Method for underground mining of ore deposits in cryolite zone

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: in the period of negative temperatures of ambient air from dehydrated dressing tails briquettes are pressed of ball shape with two diameters related with the following ratio: and volume of a filling material pressed in the form of briquettes of smaller diameter is determined according to the following formula: where Vvol - total volume of solid wastes supplied for briquetting. All prepared briquettes are frozen on the surface, mixed in hoppers with vibrators, transported and placed in a mined space of cleaning units. The ratio of this space filling with briquettes with identical diameter always makes 0.523. If for filling of the mined space a set of briquettes is used in two different diameters, then the coefficient of filling of the mined space will increase to the value of 0.597.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase environmental safety of ore deposits mining in a cryolite zone due to increased volume of solid wastes return from dressing and higher extent of filling of the mined space by means of recovery of a permafrost massif in it.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of mining and, in particular, to underground mining of ore deposits in permafrost.

There is a method of field development with rock mined-out space [1]. The disadvantage of this method, as applied to the conditions of the permafrost zone, is the need for additional costs for obtaining and preparation of backfill material while simultaneously forming on the surface of the tailings, the capacity of which is practically equal to the volume of annual production. The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the method of development of ore deposits in permafrost with tab frozen pellets from tailings [2]. The disadvantage of this method can be considered a low fill factor goaf briquettes with the same size, which requires the creation of additional volumes for solid waste disposal.

The aim of the invention is to increase the environmental safety of the development of ore deposits in permafrost due to the increasing return of solid waste enrichment and increase the degree of filling out space by restoring to it the array of permafrost.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the period of negative temperatures outside ozdoba of dewatered tailings press briquettes spherical shape of the two diameters, associated value:where d and d are the diameters of filling briquettes (d<D), and the volume of backfill material compacted in the form of pellets of smaller diameter (Vd), is determined by the formula:

where Vabout- the total amount of solid waste that is fed to the briquetting.

All the prepared pellets frozen on the surface, stirred for one of the known methods, for example in bunkers with vibrators, transported and placed in the mined-out space of the treatment blocks. The fill factor of this space briquettes with the same diameter D is always. If for laying-out space using a set of bricks of two different diameters are in the ratio ofin which the total amount of briquettes smaller diameter is:where d and d are the diameters of filling briquettes (d<D), Vabout- the total volume of backfill material for briquetting, the fill factor of a goafwill grow to size.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a process scheme of underground mining using the recovery process from a firm who tailings array of permafrost in the developed space through the use of low temperatures and backfill briquette of different diameter at the notch lived with block magazynowania ore; figure 2 shows the scheme of the packaging briquette of different diameter when placed in mined-out space.

Method of underground mining of mineral deposits in permafrost contains revealing generation 1, storey preparatory development - the top 2 and bottom 3, the flank of the rebels 4, treatment units 5, working on one of the famous geotechnologies, for example, magazynowania broken ore to 6, pledged during negative ambient temperatures of frozen backfill briquettes small and large 7 8 diameters obtained by dewatering and briquetting current tailings beneficiation plant 9; postremove pillars 10 backfill with Windows in them 11, the bottom 12 of treatment blocks 5 with outlet holes 13, mezhdublokovite pillars 14 with ventilation Windows 15; ground freezing 16 for filling briquettes large diameter 7, ground freezing 17 for stowing small briquettes diameter 8, press the filter 18 required performance press roller 19 for stowing briquettes large diameter 7, the press roller 20 for stowing small briquettes diameter 8, the hopper 21 for mixing filling briquettes small and large 7 8 diameter, filling the array 22 of briquettes small and large 7 8 diameter, goaf 23.

Im is implemented as follows. After conducting revealing the workings 1, upper 2 and lower 3 mines, preparation of the bottom 12 of treatment blocks 5 and penetrations rising flank 4 begin treatment extraction of ore in the prepared treatment units 5 using one of the known methods with magazynowania ore or prirezkami along strike with the breaking of ore from rising - repulsed in blocks 5 ore 6 through the outlet opening 13 of the bottom 12 are loaded into transport vessels and revealing the workings 1 issue to the surface and processed at the concentrator 9 (figure 1). Current tailings in the period of low temperatures dehydrate at a press filters 19, and then the roller 19 presses the briquettes large diameter 7 and stack them to the ground freezing 16, roller press 20 the briquettes small diameter 8, determined from the expression:where d and d are the diameters of filling briquettes small and large (d<D), in the amount of

where Vabout- the total volume of backfill material for briquetting, and stack them to the ground freezing 17, after freezing the pellets 7 and 8 with areas of freezing 16 and 17 serves to mix in the hopper 21 where the backfill mixture briquettes 7 and 8 deliver revealing the workings 1 and the top de the haunted mines 2 used wastewater treatment units 5 and fill stope 23 these blocks through the loading box 11 in podstrekava the pillars 10, forming filling the array 22 (figure 2) with the maximum degree of filling out space 23.

Method of underground mining of ore deposits in the permafrost zone, which includes preparatory and rifled work, clean the recess and the mined-out space in the period of low temperatures dehydrated, piketirovany and frozen on the surface of the tailings, characterized in that during negative ambient temperatures of dewatered tailings press briquettes spherical shape of the two diameters, connected by the relation:,
where d and D are the diameters of filling briquettes (d<D), cm;
and the volume of backfill material compacted in the form of pellets of small diameter (Vd), in the total volume (Vabout) solid waste that is fed to the briquetting, determined by the formula:.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: prior to start of filling works, a recumbent side of a section in a mined space to be filled is poured with water to form an ice crust, afterwards the mined space is filled with crushed dead rocks or frozen briquettes from dressing tails. The ice crust makes it possible to apply self-flow filling at the minimum angle of inclination of a recumbent side equal to αmin.=arctgKfr, where Kfr - coefficient of friction as the filling material moves along the ice crust on the recumbent side of the mined space.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of filling works when mining sloping and inclined ore bodies in a cryolite zone due to expansion of a field of application of a self-flow method of dry filling material placement in a mined space by reduction of resistance to motion of this material on a recumbent side.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to sublevel working with sandstowing. Proposed method comprises working the block by odd and even sublevels in ascending order by counter short mining faces vented by all-mine drawdown. First, subdrifts and drops are worked. Seam is worked by counter short mining faces from flank slopes to central slope with direct-flow venting in advance preparation and working of odd sublevels. Mined-out area is filled with solid stowing while even sublevels between odd mined-out sublevels are filled with common stowing. In working, former vent heading is used as a belt heading.

EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of cavity in rock mass, burial of fixed rigid bar in it, supply of consolidating stowing mixture to the worked-out area, and measurement of open bar end length; at destruction of rock mass with some part of contact layer of consolidating stowing mass there determined is value of undermining of consolidating stowing as per difference of length of open bar end and length of bar burial in cavity of rock mass.

EFFECT: determination of consolidating stowing mass undermining value.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes self-flow supply of a hydraulic stowing pump to filled chambers, its stepwise pumping by pumps without jet break on a mine section of a pulp line, in emergency conditions pulp is released from self-flow and pump sections of the filling pipeline via rupture disks installed at the end of each section of the pulp line, apart from the latter.

EFFECT: lower probability of pipeline clogging in emergency situations, higher reliability of filling pipelines operation and efficiency of a filling plant.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: flushing pulp is delivered in stages forming several layers between which drain pipes are installed using leakproof hose parallel to longitudinal axis of flushed space. Drain pipes are attached by one end to leakproof hose. Each drain pipe is extended till it reaches opposite dam, then the housing is detached from drain pipe through the opening in filter dam and is removed for further use. When installation of project quantity of drain pipes is completed, process of flushing pulp delivery is resumed.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of flushing works due to reduction of flushing pulp runoff period.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: water 28.57-44.44 and ashes TPP 4.32-14.32, slag TPP 22.55-42.58, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 18.92-29.29 or water 28.57-44.44 ground together to maximum grain size 0.16 mm and ashes TPP 5.99-16.13, slag TPP 28.30-47.04, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 12.99-23.67 ground together to maximum grain size 0.08 mm.

EFFECT: reducing labour and material expenses, improving ecological situation in the area of abandon mine by means of creation of water-proof and shrink-proof massif.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of slurry backfilling includes preparation of filling mixture from slurry that is generated at production of potassium muriate. Then construction of filling retaining walls, supply of filling mixture into worked out chambers and their filling. Dewatered potassium muriate is added into the slurry as binding agent, the mass of which is defined by the expression: CaCl2-0.57VW, where Vw - water mass in slurry, t. Invention allows leaving solid and liquid part of slurry in solid condition in the filled chamber, the mixture can be transported at large distances that allows performing more complete filling of all slurry in the mine generated at dressing.

EFFECT: possibility to leave solid and liquid part of slurry in solid condition in the filled chamber.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture, which contains ground granulated blast-furnace slag, inert filler and water, contains the above aged acid slag, and as inert filler there used is washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, and in addition, the aged ground dolomite powder and superplasticising agent SP-1, at the following component, wt %: the above slag - 11.5; the above refuse - 56.4; the above powder - 9.4; superplasticising agent SP-1 - 0.135; water is the rest.

EFFECT: it is not required to use Portland cement, and aged ground slag of lower grade and aged dolomite powder is used instead of it; therefore, standard strength of stowing mass and movability of stowing mixture is provided; volumes of utilised technogenic wastes are increased in order to sufficiently improve the environmental conditions of the region.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture contains the following in wt %: ground granular blast-furnace slag 10.20-12.70, sodium hydroxide 1.10-1.35, nickel sludge 0.1-0.5, burnt rock 72.91-75.01, water - the balance.

EFFECT: high strength, low labour input, low cost owing to use of secondary resources.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: composition of a fill mixture comprising a ground acid domain pelletised slag, a superplasticiser SP-1, water and wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation of ferruginous quartzites, contained the following mixture as a binder - a mixture of jointly ground stale acid domain pelletised slag, current wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation and a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 49.8; specified wastes - 49.8; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.4, and an inert filler - stale wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites at the following ratio of components, wt %: binder -22.65; filler - 55.35; water - balance.

EFFECT: recycling of stale wastes of dressing and stale acid domain pelletised slag, reduced consumption of slag as a binding component, reduced water amount as mixture spread increases with preservation of required strength, increased recycling of dressing wastes to improve condition of environment in KMA region.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: prior to start of filling works, a recumbent side of a section in a mined space to be filled is poured with water to form an ice crust, afterwards the mined space is filled with crushed dead rocks or frozen briquettes from dressing tails. The ice crust makes it possible to apply self-flow filling at the minimum angle of inclination of a recumbent side equal to αmin.=arctgKfr, where Kfr - coefficient of friction as the filling material moves along the ice crust on the recumbent side of the mined space.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of filling works when mining sloping and inclined ore bodies in a cryolite zone due to expansion of a field of application of a self-flow method of dry filling material placement in a mined space by reduction of resistance to motion of this material on a recumbent side.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to sublevel working with sandstowing. Proposed method comprises working the block by odd and even sublevels in ascending order by counter short mining faces vented by all-mine drawdown. First, subdrifts and drops are worked. Seam is worked by counter short mining faces from flank slopes to central slope with direct-flow venting in advance preparation and working of odd sublevels. Mined-out area is filled with solid stowing while even sublevels between odd mined-out sublevels are filled with common stowing. In working, former vent heading is used as a belt heading.

EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: mechanised longwall set of equipment for mining comprises sections of a powered support, a hydraulic cutting cleanout machine with actuators and hydraulic cutting heads, joined via metal tubes with a water-supply manifold, a hydraulic booster, a plane with two drives and a plate conveyor with load-carrying plates on rollers, and also comprises a transshipment platform with a mechanised sliding bottom. At the same time the set of equipment additionally comprises a scraper conveyor and a hydraulic support "Sputnik" structurally connected to each other by advancing rams. At both sides of the plate conveyor there are channel guides installed to move coalcutters along them with cable handlers. Besides, the coalcutter installed at the face side of the plate conveyor has a vertical upward direction of a cutting jib in parallel to the face line, and the coalcutter installed at the goaf side of the plate conveyor has a direction of a cutting jib in the bed plane along its border with the roof. The hydraulic machine of the set of equipment is fixed in the end part of the longwall face at the side of the transport mine, and hydraulic abrasive jets work in the transverse plane perpendicular to the direction of cut coal body displacement.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of a mining face due to reduction of duration of a process mining cycle.

4 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: extracted core of expendable wells helps to define the outline of bed pinching-out at the area, inside the outline the limits of its standard power are registered and on the base of their average position of seam strike the contoured workings are passed. First cuts are located perpendicular to contoured workings upslope or down-dip and till the outline of bed pinching-out and separate the area to paired blocks. Beginning from the end of each paired block and by moving the front line of extraction by reverse movement there are adjacent extraction workings going from the first cuts to both sides with axes shift and parallel to contoured workings; adjacent extraction workings help to extract the bed selectively and are performed with ground and roof breaking, between the paired blocks there remained are solid blocks with width not more than 10% of abutment pressure zone. Each paired block has formed groups of under-goaf and one support solid block. During seam extraction there drilled are prognostic holes and control the degree of rock-bump hazard is performed, if it is revealed the support solid blocks are unloaded.

EFFECT: increase of safety of developing the area of flat and slope seam liable to rock-bumps and reduction of mineral product losses due to involvement of bed pinching-out areas into actual mining.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: mining method by large blocks includes advanced formation of bed underbreaking by plough machine with movement of conveyor into it for output of rectangular blocks of mineral cut from long face above it by cutting longitudinal and lateral slots with the use of supports. The output of alluvial mineral from plough operation is done by separate chain-and-flight conveyor. Plough operation in ripping lip is done simultaneously with cutting mineral blocks from the bed upper part by cutting longitudinal and lateral slots by cutting machines and loading of mineral blocks extracted from long face by transfer platform as well as their locomotive haulage from long face to the point of their discharge into grinding chamber.

EFFECT: invention provides multiple increase of mining face productivity in comparison to the existing level, creation of safe by gas factor and ecologically pure by dust production.

6 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes driving of development-temporary workings, working off of primordial chambers of tapered section, their filling with curing mixture forming artificial pillars, formation of massive ore pillar between artificial pillars. Rock pressure is reallocated on artificial pillars. Touchdown working is driven along ore pillar symmetry axis by contact with ore deposits in overlying roof rocks. Blasting wells are drilled from it radially within outlines of natural arches so that ends of these wells most accurately form sizes and surface of line of natural arches in compliance with estimated ultimate strength of overlying rock massif. Complete discharge of massive ore pillar is performed by induced caving of roof rock between artificial pillars on chambers expanding upwards, support of artificial pillars by caved rock is provided. Massive ore pillar stocks are developed with support of overlying roof rock by natural arches resting upon artificial pillars and retaining slopes formed near side surfaces of artificial pillars during loading of broken ore.

EFFECT: increasing reliability of rock pressure control and labour safety.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used in ore dressing. Proposed complex comprises receiving hopper, crushing and screening unit, assembly to feed ore to separation, ore control station, ore lump separators, concentrate and reject discharge conveyors arranged in underground openings. Assemblies feeding ore to separation and X-ray-type separators are arranged on two levels in long openings communicated by box holes to accumulate and feed ore to separators by gates arranged at their outlets. Said box holes are located at 5-7 mm from each other to feature diameter of 1.0-1.5 mm. Assembly feeding ore to separation represents combination of openings, each being 120-40 0m-long and having 2.5-3 m-diameter, and connected with crushing and screening assembly to allow every opening to feed ore of particular size grade to box hole. Every separator comprises, at least, one additional channel for cleaning rejects after separation of concentrate in main channel. Conveyor belts of said main and additional channels are located one above the other. Openings accommodating said assembly feeding ore to separation and separators are spaced apart for 15-20 m along vertical. X-ray-type separator channel comprises, at least, one x-ray useful component content analyser connected with separation device made up of, at least, one pneumatic blowout nozzle. Every aforesaid assembly is equipped with conveyor provided with unloading device driven along openings length. Crushing and screening unit allows producing four flows of ore sized to (-300+120), (-120+50), (-50+15), (-15+0) mm, with (-15+0) mm-ore directed to concentrate discharge conveyor, the remaining flows being used for filling box holes.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation and quality of concentrate, reduced costs.

8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.

EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: extraction sections or blocks are mined with vertical cuts including two vertical layers of various thickness, the internal one of which is mined by means of drilling method of large-diameter scavenger wells and external one is not mined. In order to ensure safe labour conditions at upper drilling level and uniform output of mineral deposit extracted during large-diameter well drilling, drilling of those wells is performed by shrinking of broken mine rock in them. If the deposit is represented with a bench of conformable beds, the cutting height is accepted equal to total thickness of all beds of that bench, including intermediate rocks. Drilling of scavenger wells is performed throughout the cutting height with shrinkage of broken mine rock in them, and separation of mineral deposit and hollow rock is performed at the stage of general release of racks by means of selective bed-by-bed supply.

EFFECT: creation of safe conditions from the point of view of hydrogeology for high-efficiency development of reserves of extraction sections or blocks outlined with natural or artificial barrier or inter-block pillars.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: weakening a spring of natural balance at both sides of the block and damaging a key stone is done simultaneously by exploding rows of parallel wells drilled at the borders with interchamber sight pillars and along the axial line of the stope, in sections length of which is equal to the thickness of the damaged layer. Weakening of the spring at both sides of the block and damaging of the key stone is done by sectional explosion of clusters of parallel adjacent wells: linear ones at borders with interchamber sight pillars and bulk ones along the axial line of the block. The spring at both sides of the block is weakened ahead of erection of artificial interchamber sight pillars.

EFFECT: improved efficiency and safety of production works.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

7 cl, 11 dwg

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