation of sample with thermostatting at temperature of 50-70°C with simultaneous extrusion of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans with inert gas or air to in-series located absorbing solutions; at that, as absorbing solution for determining sulphurated hydrogen, there used is sodium carbonate solution, and as absorbing solution for determining light mercaptans there used is sodium hydrate solution, quantitative estimation of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans by method of iodimetric titration. At that, before mixture of vapours of light hydrocarbons with sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans, which is extruded from the sample with air or inert gas, enters in-series located absorbing solutions, it is cooled to the temperature of more than 15°C to 20°C.
EFFECT: improving accuracy and reliability, and speeding-up the analysis.
5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining colloidal stability of grease is realised from the amount of oil squeezed from the grease, where a cup full of grease with a piston and fitted with an oiled filter together with a set of dry filters is subjected to thermal stabilisation and subsequently held under a load, after which the amount of oil squeezed from the grease into the dry filters is determined. Before thermal stabilisation, a medium boundary is created between the analysed grease and the dry filters by separating them from each other in order to prevent penetration of oil into the dry filters before loading. The amount of oil squeezed from the grease is determined from the displacement of the piston during loading. The invention also discloses a device for realising the said method.
EFFECT: more reliable determination.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method which involves centrifuging a prepared oil solution and subsequent suspension of the obtained residue, deposition takes place in a thin annular layer of the oil solution which rotates together with a rotor. Centrifugation is done once and decantation of the centrifuge effluent is done automatically when the centrifugal rotor stops. In the device which has a housing, an electric motor with a vertical shaft, the rotor is made in form of a reservoir with a removable cover, in which there are two cavities for putting the analysed oil solution, depositing impurities and decantation of the centrifuge effluent. The rotor also has a removable cylindrical insert made from metal foil for collecting residues which undergoes control weighing. The rotor is driven by the shaft of the electric motor through an overrunning centrifugal clutch which automatically connects them in startup and centrifugation mode and also disconnects when the electric drive is switched off, thereby providing smooth free run-out of the rotor with the filtered centrifuge effluent.
EFFECT: increased accuracy, simplification and faster determination.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring techniques. Control of oil decomposition is done based on varying the test parametre of working oil relative that of clean oil. The test parametre is calculated using fluorescence intensity of oil, simultaneously measured in three spectral ranges and two operating spectral ranges are used, in which intensity values are greater than in the third. The device has a case in which there is an optical window, and a receiving-transmitting unit, in which are fitted an optical emitter and receiver with a measuring photodetector. The measuring photodetector is a colour sensor, which allows for simultaneous measurement of fluorescence intensity of oil in three spectral ranges.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and reliability of control.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry, namely, to method of preparing samples for detecting elements and their isotopes in hydrocarbon, mineral and synthetic, in particular, vacuum oils, oil products and fuels and lubricants. Method of preparing samples for detecting content of uranium isotopes in oils by method of weight-spectrometry with inductively-connected plasma includes selection of oil samples and their decomposition with concentrated acid at high temperatures and pressure. Sample decomposition is carried out till full transparency according to multi-step programme in microwave oven by means of nitric acid in amount not less than 5 cm3 per each sample with weight from 0.4 g to 0.6 g. High frequency radiation power is maximum, pressure within autoclave being within the range from 500 to 1200 kPa, with exposure time on sample from 5 to 15 min at each decomposition stage.
EFFECT: ensuring full decomposition of hydrocarbon oils samples to state of transparency, reduction of sample decomposition time and lowering limits of detecting uranium isotopes in hydrocarbon oils samples.
1 dwg, 1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves magnetisation of material with low-frequency (HL) and high-frequency (HH) magnetic fields. Field HH is characterised by frequency fH. Signatures of the magnetic material are created from at least two points. Creation of the signatures involves obtaining the value of each point S(H)P by measuring, over each period, amplitude and phase of the harmonic of the magnetic field which is induced in the magnetic material. The amplitude and phase are obtained only in response to magnetisation during the period of the magnetic field, wherein the harmonic has frequency nfH, where n is a non-zero positive integer. The mass of the magnetic material is then identified and/or determined on several points of the created signature.
EFFECT: high sensitivity of measurement of magnetic material.
24 cl, 8 dwg