Method of amplifying laser radiation and apparatus for realising said method

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a laser radiation splitter. The splitter splits polarised radiation from an external source into basic and reference radiation. Basic radiation is directed onto a second splitter where it is split into N channels and amplified by amplifiers in each channel. Part of the radiation is collected by a semitransparent mirror(s). A control beam is formed, compared with reference radiation and then converted to an electric signal. The control signal for phase adjustment modules is calculated based on the signal parameters using a computation unit. Phase adjustment is carried out using N phase adjustment modules lying after amplifiers which perform phase shift in each channel using cyclic control signals. The value of each control signal in each of the N channels is determined separately via summation of the signal which is determined from shift of interference fringes in the plane of the array of a multichannel photodetector with the signal determined from the results of measuring intensity of the resultant radiation. Beams of control and reference radiation fall on the multichannel photodetector at a small angle with respect to each other. Resultant radiation is obtained when all beams of control radiation are focused on a one-channel photodetector using a lens.

EFFECT: obtaining high-power monochromatic coherent radiation.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods and devices for amplification of laser radiation on the basis of fiber optics.

Currently under intensive development of powerful sources of monochromatic laser radiation with high spatial characteristics, namely the diffraction divergence of the laser beam, which is close to a Gaussian beam.

Fiber lasers have several advantages over other types of lasers, including reliability, low weight and high efficiency. However, the power of monochromatic laser radiation, which can be obtained by using a fiber laser is limited by nonlinear effects in the fiber and the damage threshold designated output radiation from the fiber. To obtain a beam of laser radiation with low divergence must use single-mode fiber, the core diameter of about 10 micrometers.

To overcome this limitation, the widespread ways to enhance the power of the radiation associated with the division of the initial radiation from an external source to multiple channels, parallel amplification using laser amplifiers on the basis of single-mode fibers and mixing in one reinforced beam radiation.

To implement the above method, a wide races is ostranenie received laser amplifiers, built according to the following scheme: single-mode (solid-state or fiber) driving the laser generates radiation, which is then divided into many parallel channels and sent to the amplifiers built, for example, on the active fibers can increase the radiation of a certain frequency. Increased thus laser radiation is then collected together and sent to the remote target, providing it a higher laser intensity than when using a single amplifier. This raises the following problem: in coherent laser light after passing through the fiber amplifier is entered phase noise. The presence of phase noise radiation is manifested in the fact that the phase of the radiation at the output of the amplifiers is experiencing random rotation. The size, speed and direction of rotation of the phase in each of the parallel channels of different. The source of such phase noise amplifiers, as a rule, are thermal effects in the active fiber amplifiers. Unwanted shifts the phase of electromagnetic waves leads to the fact that at convergence, the total brightness of the radiation N amplifiers on the remote target is proportional to N2as expected with the addition of the electromagnetic waves of the same phase, but much less. The result of interference of the hole is different rays on the remote target is vague, constantly changing diffraction pattern with low peak intensity. In addition, as shown in the work of Steven J. Augst, .Y.Fan, and Antonio Sanchez, Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers, OPTICS LETTERS / Vol.29, No.5 / March 1, 2004, str, the intensity distribution of the phase noise over a range of frequencies is nonuniform. The greatest intensity phase noise falls on the low-frequency interval.

To overcome these negative effects are various schemes of fiber-optic lasers with multi-channel amplifiers, in particular, passive synchronisation of the modes in the parallel channels of amplification (.Wang et al. All-fiber 50 W coherently combined passive laser array. Optics Letters, 34, 863 (2009)). The use of passive synchronisation of the modes does not eliminate phase noise amplifiers and does not allow to achieve full synchronization of radiation.

Closest to the claimed method is a method described in patent US 6366356, in accordance with which coming from an external source polarized laser beam is divided into main and reference. Basic radiation is divided into N channels, in which the strengthening of the primary radiation. Increased radiation output from the fiber using collimators installed in parallel, and is directed to the target. Semi-transparent mirror placed in the path parallel to UCA, reflects part of the radiation (radiation control). Feedback in the proposed method, the phase offset control works on the principle of heterogenerous. For this control the radiation is mixed with a reference radiation through the semitransparent mirror. The reference beam used in the proposed scheme, optionally shifted by 40 MHz using an acousto-optic modulator. The mixed radiation is then directed to one of the N photodetectors. If there is no phase shift in the amplifier frequency modulation of an electrical signal on the photodetector exactly equal to the frequency of an electrical signal applied to the acousto-optic modulator. When the phase shift control of radiation relative to a reference there is a change in signal intensity on the photodetector. Next, calculate the phase shift and correction phase radiation using modules phase adjustment applied to the input of the amplifiers.

Closest to the claimed device is patented, US 6366356, which relates to a device for the amplification of radiation from high-power fiber lasers coming from a source of polarized laser radiation, comprising a divider that divides the laser light on the main and reference radiation. Then, using optical N-channel splitter main radiation is giving goes to N channels of amplification, based on fiber-optic amplifiers. Increased radiation output from the fiber using collimators installed in parallel, and is directed to the target. Semi-transparent mirror placed in the path of the parallel rays reflected reference radiation. A scheme for detecting the phase shift of works on the principle of heterogenerous. To control the phase of the radiation at the output of the amplifiers control the radiation is mixed with a reference radiation through the semitransparent mirror. The reference radiation DFB laser is additionally shifted by 40 MHz using an acousto-optic modulator. The mixed radiation is then directed to one of the N photodetectors. If there is no phase shift in the amplifier frequency modulation of an electrical signal on the photodetector exactly equal to the frequency of an electrical signal applied to the acousto-optic modulator. When the phase shift control of radiation relative to a reference there is a change in signal intensity at the photodetector, which is the XOR scheme is calculated phase shift of the radiation. On the basis of the calculated phase shift, using modules adjust the phase correction of the phase of the primary radiation is applied to the input of the amplifiers.

The above method and device for its implementation has the following disadvantages: correction phase in the Oia is at the input of the amplifier, when the correction signal is supplied to the module of phase correction with a time delay determined by the performance of the procedure signal processing. The consequence of this delay is that with the rapid change of the derivative of the phase shift, or in the presence of intense high-frequency phase noise occurs: the instability of the correction algorithm, which is manifested in the wrong direction correction of the phase shift and, as a result, the clock skew channel radiation. Another disadvantage is that the system only allows you to lock the phase of the radiation at the output of the amplifier, but not the optimization procedure of the phase difference between the radiation of the N channels to obtain a uniform wavefront and the maximum brightness in the far zone.

It should be noted that when using the local oscillator to the noise introduced by the amplifiers, is added to the noise of the local oscillator, which in the case of small frequency shift is characterized by the law I~1/f4, where I is the intensity of the noise, f is the frequency shift, that is, such a scheme requires adjustment of the laser radiation will make the largest error in the correction procedure, slow change of phase, i.e. in the areas of greatest intensity phase noise. In addition, the design of the heterodyne scheme is more complicated because it uses the procedure of the frequency shift by using acousto-optic is adulation.

The goal of the claimed group of inventions is to provide a method and device for its implementation, to ensure harmonization of radiation optical fiber laser amplifiers to obtain monochromatic coherent radiation of high power.

A method of obtaining laser radiation, which coming from an external source polarized laser beam is divided into main and reference. The main radiation is additionally divided into N channels, each of which is strengthening after strengthening of the primary radiation is allocated radiation control for comparison with the reference radiation, converting it into an electrical signal, and a calculation control signal providing phase adjustment in the channels of amplification of the primary radiation with the passage of the primary test and reference radiation through the optical scheme preserves the polarization.

In accordance with the invention by a method of phase adjustment for each channel is performed after amplification of radiation by using the cyclic control signals to adjust the phase. The magnitude of the control signal at each cycle for each of the N channels is determined separately by summing the signal calculated by the shift of the interference is hair in the plane of the photodetector array, obtained by pairwise mixing in the channel of the test and reference beams of radiation, with the signal defined by the results of measuring the intensity of the total radiation is obtained by mixing all of the rays of radiation control.

According to the second variant of the invention a device for amplification of laser radiation, comprising the divider laser radiation carrying out the separation coming from an external source of polarized radiation on primary and reference. Basic radiation is directed to the second divider, where it is split into N channels and the increased use of amplifiers in each channel, in this case, the radiation is collected using semi-transparent mirrors(al) and formed the control beam, which is compared with a reference radiation and is converted into an electrical signal, which parameters using the calculation module is the calculation of the control signal module phase adjustment, to pass the primary test and reference radiation through the optical system uses a fiber-preserving polarization.

The applicant is offered in the known device the phase adjustment be done with N modules, phase adjustment, located after the amplifier that performs the phase shift in each of the channels using cyclic control is Ignatov. The cyclic control signals are generated by computer, thus the value of each control signal in each of the N channels is determined separately, the summation of the signal, determined by the displacement of the interference fringes in the plane of the matrix multichannel photodetector, when the interference of the rays of the test and reference radiation incident on the matrix of the multi-element photodetector at a slight angle to each other with the signal defined by the results of measurement of the intensity of the total radiation received at the focus using the lens on a single-channel photodetector of all rays of radiation control.

In the proposed method, and device for implementing the modules of phase adjustment are located after the amplifier, which allows to compensate for changes in length of the optical path resulting from thermal fluctuations in the active fiber amplifiers and to achieve synchronization of the radiation parallel amplification channels, excluding the impact of cyclic perturbations that occur when the phase adjustment in the optical channels to the amplifier. Thus, in the proposed method of correction only enhanced radiation, which can dramatically increase the stability of the correction procedure phase, because there is no interference in the operation of the amplifier, leading to change p the parameters of enhanced radiation, accompanied by additional phase noise.

Resulting from use of the method and device for its implementation monochromatic coherent radiation beam high power similar intensity distribution to Gaussian and has a Central maximum.

The use of a matrix of multi-element photodetectors for detecting the phase of the radiation in each channel allows you to determine the direction of phase shift for each channel relative to the reference radiation and directly determine the magnitude of the correction signal. In addition, the use of a matrix of multi-element photodetectors allows you to simplify and accelerate the procedure of mathematical processing of the detected signal and to translate the phase adjustment algorithm from serial to parallel.

The phase control device of the amplifying laser radiation is multi-channel and can be done by changing the length of the optical path using the optical fiber module of the phase shift, designed for use with amplifiers of small and average capacity. The phase shift in the fiber optic modules based on the change in length of the optical path of the laser radiation in the fiber. The use of such modules, it is advisable to adjust the phase of the radiation power of up to several watts per channel. The use of fibers is output modules phase adjustment allows you to compensate for phase noise with a frequency up to 20 kHz.

The phase control device for multi-channel amplification of laser radiation can also be accessed by using the modules of phase shift on the open optics, for example, by using a roaming mirrors (adaptive optics). Such modules of phase shift provide a smaller frequency range (usually up to 1-2 kHz), however, significantly increase the allowable capacity of the primary radiation passing through the channel.

In the device for multichannel amplification of laser radiation collimators, through which the radiation outputted from the optical fiber, it is preferable to collect in hexagonal order in a single unit with the ability to adjust the direction of the optical axes of each individual collimator. This arrangement of collimators allows you to bring them closer to the optical axis and thereby to increase the brightness of the radiation on the target.

1. Scheme of coherent optical amplifier of the laser radiation.

2. Schematic illustration of the collimator module with hexagonal-spaced collimators.

3. Diagram of the phase adjustment in coherent optical amplifier.

An example of the method for amplification of laser radiation and device for its implementation (Figure 1).

To the input of the amplifier 2 is fed polarized radiation from an external source 1, which is made on the basis of monochrome is practical semiconductor DFB laser with fiber output PM fiber (fiber polarization maintaining). From the output of the amplifier 2 main laser radiation falls on the optic divider 3, which is divided into main and reference radiation. Basic radiation is directed to the divider 4, where it is split into N channels and further amplification using amplifiers 5.

After amplifiers 5 basic radiation is directed into modules phase adjustment 6. After modules phase adjustment 6 radiation output from the optical fiber by using collimators 7. Collimators 7 collected in module 8 in hexagonal order. Figure 2 shows an example of collimator module 7 channels. In module 8 provides the ability to deflect sunlight within a few minutes of arc to adjust the parallelism of the emergent rays or a small inclination to target rays on the close button target M Coming out of the collimators rays are approximately parallel. A small portion of primary radiation, referred to as monitoring radiation reflected from the glass plate 9 and is directed to a matrix of the multi-element photodetectors 10, having passed through the semitransparent mirror 11 and 12. The total number of multi-element photodetectors 10 is N.

The rays of the control radiation reflected from the semitransparent mirror 11, gather together and focus using the lens 13 on the diaphragm 14, which is located in front of odnokon inim photodetector 15.

Fiber amplifiers and passive fiber optic elements used in this scheme are made on the basis of the PM fiber, preserving the polarization of the radiation.

The method of coherent amplification of laser radiation on the example of the proposed device is performed in the following order.

External source of polarized laser 1 generates a main laser radiation to a high degree of coherence with the width of the spectral line 10 kHz. Next, the basic laser light is input to the preliminary fiber amplifier 2. From the output of the amplifier 2 main laser radiation falls on the optic divider 3, which is divided into main and reference radiation.

Basic radiation is directed to the divider 4, where it is split into N channels and further amplification using amplifiers 5. After amplifiers 5 basic radiation is directed into modules phase adjustment 6. After modules phase adjustment 6 radiation output from the optical fiber by using collimators 7. Collimators 7 assembled into a single module 8 with a minimum distance between the optical axis and have the ability to adjust the direction of the optical axis.

Coming out of the collimators 7 rays of the primary radiation passing through the glass plate 9 and focus on the remote target M Cu is IU, controlling the radiation is reflected from the glass plate 9 and passing through the semitransparent mirror 11 and 12, is directed to a matrix of the multi-element photodetectors 10, which is converted to an electric signal.

The rays of the control radiation reflected from the semitransparent mirror 11, gather together and focus using the lens 13 on the diaphragm 14, which is located in front of one single-channel photodetector 15.

The reference signal from the output fiber of the divider 3 is sent to the divider 16, through which the reference signal is divided into N channels and using collimators 17 is output from the fiber. The reference signal passes through the filters with variable density 18 and is directed through the semitransparent mirror 12 on the dot matrix multi-element photodetectors 10. Using a light-absorbing unit 19 is the damping part of the test and reference radiation reflected from the semitransparent mirror 12 and is not used for detection.

To obtain a clear interference pattern of the absolute intensity of the rays that fall on the matrix-the photodetectors 10, are aligned with the help of filters 18 with variable density.

The optical signal is processed cyclically in the following order (figure 3).

In the matrix-the photodetectors 10 converts interfer ntional paintings, obtained by mixing test and reference beams on the photodetector for each channel in the analog electrical signal, which shows the intensity distribution of the optical radiation on the matrix photodetector 10. For detection, it is preferable to use a matrix of multi-element photodetectors with at least 128 or 256 channels. When the phase shift control of the radiation relative to the reference band interference shifted in the plane of the matrix. The analog electrical signal from the ADC is converted into a digital signal and sent to the computer, which allows the phase shift control of the radiation relative to the reference radiation using a computer to register the amount and direction of shift of the interference pattern.

In parallel (in the same cycle) measured the intensity of the total radiation is obtained by mixing together all of the rays of radiation control on the photodetector 15. Obtained from the photodetector 15 analog electrical signal using ATP converted to digital and sent to the computer.

Then with the help of a computer is the computer processing of the digital signal received from the ADC and ACP), with calculated magnitude and direction of phase shift separately for each channel and are formed using DAC control signals U1(t), U (t)...UN(t)to compensate for the phase shift of using modules phase adjustment 6. In the phase adjustment of the radiation in each channel at the output collimators 7 we get a multi-channel optical radiation stabilized for each of the channels, the phases are mutually adjusted to each other. This allows you to compensate for the phase noise introduced by the amplifiers 5 and to receive the coherent radiation with high intensity and good beam quality.

Thus, the proposed method of amplification of laser radiation and a device for its implementation can achieve multiple gain without losing coherence properties of the radiation, which allows to obtain a monochromatic beam of laser radiation, as close as possible parameters for a Gaussian beam. Stabilization phase of each channel and their mutual adjustment in the proposed group of inventions allow you to increase the proportion of radiation that is present in the main fashion, with about 20% in the absence of phase adjustment up to 90-97% when the active stabilization.

The proposed method and apparatus may find application, for example, lidar devices, communication systems and control of space flight vehicles, transmission of information by a laser beam in space conditions on large and very large distances.

1. The way p the radiation of the laser radiation, when coming from an external source polarized laser beam is divided into main and reference, the main radiation is additionally divided into N channels, each of which is strengthening after strengthening of the primary radiation is allocated radiation control for comparison with the reference radiation, converting it into an electrical signal, and a calculation control signal providing phase adjustment in the channels of amplification of the primary radiation with the passage of the primary test and reference radiation through the optical scheme retains its polarization, characterized in that the phase adjustment for each channel is performed after amplification of radiation, using the round-Robin control signals of the phase adjustment, the magnitude of the control signal at each cycle, for each of the N channels is determined separately, the summation of the signal, calculated by the shift of interference fringes in the plane of the photodetector array obtained by pairwise mixing in the channel of the test and reference beams of radiation, with the signal defined by the results of measuring the intensity of the total radiation is obtained by mixing all of the rays of radiation control.

2. A device for amplification of laser radiation, comprising the divider laser radiation, Khujand is strause division coming from an external source of polarized radiation on primary and reference, the main radiation is directed to the second divider, where it is split into N channels and the increased use of amplifiers in each channel, in this case, the radiation is collected using semi-transparent mirrors(al), and is formed of the control beam, which is compared with a reference radiation and is converted into an electrical signal, which parameters using the calculation module is the calculation of the control signal module phase adjustment, to pass the primary test and reference radiation through the optical system uses a fiber-preserving polarization, characterized in that the phase adjustment is performed using the N modules phase adjustment, located after the amplifier that performs the phase shift in each of the channels using cyclic control signals generated by computer, thus the value of each control signal in each of the N channels is determined separately, the summation of the signal, determined by the displacement of the interference fringes in the plane of the matrix multichannel photodetector, when the interference of the rays of the test and reference radiation incident on a multi-channel photodetector at a slight angle to each other with the signal defined by the results of measurement of the intensity of the total radiation received when focused is the key by means of a lens on a single-channel photodetector of all rays of radiation control.

3. A device for amplification of laser radiation according to claim 2, characterized in that the phase adjustment is carried out using a fiber modules of phase shift.

4. A device for amplification of laser radiation according to claim 2, characterized in that the phase adjustment is performed using the modules of phase shift on the open optics.

5. A device for amplification of laser radiation according to claim 2, characterized in that after the adjustment of the phase of the radiation outputted from the optical fiber with the use of collimators, collected in hexagonal order in one module with the ability to adjust the direction of the optical axes of each individual collimator.



 

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3 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: technological processes, metal working.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of laser processing of materials, in particular, to device of multiway laser processing and may be used in production of large number of products at single laser complex, also in process of laser cutting, welding, pad welding and selective sintering. Device comprises N+1 lasers of initial beam division system and system of beam convergence, which is arranged in the form of set of N+1 telescopes, every of which is optically connected to laser. Telescopes are arranged with the possibility of independent rotation and displacement in two mutually perpendicular planes.

EFFECT: provision of multiple rise of efficiency of laser technological complexes, reduced power inputs at high quality of product.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser and, optically connected to the laser, a system for dividing the initial beam, a beam convergence system, galvano scanner with a focus lens and a telescope-radiation homogeniser, fitted on the beam path in front of the system for dividing the initial beam. The system for dividing the initial beam and the beam convergence system are in form of mirror matrices. The mirrors in the matrices have equal surface area and can independently rotate and move in two mutually perpendicular planes. Mirrors in the matrix of the beam convergence system can additionally move in the plane of the matrix.

EFFECT: multiple increase in efficiency of laser beam machines and reduced power consumption at high quality of the product.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves image preprocessing using a video processor 13 to eliminate geometric distortions, resulting from the geometry of the optical system; formation of an image of the cabin space on a monitor screen 1 and projection using a reproduction lens 2 onto a holographic diffuser 3, which is an assembly of two diffusers (4, 6), turned about each other and joined by a layer of immersion transparent substance 5, and which forms a scattering indicatrix so as to provide a given viewing area with the required image contrast. Principal beams are directed near the optical axis of the system using a collective lens 7, placed in front of the holographic diffuser. The image is then directed to the viewing area of the driver 12 using a holographic beam splitter 9, placed on the windscreen 10.

EFFECT: increased reliability and provision for safe driving conditions.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: mirrors/filters are placed in space so as to create a collinear matrix group of rectangular beams through successive reflections and/or transmissions from several optical frequencies emitted by a defined number of radiation sources. The top step consists of matrix of mirrors/filters with size m x n in p items superimposed with each other. The bottom step is a matrix from m mirrors/filters built into p rows with possibility of addressing outgoing beams to columns of matrices of the top step. The mirrors/filters of the matrices have characteristics which enable transmission of spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it and/or transmission of the spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it to the next mirror/filter.

EFFECT: optimisation of the process of frequency-address light beam routing.

5 cl, 11 dwg

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