Method of gas laser cutting of large-sixe parts from composite materials and device to this end

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas laser cutting of composite materials. Proposed method comprises feeding laser beam to machined surface and process gas, aligned therewith, collimating laser beam, embedding it in machined article and displacing by preset program in the presence of process fluid. Fluid jet is fed as swirled coaxially with laser beam into cutting thermal effect zone. Proposed device comprises laser cutter case wit focusing lens, union to feed process gas, nozzle, and cylindrical vessel with annular channel to feed process fluid. Said annular channel incorporates hollow tapered adapter with inner surface representing helical grooves to swirl fluid flow.

EFFECT: higher quality of cutting.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, laser material processing, in particular for gas-laser cutting of composite materials, and can be used in the aerospace industry in the manufacture of large parts made of composite materials to improve their quality.

The level of technology

There is a method of gas-laser cutting of composite materials (EN 2382693 from 17.07.2008,), the method includes applying a laser beam on the workpiece surface, the flow coaxially with the laser beam process gas, callmerobbie laser beam, focusing it on the desired depth of workpiece and moving according to a given program. Cutting is produced in a liquid medium. The product is placed in a tub of water on a cone-shaped pins with excess of water level above the surface of the product is equal to 10-15 mm

The technological process is carried out ytterbium fiber laser with the depth of the laser beam in the workpiece by 0.2-0.4 thickness. Moving the laser beam is carried out with a speed of 1.2-1.8 m/min

The disadvantage of this method, selected as a prototype, is to limit the size of workpiece due to the need to immerse it in the water bath and the inability to handle the products of complex spatial forms due to the inaccessibility of the laser beam.

There is a method of gas-laser cutting of metallic materials and a device for implementing the method (EN 2089365, UK 26/14,1997), including the supply under pressure of the process gas into the body of the cutter coaxially with the laser beam in the cutting zone additionally, water is supplied at a flow rate of 0.01 to 4.0 ml/mm Reza. Device for gas-laser cutting of metallic materials supplied by the container with the annular channel to supply water to the cutting zone, made in the form of a hollow cylinder, covering the nozzle with the nozzle, and the diameter of the nozzle and the annular channel are the same.

This method is only suitable for cutting metals and provides water to the cutting zone, the consumption of which is from 0.01 to 4.0 ml/mm Reza. This flow of water increases the thickness of the cutting with the same power. With the increase of water consumption, as the authors state, quality steel cutting is getting worse.

Cutting the same composite materials requires more water flow, because the flow of water into the cutting zone is necessary to improve the quality of processing, namely, the decrease of the area of possible thermocline, which exceeds the cut zone in 1,5-2 times. Furthermore, you have the complete removal of the decay products of the cut to create a clean working conditions and efficient cooling of the edges of the part.

The invention

The task of the image is to be placed is the development of technology, ensure the expansion of technological capabilities of laser cutting of composite materials, namely, the cutting of large parts with complex space form with high quality.

This object is achieved in that in the method of laser cutting of composite materials, comprising applying a laser beam on the workpiece surface, the flow coaxially with the laser beam process gas, callmerobbie laser beam, embedding it in a workpiece, and moving according to a given program in the presence of a liquid medium, the liquid medium serves on the surface of a workpiece in the form of a swirling jet coaxial laser beam in the area of intended thermolyne cutting.

In addition, the liquid medium is served in the form of a swirling jet with an initial diameter of 2-3 mm at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 l/min

And device for laser cutting of composite materials, comprising a housing laser cutting, having a focusing lens, a nozzle for supplying the process gas nozzle nozzle and cylindrical tank with an annular channel for feeding the liquid medium,

the annular channel is equipped with hollow cone nozzle, the inner surface of which is provided with a twisting flow device.

Moreover, the twisting flow device made in the form of grooves on the internal p is the surface of the conical head, inclined to its axis at an angle of 15-30°.

This embodiment of the method and device allow for cutting of parts of complex spatial configuration of composite materials with high quality.

List of drawings

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a device implementing the method gas-laser cutting.

Figure 2 shows a section of the conical head with grooves.

Figure 3 shows the cross-section (top view) of the conical head.

The implementation of the invention

The way gas-laser cutting of large-sized products from composite materials in accordance with the invention is as follows.

The workpiece 11 is installed in the tray 5 on the conical pins 6.

Device for laser cutting of composite materials includes a housing laser cutting 3, with the focusing lens 2. Collimated laser beam 1 ytterbium fiber laser is fed to the focusing lens 2 and is buried at 0.2-0.4 thickness in the material of the workpiece.

Building a laser cutter 3 also contains a nozzle 7 for supplying process gas coaxially to the laser beam, nozzle nozzle 8 with the diameter of the outlet of 1.5-2.0 mm to give a process gas coaxially with the laser beam direction and cilin the historical capacity 9 with the annular channel 10 for supplying a liquid medium (water) in the treatment area.

As fluids used in industrial processes, since it is transparent for a wavelength of λ=1,07 μm and does not absorb the laser radiation.

To make the fluid flow turbulence annular channel 10 provided with a hollow cone nozzle with the diameter of the outlet of 2.5-3.0 mm, and the diameter of the outlet is selected:

D≥t+tHAZ, where t is the width of cut, tHAZ- the width of the heat affected zone.

The inner surface of the nozzle provided with a twisting flow device.

The device is made in the form of spiral grooves 4 on the inner surface of the conical head, inclined to its axis at an angle of 15-30°, which allows you to spin the fluid flow in the treatment area and more intensive cooling of the cutting edges, thus reducing their charring.

To drain the waste liquid with the products of decomposition and its further utilization in the pan has a drain hole.

The device operates as follows.

Remote control with laser systems include ytterbium fiber laser, the radiation of which the fiber cable is transported to the cutting head, where it first collyriums, and then the condenser lens 2 is focused on the workpiece surface with the depth of focus by 0.2-0.4 thickness of workpiece 11.

At the same time on the CNC program command is and supply process gas and the coolant (water).

The liquid medium serves on the surface of a workpiece in the form of a swirling jet coaxial laser beam in the area of intended thermolyne cutting. The fluid flow is determined by the thickness and type of the processed composite material. So for CFRP thickness of 3-4 mm, the flow of water when cutting is 2.5-3.0 l/min

Also the command to move the cutting head according to the specified path.

Process gas (in our case N2under pressure of 0.8÷1.4 MPa enters the cutting zone, mixed with drops of liquid (water), and makes the decay products from the cutting zone in the pan.

Liquid (water) into the cutting zone is also supplied under pressure 0,3÷0,5 MPa concentric laser beam with a twist that helps protect the surface from charring and thermal impact is minimal throughout the depth of cut.

An example of a specific implementation of the invention

For cutting large-sized products from composite material (e.g., cutting holes in the absorption of the engine nacelles, material thickness ~3 mm, the diameter of the product ~1.5 m, height of ~2 m) was used 5-axis laser technological complex LTK-3D with ytterbium fiber laser power of 2 kW (LS-2), operating in pulsed mode radiation. The size of the working area included the sa 5000×3000×800 mm Specially designed swivel head, mounted in a support plate of the machine, allows not only to move the cutting head by coordinates X, Y, Z, but also to rotate it about the vertical Z-axis (coordinate With) n×360° and rotated by ±120° around the horizontal axis (coordinate)that makes it possible to process the surface of the product complex spatial forms.

The laser beam output from the transported fiber cable first colimarebels, and then focused by a lens with F=150 mm on the surface with the depth of focus by 0.2 thickness of the product. The spot diameter of the laser radiation in the working area was approximately 150 μm. High power density laser radiation allows to break down the fiber composite material with minimal roughness.

Simultaneous submission of the programme in the cutting zone process gas (N2under the pressure of 1.4 MPa coaxially to the laser beam and the liquid (water) in the form of a swirling jet with an initial diameter of 2.5 mm under a pressure of 0.25 MPa coaxial beam allows you to protect the heat-affected zone from charring and make the decay products from the cutting zone in the pan.

The application of this technology makes working conditions more environmentally friendly and cut quality with minimal heat-affected zone and uniform throughout the depth of edge education is tivemos details. All decay products are deposited on the bottom of the pan.

The cutting speed was equal to 1.5÷1.8 m/min heat-affected Zone was ~0.15 mm, and the charring was uniform across the cut surface. While cutting the same composite material without water flow causes the heat-affected zone at the entrance of the cut of 0.25 mm, and the output of 0.4 mm. And process conditions was accompanied by a strong gas with a characteristic odor processing of composites.

Thus, the proposed method gas-laser cutting of composite materials allows to handle the products of large size with good quality cut and creates more favorable conditions.

1. The method of laser cutting of composite materials, comprising applying a laser beam on the workpiece surface, the flow coaxially with the laser beam process gas, callmerobbie laser beam, embedding it in a workpiece and moving in accordance with a given program in the presence of a liquid medium, characterized in that the liquid medium serves on the surface of a workpiece in the form of a swirling jet coaxial laser beam in the heat-affected zone of cutting.

2. The method of laser cutting of composite materials according to claim 1, characterized in that the liquid medium serves as the swirling jet is the initial diameter of 2-3 mm at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 l/min

3. Device for laser cutting of composite materials, comprising a housing laser cutting, having a focusing lens, a nozzle for supplying the process gas nozzle nozzle and cylindrical tank with an annular channel for feeding the liquid medium, characterized in that on the inner surface of the annular channel of a cylindrical tank made twisting the flow of the cooling medium spiral grooves.

4. Device for laser cutting of composite materials according to claim 3, characterized in that the helical grooves on the inner surface of the channel is made with an inclination to its axis at an angle of 15-30°.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to cutting of metals by laser. Its use allows expanding operating performances by application of independent operation of two or more laser heads at one machine tool. Laser cutting machine tool comprises: bed 1, at least, one longitudinal guide 2, at least, two transverse guides 3, at least, two laser heads 4 and computer. Every transverse guide 2 is mounted on longitudinal guide 2 for independent displacement while every laser head 4 is mounted on transverse guide 3 for independent horizontal and vertical displacement. Drives of transverse guides and laser heads are connected to computer for independent program control thereof.

EFFECT: six-axis control over laser heads.

1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: laser beam of short-wave laser 1 is directed to reflecting rotary mirror 13, reflecting mirror 14 and, therefrom, into lens 10 on focusing lens 15, and, via central conical nozzle 5, in pulse mode with amplitude equal to thickness of material being cut, into cutting zone 17. Laser annular beam of long-wave laser 2 is directed to reflecting mirror 13 and, therefrom, to focusing lens 10, wherein beam is reflected by annular mirrors 11, 12 and, besides, directed via central conical nozzle 5 into cutting zone 17. Simultaneously, process gas is fed from gas feed system 8 into annular converging-diverging supersonic nozzle 6 with skewed edge 7 at outlet to effuse therefrom onto material being cut.

EFFECT: required cutting depth and high surface quality.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: preliminary construction of calibration curve of dependence of cutting depth of specimen of the specified metal or its alloy on parameters of incident laser radiation to surface is performed at monotonic increase in specific power of laser radiation from value of 0.1 J/cm2·s to the value at which through cutting occurs. Then, metal or its alloy is molten-through along cutting line with laser beam by moving the laser beam progressively at speed V, and at the same time its rotation with radius R is performed. Radius R and angular rotation speed of laser beam ω is chosen considering the cut width and radius of laser beam.

EFFECT: high cutting speed at effective use of laser beam energy.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to separation of semiconductor chip surface layer. In compliance with first version, focused laser beam is directed onto chip so that its focus is located at layer separation plane perpendicular to beam axis and displaced to scan layer separation plane in direction of chip exposed side surface and deep down to make continuous cutout. In compliance with second version, focused laser beam is directed onto chip so that focus is located in layer separation plane perpendicular to beam axis and displaced in said plane to produce non-overlapping local regions with disturbed chip structure topology and weakened atomic bonds. Said local regions are distributed over entire said plane. External effects are applied to layer being separated to destruct said weakened atomic bonds.

EFFECT: separation of lateral surface layers from semiconductor crystals.

9 cl, 14 dwg, 12 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used in nuclear power engineering and other branches of machine building. Proposed method comprises focusing laser beam at material and feeding protective inert gas into cutting zone. Inert gas is fed via nozzle at its outlet pressure of, at least, 3.5·10-5 MPa. Note here that laser beam with wavelength of 1.06-1.07 mcm is used and directed via said nozzle coaxially with its lengthwise axis.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality, ruled out metal corrosion.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of moulding cells for vessels or bottles for bottle washing machines. Proposed method comprises the following stages: moulding cell blank 3a from synthetic material and machining it. Said machining includes material removal or dissection to produce structures required for functioning and/or hardening cell 3, and/or for reducing weight of said cell.

EFFECT: higher strength and quality of complex cells.

9 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal machining by laser beam. Proposed method comprises stages described below First step comprises making first bore with initial diameter and bore axis. Second step comprises displacing laser beam and rotating it about bore axis to produce intermediate bore aligned with initial bore but with larger diameter. Third step comprises displacing laser beam focus along bore axis and finishing said bore by pulsed laser beam.

EFFECT: boring in composite material with ceramic substrate, for example in gas turbine engine combustion chamber or vane.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: plate (7) is positioned parallel to first plate (5) and at close distance from it so, that outline of orifice (73a) is located opposite to outline of cut-out orifice (53a). Protective device (10) in form of plate of specific thickness with the third orifice (10a) and with outline set off inside relative to outline of second orifice (73a) is placed between two plates (5 and 7). Further, the first orifice is cut out.

EFFECT: prevention of melt metal hitting second orifice, of deviation of laser beam at cutting and of losses of density of laser beam power output.

7 cl, 4 dwg

Cutting tool // 2417879

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cutting tools and may be used for cutting whatever materials. Proposed cutting tool comprises top and bottom parts that may be parted by separating appliances. At least, one of top and bottom parts comprises cutting device while top and bottom parts are retained together by magnets made up of first and second magnetic appliances arranged on top and bottom parts. Metal strip is arranged atop the cutting tool to joint first and second magnetic appliances to, at least, top or bottom part. Invention covers also the method of cutting with the help of above described tool.

EFFECT: improved control over cutting tool, better quality of cutting.

24 cl, 25 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method is realised by formation of hole for introduction and fixation of one ligature end in butt end surface of surgical needle without eye, made from stainless steel. Hole is made by irradiation of butt end of needle working piece, whose diametre is from 6 to 20 mcm larger than diametre of surgical needle, which constitutes less than 150 mcm, due to irradiation by one pulse of laser ray of specified duration, isolated from pulse radiated by laser, after which section, whose diametre is larger than needle diametre is removed. In other version of method duration of pulse separated from pulse radiated by laser is equal or less than 35 mcs. In third version of method realisation pulse, isolated from pulse radiated by laser if formed by multiple pulses of short duration.

EFFECT: group of inventions will make it possible to create holes of satisfactory quality in butt end of thin surgical needle, without puncture of side wall or hole bending.

4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: laser beam of short-wave laser 1 is directed to reflecting rotary mirror 13, reflecting mirror 14 and, therefrom, into lens 10 on focusing lens 15, and, via central conical nozzle 5, in pulse mode with amplitude equal to thickness of material being cut, into cutting zone 17. Laser annular beam of long-wave laser 2 is directed to reflecting mirror 13 and, therefrom, to focusing lens 10, wherein beam is reflected by annular mirrors 11, 12 and, besides, directed via central conical nozzle 5 into cutting zone 17. Simultaneously, process gas is fed from gas feed system 8 into annular converging-diverging supersonic nozzle 6 with skewed edge 7 at outlet to effuse therefrom onto material being cut.

EFFECT: required cutting depth and high surface quality.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises source 3 to form heat feed zone 11 on part surface 10, device 5 to feed welding filler 13 into said zone 11 and device 15 to displace heat source 3 and filler feed device 5 relative to part surface 10. Control unit 17 with control program controls displacement so that welding power and heat feed zone diameter are set to ensure cooling rate of at least 8000 K per second at material crystallisation. Depth of remelting previous layer is set proceeding from the condition of formation of polycrystalline weld seam.

EFFECT: rules out cracks.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used in nuclear power engineering and other branches of machine building. Proposed method comprises focusing laser beam at material and feeding protective inert gas into cutting zone. Inert gas is fed via nozzle at its outlet pressure of, at least, 3.5·10-5 MPa. Note here that laser beam with wavelength of 1.06-1.07 mcm is used and directed via said nozzle coaxially with its lengthwise axis.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality, ruled out metal corrosion.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves deposition of particles of a substance from gas phase through local heating of the deposition region with laser radiation. The substance in gas phase is dispersed in form of an aerosol. The deposition region is locally heated with pulsed laser radiation and the aerosol particles are baked onto the substrate. The pulse duration of the laser radiation is not shorter than that when the heat wavelength in particle is greater than the dimension of the particle in the direction of radiation. Material of said particles absorbs laser radiation.

EFFECT: high efficiency of depositing coatings while maintaining high resolution power of the method.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises welding in atmosphere of inert gas with simultaneous effects of laser and arc in one welding bath. In welding, arc torch is arranged ahead of laser beam along its path. Welding wire is directed to the points whereat laser beam crosses welded parts surface. Laser beam is inclined through 30-40 degrees in opposite sides with respective to normal to welded parts surface.

EFFECT: higher quality of welded seam.

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises continuous action of laser light spot on part surface. Parallel overlapped hardening paths are applied on vertical or inclined surfaces. Hardening paths are applied by beam directed at processed surface at angle and, at increased flow rate of process gas, said beam passed through nozzle. Laser beam is turned from perpendicular upward to surface in part processing plane through angle equal to 0.5-5°. Laser unit incorporates 5-coordinate laser head. Said paths are applied in different hardening spaced apart bands.

EFFECT: higher wear resistance and processing efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

Welding tool // 2393945

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to welding tool for arc-welding by tungsten electrode in inert gas, or for plasma welding, or for laser welding. Proposed tool comprises appliances to feed inert gas into welding tool head. Welding head is surround by skirt made from semi-rigid refractory material. Said skirt comprises front section shaped so that envelope welding seam with clearance over a certain length and appliances to allow detachable joint of said skirt on welding head. Said skirt is made by pressing or hot forming of composite material based on ceramic fibers and elastomer that sustains high temperatures. Skirt lower edge is located nearby welded parts, its shape and clearance mating those of jointed parts.

EFFECT: reliable protection of welded seam in automatic welding.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding of laser beam on treated surface, feeding co-axially to laser beam of process gas, collimation of laser beam, its embedding into treated product and movement by specified program. Cutting is implemented in liquid field. Product is located in bath with water on cone-shaped pins with exceeding of water level over surface of product equal to 10-15 mm. Cutting is implemented by ytterbium laser with laser beam embedding into treated product for 0.2-0.4 of its thickness. Movement of laser beam is implemented at a rate 1.2-1.8 m/min.

EFFECT: enhancement of manufacturing capabilities and improvement of ecology at treatment of composite materials and it is provided high quality of cutting.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to process engineering, particularly device and method of laser sintering. Processed chamber comprises optical element (9) to send beam (7) into processing chamber (10). Optical element has surface (9a) directed inside said chamber and wall part (12) that embraces said optical element (9). First gas inlet hole (16) is arranged on one side of optical element (9) so that first outward gas flow (18) flows, in fact, tangentially to surface (9a) of optical element (9). Second gas outlet hole (23) is arranged to allow second outward gas flow (25) to flow in the same direction, flow (18) flows along, and at a distance from surface (9a). Proposed method comprises directing electromagnetic radiation beam (7) through inlet opening into processing chamber (10) and sending first (18) and second (25) gas flows therein.

EFFECT: ruling out of beam deflection caused by temperature differences nearby inlet opening.

24 cl, 2 dwg

Gas-laser cutter // 2368479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: working metal by laser beam.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying fusing material by means of a jet of transporting gas to the nozzle of laser installation coaxially to the laser beam. The laser installation is adjusted to focus the laser beam inside the nozzle at a distance of 3-7 mm from the nozzle exit. The focus of the flow of the powder fusing material is outside of the nozzle at a distance of 6-10 mm. The particles of the zirconium dioxide are embedded into the melt of the heat-resistant high alloy and are distributed homogeneously through the bulk of the plated metal.

EFFECT: enhanced resistance to heat.

1 ex

Up!