Method of soil improvement in fallow of rice crop rotation for rice sowing

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes watering, disking of the soil after mass weed emergence, harrowing and moisturising watering followed by surface treatments. First a provocative wetting the soil with water is carried out to complete moisture saturation of its root zone with a depth of 0.06-0.08 m. Then, after the mass emergence of the weeds, disking of the soil is carried out to a depth of 0.1-0.12 m with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction of the grown vegetation. After new weed sprouting emergence and red grained forms of rice a layer of water is created, covering completely the vegetative plants, which is supported for one or two weeks till the complete destruction of weeds and red grained forms of rice, and then it is left it without treatment until spring. Before sowing rice in spring surface tillage is carried out to a depth of seeding down with simultaneous destruction of the remnants of weed vegetation.

EFFECT: method enables to obtain rice fields clean from weeds, to increase the degree of equalisation of checks plane, to eliminate chemical treatments of rice crops against weeds, to improve reclamation-ecological condition in the rice system, and to increase yields.

2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, and in particular to methods of weed control in rice fields.

The known method of algae control in rice cheque (U.S. Pat. RU # 2206969, AV 79/02 A01G 16/00, 27.06.2003), including autumn autumn ploughing to a depth of 0.20-0.25 m from the drug reservoir, spring tillage, sowing rice seeds, Bay water 0,10-0,12 m and maintaining it till sprouting above the surface.

The disadvantages of this method are its use only to combat dry type weeds (mesophytes) on the rice crops and only to the emergence above the water surface, the inability to completely destroy the weeds in the rice check.

A known way of dealing with wetland weeds in fallow field rice crop rotation, consisting in the implementation of provocative irrigation, drying fields and ploughing followed by repetition of the operations. And plowing is carried out three times at different depths: 0,12-0,14 m; 0.25 to 0.30 m and 0.20-0,22 m Then during the season after the emergence of weeds carry out processing of disk tools (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E., Zernograd, 1989, p.9).

The disadvantages of this method is the high energy consumption and the inability to fight red forms of rice and weeds of evil the new type.

There is a method of soil treatment on the level of the employed pair (Apply. Development of wetland land under rice crop. Krasnodar publishing house. Krasnodar. 1975, p.90-93), according to which field, left under full fallow after the harvest of rice, sowing the intermediate cultures. To do this, make otvalnuyu plowing to a depth of 0.14 to 0.16 m, then disking with harrowing and sowing. Catch crops sown in the period from 25 September to 5 October. In the spring, after cleaning is carried out, the layout of the planes of checks and repair network, and the fall - again sowing catch crops for green fodder or green manure. In late April - early may next year moldboard plowing to a depth of 0.18-0.20 m or milling to a depth of 0.12 to 0.14 m with subsequent amendments and incorporation of fertilizers, rolling the soil and planting rice.

The disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption of executing complex technological operations, reduction of soil fertility and the need for additional doses of mineral and organic fertilizers for re-cultivation of catch crops, the decline in the quality plan of the surface of the rice paddies in late April - early may moldboard plowing to a depth of 0.18-0.20 m or milling to a depth of 0.12 to 0.14 m, the deterioration of the ecological situation and the red eye reduction is the rice yield in connection with the failure of soil-conservation measures for weed control.

There is a method of weed control grass type and red forms of rice steam rice field crop rotation, taken as a prototype, including a consistent alteration of agricultural practices: watering, disking after the mass of weeds, processing stubble field at a depth of 0.12 to 0.14 m with simultaneous weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments to keep the field clean. In case of strong contamination of the topsoil cycle "watering - processing" carried out up to three times (Recommendations by the technology of rice cultivation without the use of herbicides under the editorship of Professor Aleshin, H.E. Zernograd, 1989, p.9).

The main disadvantages of this method is the high energy intensity of its execution, the unsustainable use of irrigation water, the inability to combat wetland weeds, environmental degradation and the decline in rice yield in connection with the failure of soil-conservation measures, weed control, environmental degradation and the decline in rice yield in connection with the failure of soil-conservation measures for weed control.

The technical result of the invention is the improvement of land reclamation and ecological situation in the rice system by reducing the contamination of weeds of rice crops and includedependency chemical treatment of crops against weeds, increasing the yield and reducing the cost of rice by increasing the degree of vyravnennoe plane checks and more amicable shoots of rice.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of reclamation of the soil in the steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice, including watering, disking after the mass of weeds, weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments, according to the invention, the soil improvement in steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice is carried out in three stages, the first stage performs a provocative wetting the soil with water to vlagonasyschennyh its root layer depth of 0.06 to 0.08 m, then, after the mass of weeds, hold disking to a depth of 0.1-0.12 m with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction climbed vegetation in the second stage after the appearance of new shoots of weeds and red forms of rice creates a layer of water, completely covering the vegetative plants, which support one to two weeks to complete destruction of weeds and red forms of rice, and then leave it without treatment until the spring; in the third stage before sowing of rice in the spring of performing surface treatment of the soil to a depth of seeding.

The novelty of the claimed invention due to high is the power of control weeds through three stages of processing rice cheque improve the environmental situation in the rice fields through the implementation of complex soil-conservation measures that exclude the use of chemicals to control weeds that reduce the cost and increase the yield of rice.

Performance of a complex technological operations in steam rice field crop rotation consisting of three stages, improves the efficiency of weed control by performing various soil-conservation techniques for different types of weeds, and to improve the redox processes in the topsoil rice cheque due to its multiple loosening that guarantees high yields of rice.

At the first stage of the weed is performed by provocative wetting of the soil, then disking with simultaneous harrowing. Studies have shown that to perform provocative wetting the soil with water to vlagonasyschennyh its root layer is necessary and sufficient layer depth 0,06-0,08 m after conducting a mass of weeds disking the soil to a depth of 0.1-0.12 m with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction climbed vegetation that helps to improve reclamation-environmental situation in figure the new system by reducing the contamination of weeds of rice crops, to save energy and tradesure by reducing the depth of tillage from 0.12 to 0.14 m 0,10-0,12 m

Performing controlled provocative wetting with water to vlagonasyschennyh soil rice should check to a depth of 0.06 to 0.08 m, which is sufficient for germination of most species of weeds that can improve reclamation and ecological conditions in the rice system by reducing the contamination of weeds of rice crops, increase productivity and reduce costs by saving irrigation water.

Creating a layer of water on the field, completely covering vegetative plants, which support one to two weeks to complete loss of vegetative organs of weeds and red forms of rice, the second stage can improve reclamation and ecological conditions in the rice system by reducing the contamination of weeds of rice crops and exceptions for chemical treatment of crops against weeds, improve productivity and reduce the cost of rice by increasing the degree of vyravnennoe plane checks and more amicable shoots of rice.

Due to the fact that the field is maintained for several weeks under a layer of water, and then left in this condition until spring without treatment, the soil gets shrinkage and the surface h is ka agrotehnicheskij desired uniformity within ±50 mm, saving irrigation water during the growing season, and reduce energy and labor costs to perform reclamation activities that are not required to offer the entire range of spring preplant treatments and technical measures aimed at the eradication of weeds; to get more vigorous seedlings, and therefore, to perform cleaning of rice in the period, resulting in lower losses of grain at harvest, yield and reduction in the cost of rice.

The implementation of the third phase of the surface soil to a depth of seed placement with simultaneous destruction of remnants of weeds can reduce the intensity and complexity of the ongoing pre-sowing treatments, to reduce the cost of rice and get guaranteed high yields of rice.

The method is as follows.

Method of reclamation of the soil in the steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice includes watering, disking after the mass of weeds, weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments. At the end of summer, beginning of autumn in steam rice field rotation perform complex soil-conservation works, consisting of three stages. At the first stage perform provocative wetting the soil with water to vlagonasyschennyh cornubite the CSOs layer depth 0,06-0,08 m After the mass of weeds spend tillage with diskutirame or disk harrows to a depth of 0.1-0.12 m with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction climbed vegetation. In the second stage, after the appearance of new shoots of weeds and red forms of rice creates a layer of water, which should completely cover the plants. The layer of water on the rice cheque hold one to two weeks before the final destruction of weeds and red forms of rice and leave the field without processing until spring. The soil at this time receives shrinkage and the surface of the check agrotehnicheskij the desired uniformity of ±50 mm In the third stage before sowing of rice in the spring of performing a surface treatment of the soil to a depth of seed placement with simultaneous destruction of rising residues of weeds.

An example of the method.

Test method for the amelioration of the soil in the steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice was carried out in the collective farm named after Lenin Krasnoarmeysky "Star" Abinsk district of Krasnodar region.

In the beginning of autumn in steam rice field system of the collective farm named after Lenin, Krasnoarmeysky district, and at the end of summer on the farm "Star" Abinsk district fulfilled complex of soil-conservation measures, consisting of three stages. The first stage was completed provocative wetting the surface of the steam field in the DOI to complete vlagonasyschennyh topsoil to a depth of 0.08 m Then after the mass of weeds was performed tillage with diskutirame in the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeysky district, and disk harrows on the farm "Star" Abinsk district to a depth of 0.1 and 0.12 m, respectively, with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction climbed vegetation. In the second stage, after the appearance of new shoots of weeds and red forms of rice has created a layer of water with a height of 0.08 m in the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district and 0.1 m in the farm "Star" Abinsk district, which completely covered usasatsui weed vegetation. The layer of water on the rice bill was held two weeks before the final destruction of weeds and red forms of rice, after which the water supply was stopped until completely absorbed into the soil and left fallow field without treatment until spring. During this period, the soil has been shrinking, and the surface of the check agrotehnicheskij the desired uniformity of ±50 mm in the Spring did the third stage of processing - surface treatment of the soil to a depth of seeding rice 0,05-0,06 m of the soil milling train-harrows with simultaneous destruction of remnants of weeds.

The proposed method reduced the infestation of rice crops (table 1) and to improve the environmental safety of the rice irrigation system due to the amelioration of soils rice field is (table 2).

Table 2
Change amelioration of the condition and fertility of soils rice fields of the collective farm named after Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district
Room/feature checksDepth selection, cmThe degree of vyravnennoe, mmN-NO3N-NH4P2O5To2AboutHumus, %
11/AMP on the way0-5±501,890,5713,87,32,20
5-101,800,5213,17,3
55/AMP control0-5±1001,670,3811,06,3 2,08
5-101,650,3510,25,5
53/AMP on the way0-5±502,191,1011,46,12,86
5-102,151,0411,35,8
302/AMP control0-5±901,110,4210,85,82,01
5-101,140,4610,05,0

As a result of application of this method of reclamation of the soil in the steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice was obtained rice yield increase from 12%to 15%. The costs of grain decreased by 10-12%. Lower energy and labor performed are vitally m the activities amounted to 10-15%.

Method of reclamation of the soil in the steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice, including watering, disking after the mass of weeds, weeding, watering watering with subsequent surface treatments, characterized in that the soil improvement in steam rice field crop rotation seeding of rice is carried out in three stages: the first stage perform provocative wetting the soil with water to vlagonasyschennyh its root layer depth of 0.06 to 0.08 m, then, after the mass of weeds, hold disking to a depth of 0.1-0.12 m with simultaneous harrowing to complete destruction climbed vegetation; in the second stage, after the appearance of new shoots of weeds and red forms of rice creates a layer of water, completely covering the vegetative plants, which support one to two weeks to complete destruction of weeds and red forms of rice, and then leave it without treatment until the spring; in the third stage before sowing of rice in the spring of performing a surface treatment of the soil to a depth of seed placement with simultaneous destruction of rising residues of weeds.



 

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