External combustion engine
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion engine includes sealed housing in the form of flattened cone, which is partially filled with heat carrier. Housing includes evaporator and condenser. The housing includes heat-insulating ring being the element of the housing and rigidly attached both to evaporative section, and to condensation section of the engine housing. Turbine impellers with moving blades enclosed with a rim are rigidly attached to heat-insulating ring. Turbine impellers are rigidly attached to engine shaft. Turbine wheels with guide vanes enclosed with the rim representing an internal annular magnet are installed on the shaft. Rims of all wheels are installed so that an annular gap with housing is formed. Wheels with guide vanes are installed with possibility of being rotated in relation to the shaft - on bearings. External annular magnet rigidly attached to the housing is installed above internal annular magnet. Propeller is rigidly fixed on the engine shaft. The condenser includes bars, on which there rigidly fixed are cone-shaped plates of wave-like profile both on internal, and external sides of the housing. Combustion chamber with injectors is located around evaporator.
EFFECT: reducing mass and dimensions characteristics of the engine; enlarging its functional capabilities.
3 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used, in particular, as the engine of the aircraft (L.A.).
A device called a Stirling engine that converts heat energy into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft .
The disadvantages of this invention should include the complexity of the device caused by the use of four-crank mechanism (CRG).
As the prototype device is selected by the RF patent №2056606 called "Converter of thermal energy into mechanical work" .
The disadvantages of the devices of the prototype should include large overall dimensions, due to the inefficient system of heat removal from the condenser.
The aim of the present invention is the reduction in weight and size characteristics of the engine, and extending its functionality.
The essence of the invention is as follows.
To improve the efficiency of heat exchange in the area of the capacitor are radially mounted rods rigidly fixed to the motor housing. The rods are rigidly fixed conical plates both inside and outside of the sealed enclosure. Tapered plates made with the developed heat exchange surface, such as wave-like. With Stour which are the vertices of a truncated cone set screw. The rod and cone plates made of copper or alloys based on it.
The proposed solution significantly increases the efficiency of heat removal from the condenser, reduces its size, which in the end leads to achievement.
The invention is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 shows the appearance of the engine (in section).
Figure 2 presents a sealed enclosure with rods and cone plates.
Figure 3 shows the cone plate.
Figure 4 presents turbine engine (increased).
Figure 5 shows the profile of the conical plates.
Figure 6 shows a variant of the engine using solar energy.
The device of the external combustion engine.
The external combustion engine comprises a sealed housing 1 in the form of a truncated cone, partially filled with coolant. The body contains the evaporator 2 and the condenser 3. In the case contains insulating ring 4, which is the element housing and rigidly fastened as with evaporative section 5 and the condensing section 6 of the engine block. By insulating ring rigidly attached impellers 7 of the turbine with the rotor blades 8, covered by the rim 9. The impellers of the turbine is rigidly attached to the shaft 10 of the engine. Shaft mounted wheel 11 of the turbine with guide vanes 12, Oh uchennymi rim 13, representing the inner ring magnet. Rims all wheel installed with the formation of the annular gap 14 with the body. Wheel with guide vanes mounted for rotation relative to the shaft - bearings 15. Over the inner ring magnet has an external annular magnet 16, is rigidly connected with the casing (housing) 17 L.A. On the motor shaft rigidly fastens the screw 18. In the motor housing, in the condensation zone, contains the rods 19, which is rigidly fixed conical plate 20 wave-like profile, with both internal and external to the housing. Around the evaporator is located 2 spiral combustion chamber 21 with opposed spaced nozzles 22.
When stationary version of application engine, using solar energy, the engine is provided with a protective casing 23, which protects the capacitor from heat, spokes 24 for fastening the casing and the generator 25. This screw serves as the compressor and fan.
With the purpose of clarity and ease of illustration, figures 1 and 6 the inner and outer conical plates with rods not shown.
When the fuel supply to the injectors 22 and the compressed air in 2 spiral combustion chamber 21, is heated and evaporation of the coolant in the evaporator 2. Steam under pressure postopia is on the rotor blades 8 and the guide vanes 12 multi-stage turbine. Because the rim 13 of the wheel with guide vanes are fixed against rotation with the help of magnets 13 and 16, and the impellers 7 rigidly connected (with screws) case 1, the engine comes into rotation. The coolant in the vapor, after passing through the turbine enters the condenser 3 where it is cooled and transformed into a liquid phase. The cooling is caused by the case of the capacitor, and through the inner cone of the plates 20, rigidly secured to the rods 19. The heat flux through the rods to the outer cone plates, washed by the flow of the air pumped by the screw 18 in a spiral combustion chamber 21.
Going in the liquid phase on the inner cone plates, the fluid is deposited on the inner wall of the condenser 3 and in the form of a thin film by centrifugal force, is returned to the evaporator 2. For this purpose between the housing 1 and the rim of the turbine 9 and 13 provides a gap 14. In the evaporator, the fluid again passes into the vapor state and is supplied to the turbine wheel. The cycle is closed.
The advantages of the proposed technical solution.
Any heat engine must contain at least four devices: 1. The energy source. 2. Thermal machine. 3. The capacitor. 4. A pump.
Usually, all of these devices are their own, occupy large areas and the volume and connect the us among them, a complex communication system. In the proposed technical solution, all necessary devices are combined in one mobile unit, and the function of the pump keeps the engine, the body of which is made in the form of a cone.
1. Setting the value to the desired taper of the body (the angle α), and the number of revolutions of the engine, you are guaranteed to provide reliable heat carrier passage with opposing directions. Namely, in the gaseous state from the evaporator to the condenser, passing through the turbine and back into the liquid state from the condenser to the evaporator. While L.A. with a similar engine which does not depend on orientation in space, can do any aerobatics.
2. The engine is omnivorous, i.e. undemanding to as fuel. The nozzle can be adjusted to any type of fuel, in liquid or gaseous form. The engine can run on solar energy.
3. High reliability of the engine by its design, since all moving parts are enclosed in a sealed housing. The presence of two opposed spaced nozzles and 2 spiral combustion chamber increases the reliability of L.A.
4. High efficiency, since the heat transferred from the condenser to an external conical plates, utilized and additionally heats the air entering the combustion chamber.
1. Polytechnical dictionary. Publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia", Moscow, 1980 S-501. Article."Stirling engine".
2. RF patent №2056606 priority from 21.01.93,
1. The external combustion engine, containing a sealed enclosure in the shape of a truncated cone, partially filled with fluid, the body contains the evaporator and the condenser, the body contains insulating ring, which is the element housing and rigidly fastened as with evaporating section and the condensing section of the casing of the engine, to the insulation ring rigidly attached impellers of the turbine with the rotor blades covered by the rim, the impellers of the turbine is rigidly attached to the shaft of the motor, shaft mounted wheel turbine with guide vanes covered by the rim of an inner ring magnet, rims all wheel installed with the formation of the annular gap with the housing, wheel with guide vanes mounted for rotation relative to the shaft - bearings, over an internal ring magnet has an external ring magnet rigidly connected with the casing, wherein the motor shaft is rigidly secures the screw in the condenser contains the rods are rigidly fixed conical plate wave-like profile, with both internal and narodnostey housing, around the evaporator is located combustor nozzles.
2. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that around the evaporator is 2-spiral combustor.
3. The engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber contains 2 located opposite the nozzle.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat pipe quality control is proposed using non-contact optic heat supply and temperature measurement methods, as well as digital methods of processing of the recorded brightness contrast of heat field. At that, quality of heat pipe is determined as per value of asymmetry coefficient of isothermic surface relative to heat supply zone, and defect zone is determined as per distortion of shape of isothermic lines.
EFFECT: improving informativity and reliability of heat pipe quality control; reducing the time required for test performance.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to has phase catalytic process equipment to be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries exploiting gas phase catalytic reactions. Reactor comprises housing with reactor gas feed branch pipe and reaction product discharge branch pipe, heat pipe and pipes filled with catalyst. Heat pipe is formed by wall and housing first and second bottoms. Space between housing and first bottom is communicated with reactor gas feed branch pipe while that between housing and second bottom communicates with reactor product discharge branch pipe. Tubes filled with catalyst extend inside heat pipe. Note here that ends of tubes with catalyst extend beyond heat pipe limits. Heat feed to heat pipe and removed therefrom via housing.
EFFECT: uniform feed of heat, simplified heat feed and removal.
16 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a heat pipe comprising a body with a polished inner surface, a system of capillary channels is made in the form of a plate perforated with holes, having width of more than the length of the vessel opening diametre, and the plate is installed in the body, in the section across the body length, in a crescent-shaped form, besides, ends of the plate tightly adjoin the body walls and have an angle between the body wall and the plate up to 1 degree, and the body has at one end a plug as permanently connected, and at the other side of the body there is a valve in the form of a helical pair to pour liquid containing the following mixture: ether - 20%, industrial ethyl alcohol - 60%, acetone - 20%.
EFFECT: development of a heat pipe with minimum quantity of parts and maximum even heating along the entire surface of the pipe.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant includes evaporation chamber consisting of vertical evaporation sleeves connected to each other. Sleeves are connected to separation section the inner surface of which is covered with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material. Distributing header with nozzles is located at the top of separation section and demister and steam connection pipe is located at the bottom of separation section. Plant includes working chamber with power turbine the shaft of which is connected on the outer side with working element. Working chamber is equipped with high pressure steam inlet connection pipes and exhaust steam outlet connection pipes. Condensing chamber consists of distributing section the cover plate of which is equipped with exhaust steam inlet connection pipe. Bottom is covered with wick mass with holes and provided with holes to which vertical condensation sleeves covered on the inner side with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material, which is connected to wick mass, are connected. In the wick centre there located is cylindrical reservoir and feed pump the shaft of which is passed through cover plate of condensing chamber coaxially to shaft of power turbine wheel and rigidly attached to it. Pressure connection pipe is connected via pipeline to distributing header of evaporation chamber.
EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency of steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a multi-wick heat exchange partition comprises a body, inside which there are evaporation areas, transport (wick) areas, condensation areas, casing boards are coated with a wick from inside, which in its turn is coated with a jacket having triangular slots made on its upper and lower edges and attached to the cover and the bottom of the casing coated with a grid made of capillary material strips and forming cells from inside. Besides, in the casing cavity the above grids of the cover and the bottom are connected to each other by vertical wicks coated with cylindrical jackets with triangular slots made on their upper and lower ends and attached to the cover and the bottom of the casing.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and reliability.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: there proposed is heat pipe containing seven sections on the side of heating unit for clean water heating using the heat of waste gas discharged from the engine, and six sections on the side of evaporative unit for evaporation of clean water heated with each section of heat pipe on the side of heating unit using the heat of waste gas, and device for slowing down the speed of clean water flow flowing in sections of heat pipe on the side of evaporative unit. Device for slowing down the flow speed is equipped with a mixing section that mixes the clean water heated with each section of heat pipe on the side of the heating unit on the side of evaporative unit, and in which the cross-section area of continuous-flow circuit is set larger than in each section of heat pipe on the side of the heating unit.
EFFECT: maintaining the effective heat exchange by repeated heating of evaporated steam-phase working fluid medium with heat of waste gas, for example during cold start-up.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method intended to make panels with inbuilt heat pipes and/or inserts includes the following operations. Provision of lower board, which comprises lugs in selected areas, at both sides of heat pipes or inserts arrangement zones, and lugs are substantially flat and are intended for straightening over upper surface of lower board. Partial straightening of lugs in direction of arrangement zones. Arrangement of heat pipes and/or inserts in each zone of arrangement between lugs and in contact with upper surface of lower board. End of lugs straightening so that they adjoin side surfaces of heat pipes and/or inserts. Application of a layer of the first glue of specified thickness to side surfaces of heat pipes and/or inserts. Arrangement of intermediate structures at both sides of side surfaces of each heat pipe and/or insert, having substantially the same height that height of heat pipes and/or inserts and being in contact with upper surface of lower board. Arrangement of upper board above heat pipes and/or inserts and intermediate structures and in contact with them.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing of panels.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe electric element includes housing made from dielectric material and consisting of the cover blanked off on both edges with hot and cold walls made from dielectric material; casing made from electrically conducting material and placed inside the shell coaxially so that its upper and lower edges are toothed along the whole perimetre and tightly pressed with tops of teeth to inner surfaces of hot and cold walls so that triangular holes are formed between teeth and interact with steam transport zone, thus forming evaporation and condensation zones; annular space between the shell and casing is filled with wick made from porous material with homogeneous electrochemical characteristic, which in its turn is filled with working liquid, and upper and lower edges of casing are connected with electric wires to upper and lower external terminals.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability.
SUBSTANCE: integrated heat tube includes housing forming a closed vacuum chamber having heat transfer medium and a group of heat conductors connected to the closed chamber. Each group contacts the closed chamber and heat transfer medium. Radiating surface of heat tube can be considerably enlarged owing to changes in construction of heat conductors. Method for ensuring large heat dissipation surface for integrated heat tube involves steps at which there made is corrugated thin-wall channel or heat-absorbing construction or any of their combinations. There made is curved surface for corrugated thin-wall channel for fluid medium, or curved surface for thin-wall channel for fluid medium in the form of a closed tube, or curved or bent surface for heat-absorbing construction or any of their combinations. There made is a group of thin-wall channels for fluid medium inside the closed chamber. Method of developing the construction of heat-absorbing end of integrated heat tube, which involves the steps at which the heat-absorbing end shall be smooth and flat or smooth and protruding or smooth and deep, there provided are cavities passing through opposite sides or through one and the same side of the housing. There made is heat-absorbing end of heat tube in the form of closed corrugated thin-wall curved surface; at that, there made are groups of finned curved surfaces, there made is metal plate having cavity, channel for molten substance, and air discharge channel. Method of heat exchange in integrated heat tube, which involves the steps at which there provided is heat absorption owing to contact with heat source on the surface of heat-absorbing end of heat tube housing; at that, heat is transferred to the same heat transfer medium in the same closed chamber through surface of heat-absorbing housing end. Method of heat exchange in rotary integrated heat tube using liquid medium involves the steps at which there used is round cross-section of heat tube housing as heat-absorbing end for heat absorption owing to contact with heat source during high-speed rotation when heat tube rotates at high speed.
EFFECT: large cooling area, high heat transfer speed, low heat resistance.
63 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, and namely to heat tubes intended mainly for freezing of soil with the purpose of reinforcement of foundations and bases of various facilities erected on permanently frozen soils. In gravity-assisted heat pipe containing tight housing partially filled with liquid heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones and with transportation zone, housing in evaporation zone and in transportation zone or in any of those zones has at least one insert made in the form of bellow connected with cylindrical tips to the housing sections between which an insert is located, bellow is enclosed in flexible metal sleeve the ends of which are fixed on the above tips; the insert is also equipped with rigid removable casing for fixing mutual position of the housing sections between which there is an insert made with possibility of being located around the above sleeve and attached to the housing sections adjacent to the insert.
EFFECT: design of the tube provides high degree of manufacturability, transportation and installation thereof to operating position on the object.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, cooler comprises outer and inner cases 1 and 2 with clearance 8 there between. Note here that inner case 2 has coke feed and discharge openings 3 and 4 while said clearance 8 communicates with cooling water feed and discharge tubes 5 and 5 arranged in coke discharge zone. Blank lengthwise partitions are arranged inside said clearance 8 to make, at least, two sections for cooling water feed, and communicated with feed tube 5, and two cooling water discharge sections communicated with discharge tube 6. note here that said sections are intercommunicated by openings 12 in coke feed zone. In compliance second version, aforesaid clearance accommodates intermediate case to form, with inner case, an annular cooling water feed while, with outer case, a cooling water discharge channel. Note here that said channels are intercommunicated via openings for water crossflow in coke loading zone.
EFFECT: reduced dynamic and thermo mechanical loads, simplified design and repair, longer life.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for gas drying, cleaning and heat exchanging and may be used for air ventilation and conditioning. Device is provided with shell, rotor with set of disks fixed to hollow shaft and a set of heat exchanging tubes arranged circumferentially along set of disks but at some distance from shaft, inlet and outlet nozzles. At full circle, rotor disk edges are represented in the form of blades directed either in parallel to disk radius or at ϕ - angle to disk radius and deflected to inter-disk space at tilting angle 0<α<180°. Blades are flat or deflected lengthwise and edgewise with permanent thickness or profiled shape in cross section. Distance b between disks is selected based on the following condition λ>1, λ=b (ω/ν)0.5, where b - distance between dicks; ν - cinematic viscosity of gas; ω -cyclic rotation frequency of rotor. Rotor in shell is installed with clearance d, defined by condition 0<d/R<0.5, where d - clearance between shell and rotor disks; R - disk radius.
EFFECT: increase of device productivity by mass flow rate and heat exchange especially at low gas pressure and improvement of gas cleaning quality.
FIELD: ventilation; air conditioning.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used in buildings and premises of different purpose for cleaning and drying gas and air and for heat exchange. Device for cleaning and drying gas and air has case, rotor provided with pack of discs fastened onto hollow shaft, which has channel for heat exchange, and inlet and outlet branches. Channel of heat exchange is made in form of a set of heat-exchange pipes, which pass through the whole pack of discs and disposed along their circle at some distance from hollow shaft coaxial to its axis. Heat-exchange pipes communicate with shaft by means of radial located channels to form closed heat-exchange channel. Set of heat-exchange pipes is placed onto discs of rotor. Heat-exchange pipes are fastened to any disc of rotor inside bushings made of heat-conducting material to provide thermal contact, for example, by means of heat-conducting glue.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heat exchange.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be also used in chemical industry, power engineering. Direction and intensity of working medium flow is preset according to the method by form of rotor and its cellular structure being permeable at different directions. Catalytic material is used as cellular material; moreover power and mass exchange processes and chemical interaction take place inside the body of rotor including its developed surface. Rotor-type power-transforming device has at least one rotor mounted onto shaft for rotation, working medium supply and removal collectors. Rotor can have any geometric shape, for example, disc, cone, truncated cone or sphere being permeable at different directions of high-porous cellular material to form channels inside body of rotor for letting working medium flow. Working medium and heat removal collector is placed along periphery of rotor. Permeable rotor is made of material having non-uniform permeability and is provided with heat-exchange surface. Heat-exchange surface is disposed at one side of rotor which side is opposite to one-directed flow of working medium or it can be placed inside rotor when flows of working medium are oriented at different directions. As a cellular material the catalytic material or ceramic either metal carrier onto surface of which carrier the catalyst is applied. As a catalyst at least one noble metal and/or metal oxide is applied. Metal can be chosen from the group containing IV period transition metals. Direction and intensity of working medium flow can be adjusted according to the method as well as mass- heat-exchange processes can be intensified. Method also allows increasing heat output from unit of area of heat-exchange surface.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat exchanging apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: disk heat exchanger comprises passage which receives at least one rotating rotor made of disks secured to the common shaft at a distance from each other and baffles with slots mounted inside the passage. The rotor is multistep and its disks are divided into the steps by unmovable plates. The by-pass passages are interposed between the steps. The disks are flexible, and the baffles are provided with rotatable combs.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention is meant for application in ventilation and conditioning of air and may find application in energy-saving technologies.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for utilization of heat and cold has a rotary heat exchanger, placed in a body with openings and divided by a bulkhead on two chambers and a rotary drive. At that according to the invention the heat exchanger is fulfilled of corrugated metal wrapped up around sealed pipes which were preliminary filled with low-boiling liquid. Besides the rotary drive of the heat exchanger is fulfilled out of two winged pinions kinematically connected with the shaft of the heat exchanger. The rotary drive of the heat exchanger may be fulfilled in the form of a screw winded round the heat exchanger and located in an annular gap between the body of the arrangement and the heat exchanger. The rotary drive of the heat exchanger may be also fulfilled in the form of balancers symmetrically fixed to the rotary shaft of the heat exchanger and manufactured out of materials changing their length and the arrangement itself is installed with the bulkhead perpendicularly to the Earth's surface.
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase effectiveness of utilization of secondary resources of energy.
4 cl, 4 dwg