Element of drainage system with basalt reinforcement
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to elements of drainage systems. A drainage system element has a concrete body open on top, which surrounds a drainage channel. The drainage system element represents a gutter element with an extended body, which is U-shaped in the section across the axis of the gutter. The body comprises basalt fibres joined in bundles and arranged in the body along and/or across the gutter axis. Bundles are joined into a net. The net is arranged in the form of a U letter in the U-shaped body around the gutter channel in a vertical part. The body comprises spacers from basalt, stretching from a net to a gutter channel and/or at least to one external side of the body.
EFFECT: invention provides for high mechanical strength of a drainage system and lower susceptibility to corrosion.
This invention relates to a drainage element having an open top body made of concrete that surrounds the drainage channel. Usually such items for drainage design in the form of a gutter or drain elements. Through its open top form they form area of the inlet used for inflow of surface water, for example, for street drainage of sewage and surface drainage. The housing of such elements for drainage is usually made of concrete or polymer concrete. They can also contain a support, for example support surface to overlap, and the overlap can be made of concrete or metal. To increase the strength of such elements for drainage often they contain steel reinforcement. Meanwhile, the steel reinforcement has the following disadvantages. First, the steel can be correlated, in particular, if the surrounding concrete loses its alkaline nature. Secondly, the steel is relatively heavy and increases the overall weight of the item for drainage.
Therefore, the objective of the invention is to create such an element for drainage, which has a high mechanical strength and is less susceptible to corrosion.
This task is solved by the element for drainage with signs of paragraph 1 of the claims. Preferred universes the tation of the invention are subject of the dependent claims.
In accordance with the invention, the housing element for drainage contains basalt fiber.
Compared with steel rebar, basalt fibres have the advantage that they do not corrode, even if the concrete has lost its alkaline nature. In addition, by their nature, basalt fibers are mineral substance, so they are connected with the concrete more intensively than steel with concrete. Basalt fibers have very high tensile strength, so they are very well suited to improve the mechanical properties of concrete. Fiber does not corrode, is elastic and has a relatively small weight, so with the help of basalt reinforcement can be made of lighter elements for drainage than in the case of conventional elements for drainage with steel rebar.
Most elements for drainage form the elements of a drain that collects in the gutters to drain water away from roads or surfaces. Such drain elements are U-shaped housing which is open at the top, and two vertical side parts of the U-shaped housing, generally relies floors of concrete or steel, having inlets for surface water. When assembled the item drain overlap, in fact, installed flush with surrounding what again, for example, the area for Parking cars or expensive, so the water through holes may flow in the channel element drain. Here the water is withdrawn on site sewage systems.
Preferably basalt reinforcing fibers are placed in the housing in parallel and/or perpendicular to the axis of the outlet, to thereby increase the strength of the U-shaped body in all directions.
Mainly used fiber with the following mineral content:
by 2-15% FeO, CrO and Mao
by 0-10% K2O and PA2O.
In the manufacture of basalt fibers is melted and the molten basalt pull fiber diameter preferably 20-1000 μm, in particular 50-500 μm. Fiber can be easily implemented in the case in the manufacturing process, for example, by the method of vibratory tamping or casting.
Easier handling is obtained if the fibers bind into bundles and using linking polymers are combined in the bars. These rods can be bent, as conventional steel reinforcement, and connect to the grid, which are then fixed in the housing. Because basalt rebar does not corrode, the grid can take it to the edge of the moulds, where they can be attached to the form. However, you can apply and spacers, preferably also made of basalt, which remain in the body. The advantages to the company of such decision is thanks to the use of non-corroding cast reinforcing material on the basis of basalt this material is quite safe up to communicating with the atmosphere of the edge zones of the housing element of the drainage system, which in the case of steel reinforcement is not permitted.
The vertical part of the housing element for drainage, preferably on its upper side, may have a bearing surface for the floor.
If concrete is made the floor, basalt fibers preferably reinforced and overlap. In this case, the reinforcing fibers are predominantly parallel to the plane of the ceiling.
The above-mentioned elements of a drain you can connect the ends in a long, drains, and in itself, the connection ends, seal the ends and fastening drains in the soil is known, so detailed, it did not explain.
Next, on the basis of a schematic drawing describes an example embodiment of the invention. The drawing shows the following :
Figure 1 - cut item drain across the axis of the drain.
The cross section of the element 10 drain has a U-shaped body 12 for channel drain, containing the lower part 14, which extend up to the two vertical portion 16. Thus, the U-shaped body 12 surrounds made in the form of a gutter channel 18 of the drain, which is surrounded by the bottom part 14 and two the slight pressure from the beginning parts 16. On its upper side two vertical pieces 16 have the support surface 20 for supporting the slabs 22 of concrete or metal. In the overlap 22 has inlet openings, so that surface water can through the ceiling 22 to flow into the channel 18 of the drain and there to be allotted. The housing 12 consists of concrete, in which the valve provides communication of basalt fibers. Thus, provided 24 hours basalt perpendicular to the axis of the outlet and extending in the vertical portions 16 and bottom 14. Passing across the axis of the outlet connection 24 of basalt fibers are connected with links 26 of basalt fibers running parallel to the longitudinal axis of the gutter. Thus, thanks to the contacts 24 and 26 of basalt fibers perpendicular to and along the longitudinal axis of the gutter, formed wire mesh, as in the case of conventional steel reinforcement. Wire mesh preferably using spacers 28 basalt rely on the formwork, after pouring or vibration of the concrete mix spacers 28 remain in the housing. Due to the fact that the spacers 28 of the basalt does not corrode, the passage of the struts to the outer part of the concrete shell is not a problem.
If the overlap 22 is made of concrete, it may also contain reinforcing connection of basalt fibers Popper is to and along the longitudinal axis of the drain in the grid to increase the bearing capacity of the slab 22. The use of spacers is not necessarily because of the basalt fibers may pass to the outer part and propped up there, as these relations of basalt fibers corrosion is not affected.
Above the invention has been schematically explained on the basis of one example of its implementation. Of course, the invention can be implemented with the deviation from this example, but in the right amount of protection of the following claims.
1. The drainage element having an open top housing (12) of the concrete that surrounds the channel (18) drainage, and the body contains basalt fiber (24, 26), and the drainage element is an element (10) drainage from the elongated body (12)having in cross section across the axis of the drain U-shaped, wherein the basalt fibers are connected to the beams (24, 26) and are placed in the housing (12) along and/or across the axis of the gutter, and these beams (24, 26) are connected to the grid and the grid is in the form of the letter U in the U-shaped body (12) around the channel (18) of the drain in the vertical part (16)and the housing (12) contains spacers (28) of basalt, stretching from the grid (24, 26) to the channel (18) drainage and/or at least one outer side of the housing (12).
2. The drainage element according to claim 1, characterized in that it is manufactured by the method of vibratory tamping or casting.
3. The drainage element according to claim 1 or 2, trichosis fact, the casing at its upper side has a bearing surface (20) to support the floor (22), in particular metal.
4. The drainage element according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the housing (12) supports overlap (22).
5. The drainage element according to claim 4, characterized in that the covering (22) is made of concrete and has a reinforcement of beams basalt fibers.
SUBSTANCE: device to separate running water arriving from a drain pipe and divert this water into a pipe for contaminated water and a pipe for rain water, comprises the first channel of running water, having an overflow partition, limiting water flow arriving from the drain pipe and sending it into the pipe for contaminated pipe. The device also comprises the second channel sending water flowing over the overflow partition, into the pipe for rain water, a separating wall to block water going through the first channel, to form chambers of water diversion separated in the first channel and a throttling part formed in the separating wall. The method for separation of running water consists in using the device for its separation. At the same time, when running water flow arriving from the drain pipe is higher than the specified flow rate, it is sent into the pipe for contaminated water along the first channel. Water flow is throttled by means of the throttling part, and running water accumulated in chambers of water drain and flowing over the overflow partition, is sent into the pipe for rain water along the second channel. The waste water system comprises the first and second devices to separate running water arriving from the drain pipe. The second device is connected to the first one by means of the first pipe so that a part of water separated by the first device is sent to the second device along the first pipe to separate this part of water. The system also comprises a device to treat running water connected to the second device by means of the second pipe so that a part of this water separated by the second device is sent to the device for treatment along the second pipe, the device for water accumulation connected to the second device by means of the third pipe and connected to the device for water treatment by means of the fourth pipe so that a part of water separated by the second device is sent to the device for water accumulation along the third pipe for temporary water accumulation and its drainage into the device for treatment along the fourth pipe. Besides, the first device comprises the following components: the first channel with the overflow partition limiting water flow arriving from the drain pipe and sending water, which does not flow over the partition, into the first pipe; the second channel sending running water into the water area, arriving from the drain pipe and flowing over the partition; the separating wall for blocking of running water sending via the first channel, to form chambers of water drainage separated in the first channel, and the throttling part formed in the separating wall to throttle water flow passing from one drain chamber into the other one. The second device comprises the following components: the first channel including the overflow partition limiting water flow arriving from the first pipe and sending running water arriving from the first pipe and not flowing over the overflow partition, into the second pipe; the second channel sending water arriving from the first pipe and flowing over the partition, into the third pipe; the separating wall for blocking of water going through the first channel, to form chambers of water drain separated in the first channel, and the throttling part formed in the separating wall to throttle water flow passing from one drain chamber to the other chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplification of design.
13 cl, 29 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a bath with a sink and a small oven on a foundation with a boiler built into it to heat water and a receiving hopper for used water, to which a sewage pipe is laid as inclined in the ground from the bath and the sink. The receiving hopper is located near the foundation for the small oven. At the same in the foundation in earth at the side of the receiving hopper there is a canopy deepened additionally by 0.5-1 m.
EFFECT: higher speed of drainage, lower leakage of water under a foundation and efficient earth use.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises rain gutters (2), water intake funnels (3), drain pipes (4), a storm water outfall (7), filtering wells (16) and a subsurface accumulating reservoir (18). Drain pipes (4) are equipped with discharge parts with mini-hydroturbines (6). Power generated by mini-hydroturbines is sent to accumulator batteries. The storm water outfall is arranged below the level of the earth surface and is an extension of discharge parts of drain pipes. The filtering material is an ash and slag sorbent.
EFFECT: design will make it possible to prevent gradual damage of building basement and foundation elements due to availability of a subsurface storm water outfall.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a toilet, a vacuum sewage pipeline connected to a toilet, a discharge valve, the first pump accessory, the second pump accessory. In the vacuum sewage pipeline there is a linear separation device. The vacuum sewage pipeline is connected to the toilet. The discharge valve is installed between the toilet and the vacuum sewage pipeline. The discharge valve is made as capable of opening in process of toilet usage. The first pump accessory and the second pump accessory are connected in parallel with the linear separation device. The linear separation device has a vacuum level between the specified high level and the specified low level. The first pump accessory is arranged as capable of removing air, and the second pump accessory is arranged as capable of pumping, mainly, sewage from a waste water flow leaking into the linear separation device. The vacuum sewage system comprises a pressure gauge. The pressure gauge is connected to the vacuum sewage pipeline. The method includes application of a vacuum sewage system.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of waste water transportation.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reservoir comprises at least two longitudinal chambers arranged at a distance from each other. The longitudinal chambers by means of at least one, preferably two, connecting couplings arranged perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the longitudinal chambers are connected to each other. The plastic reservoir is made as a horizontal reservoir, and the inbuilt reservoir bottom passes along the longitudinal direction of the longitudinal chambers. A plastic reservoir is described, which consists of two halves of the first small plastic reservoir divisible in the transverse direction. Both halves due to additionally inserted sections of the longitudinal chambers are increased to the second larger plastic reservoir.
EFFECT: simplified production of a large capacity reservoir.
9 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system of sewage comprises receiving 1 and collecting reservoir 2, siphons 3, units of gas discharge with vacuum pumps 5 in vacuum columns arranged in upper parts of siphons. System includes at least two siphons connected to one receiving reservoir and one collecting reservoir, each siphon is equipped with a separate vacuum pump.
EFFECT: invention provides for control of liquid level in receiving chambers.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: packaging industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for waste disposal includes sewage system, garbage pressing network, pumping up, and magistral stations, made with the possibility of filing and disposal of debris under excessive pressure. The garbage pressing network station comprises a garbage crusher, fluid supply device and a pressure machine. The garbage pressing network station is connected to sewage pipeline with garbage pressing booster station, which in turn is connected by magistral sewage pipeline with garbage pressing magistral station connected by magistral pipeline with a garbage disposal site.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve environmental and sanitary-epidemiological efficacy at garbage disposal and recycling.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the sphere of sanitaryware equipment. System of adaptation of material pneumatic transportation mode comprises at least one first reservoir, which is connected to source of the first pressure, at least one second reservoir, which is connected to source of the second pressure. Also system includes connection line for transportation of material from the first reservoir into the second reservoir, pressure reduction gear, with the help of which difference may be controlled between pressure in the first reservoir and pressure in the second reservoir, and compressor between source of the second pressure and the second reservoir for development of negative pressure in the second reservoir. Method for adaptation of material pneumatic transportation mode comprises the following stages: connection of at least one first reservoir to source of the first pressure, connection of at least one second reservoir to the source of the second pressure, transportation of material from the first reservoir to the second reservoir. Also pressure reduction gear is controlled to change the difference between the pressure in the first reservoir and pressure in the second reservoir and reduction of pressure in the second reservoir with the help of compressor in case when difference between the first pressure and the second pressure is not sufficient for material transportation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency; reduction of noise.
36 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to oil-refining and oil-producing industry, namely to drain recovery and flooding systems and keeping of formation pressure in oil-field development. The method involves oil production from various beds, keeping of formation pressure by injection of refinery mineralised water as a working substance in the beds. According to the invention, there is specified a group of injection wells striking the beds with the delivery chinks which have opened layers, containing local water of various physical and chemical properties and various reservoir features. Before injection of the working substance, physical and chemical properties of the working substance and local water are checked. Potential sediment formation is estimated and, as the case may be, the working substance flow is directed to the bed with minimum permissible sediment formation. In flow variation, the working substance is drained in the bed - an interlayer with high reservoir features. The device - system comprises the producing wells having struck the various beds, water conduits, pumps, a water source for injection in the bed for keeping of formation pressure, the injection wells having struck the beds containing local water with various physical and chemical properties and various reservoir features combined in a group with a general water conduit collector connected to a water drainage line for refinery discharge. According to the invention, the water conduit collector is provided with an analysis block of physical and chemical characteristics of the working substance, and the water conduits have flow switches. Said analysis block of physical and chemical characteristics of the working substance and switches are functionally interconnected through a computing and managing unit - controller for comparing physical and chemical characteristics of the working substance and local waters.
EFFECT: lower injectability loss of payout beds, and enabled recovery of refinery mineralized water drain.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: packing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for storage of water, in which at least one flexible reservoir is retained for storage of sea water mass inside in submerged condition. Surface inlet device is created, which is connected with the possibility of liquid passage with flexible storage reservoir, and surface outlet device is created, which is connected with the possibility of liquid passage to flexible storage reservoir, for release of stored water. At the same time outlet device differs from inlet device. Valve is used in each inlet device and outlet device so that in process of reservoir or each storage reservoir filling, inlet valve is opened, and outlet valve is closed. At the same time in process of reservoir or each storage reservoir emptying, inlet valve is closed, and outlet valve is opened, and in process of water filling, head pressure from surface reservoir is used for forced injection of water into reservoir or each storage reservoir.
EFFECT: energy saving in process of water release from reservoir.
27 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: sewage system, particularly combination of engineering structures and sanitary procedures for collection and draining-off domestic sewage water concerned with day-to-day people activity in countryside.
SUBSTANCE: sewage system includes bath, lavatory pan, washing stand, collecting vessel and decomposition vessel with orifices for purified water discharge in ground. Gas relief valve and pipeline are arranged in upper part of decomposition vessel. Above vessels are made as metal drums. Located inside decomposition vessel is filter system. Orifices are drilled in lower part of decomposition vessel and arranged along the full vessel bottom perimeter. Fertilizers from decomposition vessel are removed through above valve. System has connection means formed as flexible couplers to link domestic sewage junctions with above system structures.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability, simplified structure, technology and maintenance, reduced cost.
FIELD: methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage water into ponds through underground horizons.
SUBSTANCE: method involves prospecting underground horizon with required absorbing capacity extending into pond; arranging gravity water flow into horizon; bringing water flow velocity up to underground horizon seepage velocity and providing dispersed laminar water flow. Device comprises water supply pipeline and receiving filtering well with waterproof side walls filled with coarse filling material and having narrow neck. Arranged inside neck are water flow deflectors installed below water supply pipeline in several rows and filter widening in downward direction. Accumulation chamber is located at upper filter part. Coarse filling material is located under accumulation chamber. Particle size of coarse filling material smoothly reduces in top-down direction and filter bottom is located below upper boundary of underground absorbing horizon.
EFFECT: increased output, increased quality of utilized water.
2 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle vacuum toilet system.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system contains one toilet 1 placed in heated room 3 and connected through discharge valve 4 with drain pipe 5, container collector 6 connected with drain pipe 5 and device 8 to build vacuum in container-collector 6 and drain pipe 5. Container-collector is made in form of elongated vertically installed container 6 for collecting liquid sewage. Drain pipe is connected to container-collector 6 near center of its cylindrical main part. Container-collector is arranged in tight contact with room so that it is heated in height owing to heating of room. Container-collector can receive at least five toilet water drains.
EFFECT: prevention of freezing of contents in container-collector in period between its emptying without use of separate heating system.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: control of WC flushing valves.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of control of WC flushing valve in vacuum collector system includes opening and closing of flushing valve by means of control unit at rate ensuring opening and closing time of 0.25 and 0.4 s respectively. Device for control of WC flushing valve includes at least three working valves. Device and flushing valve are actuated by vacuum created in collector system. Said working valves may return to initial position by means of common piston-type rod made in form of cam which is actuated in its turn by piston in cylindrical chamber. First valve actuated by starting unit brings cylindrical chamber in communication with vacuum source in second valve actuated by cam which brings vacuum source in collector system in communication with drive unit of flushing valve and third valve brings flushing ring or similar unit with water source through pipes and passages.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: water protection, particularly for prevention of water basin contamination with surface water received from agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: modular device comprises vertical partitions, which divide thereof into receiving, overflow and sediment chambers. Device includes several identical sections provided with partition chamber, clean water chamber, oil and floating rubbish gathering chamber and has filtering dam installed in intake channel bed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, increased cleaning efficiency.
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly toilet system.
SUBSTANCE: toilet system comprises lavatory pan, flushing device to supply flushing water, line connected to the lavatory pan and to sewage pipeline, means to convey pumped-out mass from lavatory pan to the line and sewage pipeline. The means comprise two valves and pressure chamber arranged in-between, wherein the valves and pressure chamber are arranged in line. Reduced pressure is created in pressure chamber to force the mass from lavatory pan and pressure inside pressure chamber is increased to convey the mass to sewage pipeline. Pressure chamber is made as piston cylinder and includes piston connected to drive means. The drive means move the piston to reduce or increase pressure inside the pressure chamber. The system also has electric control means to control the drive means and above valves so that when the mass is forced out of the pressure chamber the piston movement is performed along with bringing both valves in closed state to create reduced pressure inside the chamber. After that the first valve is rapidly opened to provide the mass inflow from lavatory pan into pressure chamber.
EFFECT: reduced water consumption, increased operational reliability and service life.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water, particularly to connect sewage pipes and odor seals.
SUBSTANCE: sewage pipe connector comprises inlet tubular part connected to the pipe and arranged upstream from the pipe to create inlet sewage water channel, outlet tubular part connected to the pipe and located downstream from it to create outlet sewage water channel and suppression part defining connection sewage water channel to create sewage water flow from inlet sewage water channel to outlet sewage water passage. The connector also has dividing tubular part, which forms dividing channel extending upwards from suppression section of the suppression part and dividing sewage water channel in upward direction at suppression section. Inlet and outlet tubular parts are located one opposite another and are coaxial one to another. Sewage water channel defined by suppression section is below the lowest part of adjacent sewage water channels. The connector additionally has dividing pipe connected to front end of dividing tubular part to enlarge the dividing channel in upward direction and lid detachably attached to the front end of dividing pipe for dividing channel sealing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of odor suppression and prevention of outside odor spreading, possibility to regulate dividing channel height to compensate different depth of pipe laying.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: water supply and sewage systems, particularly for residential, public and industrial buildings.
SUBSTANCE: sewage system in accordance with the first embodiment comprises at least one lavatory pan and/or urinal and at least one sewage water receiver provided with discharge pipeline. The system also has accumulation vessel arranged over lavatory pan and/or urinal and communicated with the discharge pipeline of at least one sewage water receiver. Lower part of accumulation vessel has at least one outlet pipeline to communicate accumulation vessel with lavatory pan and/or urinal. If sewage water receiver connected with discharge pipeline and accumulation vessel is in room located on one level with room in which lavatory pan and/or urinal is installed fore accumulation vessel is arranged in discharge line of above sewage water receiver. The fore accumulation vessel interior is communicated with sewage water receiver and provided with exhaust pump having inlet connected with lower part of fore accumulation vessel interior and outlet linked with main accumulation vessel interior. Sewage system in accordance with the second embodiment comprises at least one lavatory pan and/or urinal with flushing tank provided with inlet valve arranged in upper part of flushing tank interior and connected to water supply system. Sewage system has at least one sewage water receiver provided with drainage pipeline and arranged in room, which is in one level with room having lavatory pan and/or urinal. The system is provided with accumulation vessel comprising exhaust pump having interior connected with drainage pipeline of at least one waste water receiver. Jet pump nozzle communicates with outlet part of inlet flushing tank valve. Mixing chamber communicates with lower part of accumulation vessel interior. Outlet part is connected with flushing tank interior.
EFFECT: possibility of household, industrial and atmospheric sewage water recycling and use for flushing lavatory pans and, as a result, reduced water consumption.
24 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: sewage systems, particularly waste water cleaning systems.
SUBSTANCE: object (independent) sewage systems include mechanical cleaning device (cesspools) and biological cleaning devices (filters, filtration fields). Filtering devices of adjacent zones are hydraulically united in single filtering device to increase discharge volume and smooth discharge irregularity due to possibility to receive peak discharge volume from different objects in different time and due to increased filtration field area at the moment of waste water discharge from one object because of all filtering devices connection in single filtering device. Some zones may contain no filtering devices and waste water therefrom is supplied into adjacent zones.
EFFECT: possibility to smooth discharge irregularity and increased system capacity, decreased sanitary zones of filtering devices and, as a result, increased building density.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly toilet systems used in residential buildings and vehicles, namely in railroad cars, airplanes or buses.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum toilet system comprises lavatory pan, water flushing system, control unit and control button, accumulation tank with pressure and temperature sensors, with liquid level indicator and with heater electrically linked to control unit. System also has vacuum pump and conveyance pipelines. Vacuum pump has heater, at least one environment pressure sensor, conveyance pipeline and accumulation tank pressure sensor, environment temperature sensor, rotor blade temperature sensor and oil level indicating device electrically linked with control unit.
EFFECT: increased economical efficiency, reliability and service life.
2 cl, 1 dwg