Combined serial/parallel power plant of transport facility

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, particularly, to power plants for hybrid automobiles. Proposed power plant comprises heat engine and two reversible electrical machines fitted on common shaft, electric power accumulator, current and voltage inverters, control unit, and operation mode selector. First electrical machine is coupled with heat engine while second machine is engaged with drive wheel drive shaft. Operation mode selector incorporates self-contained control unit. The latter is connected to power plant control unit and consists of two units. One unit makes the major power unit designed to receive drive power and to transmit it to drive wheels drive shaft. Another unit represents auxiliary unit designed to open/close power transmission circuit in changing operation modes.

EFFECT: higher reliability and longer life.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering, more precisely, the power plant, designed to provide a variety of schemes of work for facilities, serial, parallel and mixed types, mainly for hybrid vehicles

Known combined power unit (KEU) a vehicle containing as energy sources located in series on a common axis, associated with the axis of the driving wheels of the vehicle, thermal engine, in particular a combustion engine and two electric machines, which is the motor/generators (for example, US 2009/0301800, 2009). This installation scheme of a mixed series-parallel type KEU, contains two clutch in the form of Cam clutches and the mechanism of distribution and transformation of energy in the form of a planetary gear unit disposed between the electric machines. The disadvantages of such installation should include reduced functionality due to the lack of opportunities to switch to other schemes of work and complicated kinematics of the mechanical part of the transmission.

Known combined power unit of the vehicle (EN 2381917, 2010), including as sources of energy heat engine and two electric machines operating as motor-generators, power divider, built between thermal engine and the electric machines, and gearbox that transmits torque to the axle of the driving wheels of the vehicle. In this analogue, unlike previous similar, the installation can be implemented schemes of the three types of ESCO: sequential, parallel, and mixed (series-parallel), but the presence of the planetary mechanism, as in the first analogue complicates layout solution installation and use of electric cars in the modes of transition from one type of schemes of work to another complicates the algorithm control the installation.

Known combined power plant, also containing a heat engine and two electric machines (WO 2004037594, 2004 or US 6705416, 2004), the layout of which have a simpler solution and allow to implement different schemes, i.e. schemes of power transmission from engine to the axle of the wheels of the car - sequential or parallel with a simpler algorithm. These units have two friction clutch, the first of which is embedded between the first electromachine and the internal combustion engine, and the second between the electric machines and at least one of the clutches in them made the type permanently closed. The lack of such facilities is that one of the electric machines in them made less power, to the same part of its power is spent on provided design hydraulic who service the automatic transmission, that may degrade the efficiency of the installation.

The closest analogue (prototype) of the present invention is the combined power unit of the vehicle serial/parallel type made with the possibility of moving from one scheme to another (US 6740002, 2004), containing consistently placed on a common axis relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle heat engine and two reversible electric machine, the first of which may be associated with a heat engine through a clutch or directly, and the second electromachine - to the drive shaft axis of the driving wheels. The installation includes an energy storage unit, the inverter current and voltage, the control unit and placed on said common axis between the first and second electric machines, the switching mechanism of the scheme, representing a typical permanently closed friction clutch consisting of two disks: master and slave. The unit has also manual transmission with automatic change gear ratio, and means synchronizing the angular velocities of the shafts.

Providing the required speed and traction range TC prototype is achieved by changing the circuit connections of the power components of the set and using the switching mechanism schemes of work with a serial to parallel and Vice versa, and the transformation of the incoming torque by changing the gear ratio in the gearbox.

The main disadvantage of the prototype - reduced energy efficiency of the system is due, firstly, the execution of the switching mechanism of the circuit operation, in which the function of the power node receiving the load from the traction machine in the form of torque and carrying out the transmission of the driving-wheels, and also functions as a connection node are the same friction clutch; secondly, the fact that when using the gearbox increases the number of cycles of closing/opening of" clutch.

Due to these reasons the prototype is inherent in this lack, as reduced reliability of the transmission power flow because of the possibility of slipping of the clutch plates when the increase in torque during operation of the vehicle with a high load; and reduction of the period of trouble-free operation of the coupling.

Moreover, for use as a switching mechanism schemes of work constructively simplified friction clutches in the prototype to improve the output of the traction parameters includes a number of constructive means for damping vibrations caused by the operation of internal combustion engines, and additional measures of synchronization of the shafts in the gearbox when changing gear ratio, which leads to complication of the kinematics of the installation and complication management.

The task image is Itanium, aimed at expanding Arsenal of energy efficient combined power plants vehicles serial/parallel type made with the possibility of moving from one scheme to another.

The technical result is obtained when the invention is in reducing energy costs in the ESCO, increase its operational reliability and durability.

To achieve a technical result in the combined power plant of the vehicle serial/parallel type with the ability to switch from one scheme to another, containing located on the common axis of the heat engine and two reversible electric machine, the first of which is associated with a heat engine, for example, via a clutch, the second to the drive shaft axis of the drive wheels and the drive electric power, the inverter current and voltage, the control unit and placed on said common axis between the first and second electric machines, the switching mechanism of the circuit operation according to the invention, the switching mechanism of the circuit is equipped with independent control unit, connected to the control unit installing, and made a composite of the two nodes, interacting with the ability to synchronize the angular velocities of edinyaemykh components installation one of which is the main power node and intended for receiving operating power, and transmission to the drive shaft axis of the driving wheels, and a shaft connected with the shaft of the second electric machine, and the other node is a subsidiary held for closing/opening of current regimens and energy transfer, selectable during installation from one scheme to another.

Additional relevant developmental element of the invention is characterized by performing the switching mechanism of the circuit in which the primary node is executed in the form of a switchable own drive gear couplings, internal ring gear which is mounted on the shaft of the second electric machines and have installed it with the ability to shift the locking ring with the friction surface, the response of the corresponding friction surface available on the secondary node, performed according to the type permanently closed friction clutch, a driven element which is arranged to communicate with an external toothed crown gear coupling.

The execution of the switching mechanism schemes of work spanned two nodes, interconnected elements synchronization allows you to divide the main and auxiliary functions of this mechanism and thereby to increase the reliability of transmission of torque, the as as the primary power node in the chain of transmission of torque from the power source to the drive wheels of the vehicle is strong and gearing with high power settings and low power consumption on the switch, and the friction clutch is an auxiliary node and participates only in the process of switching schemes, besides short-term.

Reducing energy costs in the switching mechanism of the circuit ESCO is ensured by the fact that energy is consumed only during a short-term process of switching circuits, while maintaining the operating mode of the ESCO transmission power flow to the drive wheels via the serial or parallel scheme does not require the expenditure of energy in this mechanism that promotes energy efficiency throughout the ESCO, as the unit has a single power system, which affects the efficiency of each component of the installation.

Increased longevity of the unit is ensured by the fact that the proposed design solution KEU offset processes, leading to increased wear of the nodes when switching schemes, such as friction or slip (if will be slippage in the secondary node, for example, due to a certain wear of the disks, it is only quite short term, but is a possibility of slippage when the increase in torque inherent in the prototype).

On the drawings: figure 1 is a General diagram of the proposed installation (example)figure 2 - General view of the switching mechanism of the circuit allowing the e (in working position for a progressive scheme of work units); figure 3 - view of the switching mechanism of the scheme in the period of transition from one schema to another (fragment); figure 4 - the same, in working condition when implementing parallel schema.

We offer the combined power unit (KEU) contains

as energy sources are placed on a common axis relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle (not shown) of the heat engine 1, for example a combustion engine and two electric machines 2 and 3: first EM 1 and the second EM 2, of which EM-1 is associated with the internal combustion engine 1 directly or via a clutch 4 and the output shaft is connected with the shaft of the power transmission 5 from the ice and/or EM-1. Between EM-1 and EM 2 posted equipped with Autonomous control unit 6 mechanism 7 switching schemes of work unit (IPU), which can be set before EM 2 (as shown in figure 1 is installed in its housing, or after EM-1, or embedded in the gap of the shaft 5. Both electric machines of the same power can also operate as generators and as traction motors connected to the energy storage unit 8 through the inverter voltage and current 9. All of these components of the installation are connected to a common control unit ESCO 10. The output of the EM-2 is connected to the drive shaft 11, the transmitting power to the axle 12 of the leading wheels of the vehicle (front or rear). Input shaft 13 EM 2 in the specific example of execution (figure 1) is associated with the mechanism 7.

echanism 7 consists of two posted on its axis 14 of nodes: the primary node 15 and the secondary node 16, interacting with the ability to synchronize the angular velocities mechanism connected components of the installation. Node 15 is designed for the execution of the power functions of transmission and reception power received by a particular scheme from the energy sources to the axis of the wheels, and the node 16 is used for circuit line power flow during the period of work on any of the provided schemes and open it in the moment of transition from one schema to another. Structurally, the execution of the nodes 15 and 16 of the mechanism 7 may vary. In the specific example (2) node 15 is made in the form of a gear coupling with switchable actuator 17 of the outer crown 18 and mounted on the input shaft 13 EM 2 internal crown 19, on the hub 20 which is placed with the possibility of axial shift of the blocking ring 21 with the friction surface 22. Node 16 has the form of a multi-disc friction clutches, for example, with the electromagnetic actuator 23, performed according to the type permanently closed clutch, with the leading element 24 and clutch 25. The slave element 25 of the clutch has a gear 26 for engagement with a ring gear 18 and the friction surface 27, second surface 22 of the locking ring 21.

The ESCO over the serial circuit of the friction clutch is enabled, but there is no mechanical connection between the led element 25 and a locking ring 21, as the gear is a crown 18 is not in contact with the ring gear 26 and the driven element 25. In this case, there is no mechanical connection between thermal engine 1 and the axis 12 of the leading wheels of the vehicle. EM-1 works as a generator and produces electrical current feeding EM 2, working in traction mode.

During the transition to the parallel circuit of the friction clutch is disengaged via the actuator 23, the link is broken between the lead 24 and the slave 25 elements. The clutch element 25 continues to rotate by inertia.

The actuator 17 is an axial movement of the ring gear 18 in the direction of the ring gear 26 and the driven element 25. When this occurs, the displacement of the locking ring 21 in the same direction At the contact of the friction surface 27 of the slave element 25 of the friction clutch and the response to it of the friction surface 22 of the locking ring 21 align the angular velocity of the element 25 and the gear rim 18 (Fig 3). After completion of the alignment process the angular velocities of the opportunity, and is gearing of the ring gear 18 with a ring gear 26 and the driven element 25 (figure 4), and is provided on the friction clutch. In this scenario, you receive the mechanical coupling between thermal engine 1 and the axis 12 of the leading wheels of the vehicle, EM 1 may be operated in the generator mode and to generate electrical energy for the drive and traction mode, ensure achiva energy wheels.

Table
State changes of nodes mechanism 7
ModeAuxiliary nodeThe primary node
Work on a consistent schemeOnoff
The transition from sequential scheme for parallelOffon
Work on the parallel schemeOnon
The transition from the parallel scheme on a consistentOnoff
Work on a consistent schemeOnoff

1. The combined power unit of the vehicle serial/parallel type with the ability to switch from one scheme to another, containing located on the common axis of the heat engine and two reversible electric machine, the first of which is associated with a heat engine, for example, a group is a rotary clutch, the second to the drive shaft axis of the drive wheels and the drive electric power, the inverter current and voltage, the control unit and placed on said common axis between the first and second electric machines, the switching mechanism of the circuit operation, characterized in that the switching mechanism of the circuit is equipped with independent control unit, connected to the control unit installing, and made a composite of the two nodes, interacting with the ability to synchronize the angular velocities of connected components of the installation, one of which is the main power node and intended for receiving operating power, and transmission to the drive shaft axis leading wheel and its shaft connected with the shaft of the second electric machine, and the other node is a subsidiary held for closing/opening of current regimens and energy transfer in the transfer period installation from one scheme to another.

2. Installation according to claim 1, wherein the master node mechanism made in the form of switchable own drive gear couplings, internal ring gear which is mounted on the shaft of the second electric machines and have installed it with the ability to shift the locking ring with the friction surface, the response of the corresponding friction surface available in Pomogailo node, performed according to the type permanently closed friction clutch, a driven element which is arranged to communicate with an external toothed crown gear couplings.



 

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