Method of producing flexible heat-retaining material

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of flexible heat-retaining material which is meant for use in apparatus for protecting human respiratory organs from high temperatures, as well as components of protective clothing, packaging etc. When producing flexible heat-retaining material, a multilayer composition containing fibre paper between high-pressure and low-density polyethylene sheets is joined using a thermocompression technique.

EFFECT: disclosed simple method enables to obtain flexible heat-retaining material with phase transition temperature in the range of 40-100°C, having high heat capacity and heat conductivity.

3 dwg, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a heat storage material that is capable of accumulating heat due to phase transitions, which can find application, in particular, to protect the human respiratory tract from exposure to elevated temperatures castigating mixture during operation of breathing apparatus in emergency situations, as well as in the items of protective clothing, packaging and other fields.

During operation of the means of respiratory protection regenerative product on the basis of sequence superoxide potassium CO2as you know, emits large amounts of heat, while gastightly the mixture is heated to a temperature of 100°C or more, which contributes to the temperature rise on the inhale user above permissible limits, therefore, the heat storage materials for individual breathing apparatus with a long life special requirements: first, the heat storage material should be non-toxic; secondly, it should not interact with the materials of the apparatus; thirdly, he should be racks for a long time (in accordance with the retention period), without changing its properties, to have a good physical-chemical and thermal properties: melting temperature of 40-100°C., high thermal conductivity and heat capacity.

The efficiency of cooling to which notizie depends first of all, from the choice of the heat storage composition, its physical properties and parameters of phase transformations.

Known method of preparing the heat storage material for cooling of the PA-based material with a phase transition (RF patent No. 2260614, IPC SC 5/00, 5/08, 2005), which use a mixture of two salts - three-hydrate of sodium acetate with uranyl nitrate magnesium or nonahydrate of aluminium nitrate, or potassium thiocyanate, which is mixed with water in a mass ratio of the two components and water 1:(0,9-1,0):(0,9-1,0). When mixing salt with water temperature in the solution is reduced at 28-30°C.

Known method of preparing the heat-retaining material with a phase transition of binary mixtures of molten prolongirovannogo hydrate salt, such as a three-hydrate of sodium acetate, with a transition temperature in the range from 0 to 100°C with the addition of polyacrylic acid in the range from 0.3 to 10% (German patent No. 102005023278, IPC SC 5/06, 2006).

However, these methods do not allow to obtain a material with the required performance and have significant drawbacks:

binary mixture during prolonged storage may delaminate, leading to the variation of the melting temperature and increases the time of melting and crystallization after cooling the eutectic;

- this mixture can cause corros the Yu shells, in which it is enclosed, complicated selection of materials with high thermal conductivity;

such material is difficult to prepare and use tools respiratory protection during operation;

- in the molten acetate trihydrate sodium polyacrylic acid soluble with the formation of acetic acid. Acetic acid is a volatile substance that can diffuse through the shell of the capsules with the mixture and get into the breathing mixture means of respiratory protection during operation;

- water of crystallization in the form of water vapor can react with CO2with the release of oxygen, which is unacceptable in long-term storage remedies.

A known method of manufacturing a heat storage material (China patent No. 1369537, IPC SC 5/06, 5/00, 2002), which provide a mixture of polymeric materials with paraffin, followed by molding, the polymer materials used polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutene, etc. resulting material has stepped transition temperature in the range of 25-70°C and a step change of enthalpy to 175 kJ/kg, does not spread. By changing the ratio of components can be changed thermophysical characteristics.

However, this method does not allow to obtain a material suitable for cooling the air is in the means of respiratory protection, since the material does not have the required thermal resistance of the cooling air at a temperature of from 100°C and above arising from the operation of the respiratory protection, because the transition temperature of this material is 25-70°C and to ensure the comfort of breathing, you will need a large amount of this material, which leads to an increase in weight and size characteristics of the products, which can be used such material.

A method of obtaining heat storage material used in the means of individual protection (patent RF №2008776, IPC A41D 13/00, 1994), in which the heat storage material is prepared by encapsulation, where the membrane is a polymeric matrix containing pores of small size, as a filler - low-melting paraffin from a number With16H36- C20H42with a melting point of 16.7-to 36.7°C. as the polymer matrix can be applied to a wide range of industrial gas-filled polymeric materials, including foam, some sort of polyurethane foam and other

However, this method does not allow to obtain a material suitable for cooling air in the means of respiratory protection, because the transition temperature of this material is 16.7-36,7°C and to ensure comfortable conditions is ahania user will need a large amount of this material, which leads to an increase in weight and size characteristics of the products, which can be used such material. In addition, the method of obtaining heat-retaining material is quite complex and expensive, the use of thermal storage material in the form of capsules complicates the design of self-contained breathing apparatus.

It should be noted that the shell of the capsules consists of polymers with low thermal stability (60-110°C) and when exposed to hot air at a temperature more than 100°C. these materials can release toxic impurities in the air environment at temperatures of more than 60°C, which is unacceptable for the protection of human breathing.

A method of obtaining heat storage material with a phase change in the form of a flexible composite material, consisting of three main layers a, b, C:

layer And is located on the outer surface of the composite is a layer of insulation to reduce heat transfer between the heat storage material and the environment in order to protect the user from low external temperatures. The ideal material for this layer in most cases is a flexible foamed polymer;

layer - the layer which contains a thermal storage material. If the selected heat storage material with the transition phase "solid-solid", it can bytemobile directly into the matrix material in the form of granules or particles. If the selected heat storage material with the transition phase "solid-liquid", then it may be in the form of microcapsules or large capsules, or mixtures thereof;

layer With a layer of thermoregulation is located on the inner surface of the composite, which includes the regulation of the speed of heat transfer between the heat storage material and the skin of the user, thereby maintaining a comfortable temperature surface contact with human skin. This layer can be used to increase the rate of heat transfer through the inclusion of fibers or films thermally conductive materials and providing thermally conductive paths between the heat storage material and the skin of the user (U.S. patent No. 6004662, IPC SC 5/00, SC 5/06, 1999).

Flexible thermal storage material is a monolithic structure without gaps.

A method of obtaining a monolithic composite material is as follows: the layer And the desired thickness of the cast in a form or on a very smooth surface, partially, but not fully, vulcanizers. The layer of matrix material containing a high concentration of granular or encapsulated material with phase change, is placed over the layer a and a layer of the required thickness. The layer also partially vulcanizer. The layer is placed over the layer and a layer it is possible to thickness, partially vulcanizer. Then vulcanizer (seal, strengthen, compress) the entire composite material. If desired, can be carried out by external or internal lining of the main composite material made of cloth or other materials. As the matrix material used materials such as latex, silicone, polyurethane and polyurethane foam.

As the material changes phase uses material from the group consisting of glycerol, acetic acid, polyethylene glycol, oxazolinone wax, D-lactic acid, formic acid, acrylic acid, Caprylic acid, cottonseed, almond, coconut oil, etc.

The layer of thermoregulation With are made of conductive materials selected from the group consisting of thermally conductive films, the conductive fibers, the conductive capsules and metal capsules.

However, this method does not allow to obtain a material suitable for cooling air in the means of respiratory protection, as the temperature of the phase transition is 16-20°C and to ensure the comfort of breathing, you will need a large amount of this material, which leads to an increase in weight and size characteristics of the products, which can be used such material. Complex technology of composite material which does not provide the required technical characteristics of heat-retaining material for breathing apparatus. In addition, the material includes a number of volatile organic compounds, toxic to humans, which at high temperatures over 100°C, can be transferred to the authorities of the user.

The objective of the invention is to improve the operational characteristics of flexible heat-retaining material and the simplification of its receipt.

The technical result of the invention is a method of manufacturing a flexible heat-retaining material, which provides reception of flexible material in the form of sheets or plates, has a transition temperature in the range of 40-100°C, has a high heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a flexible heat-retaining material comprising a compound heat storage material with a flexible matrix, as a flexible matrix use stekloboya, as a thermal storage material use high-pressure polyethylene and low density, with stekloboya placed between sheets of polyethylene and multilayer composition is subjected to thermoscreen.

A method of manufacturing a flexible heat-retaining material is as follows.

Polyethylene in the form of a film and the matrix of saklabanaki cut into sheets of the desired size. Leaves politi the s and matrix connects with the formation of alternating layers of polyethylene and matrix from saklabanaki. The number of alternating layers may be different depending on the destination.

Preferred is the order of connection of polyethylene and matrix from saklabanaki, in which on each side of the matrix put three sheets of polyethylene. For the final formation of the compositions package of alternating layers of polyethylene and matrix from saklabanaki connect with each other to obtain the service required thickness. The final package density polyethylene sheets and matrices from saklabanaki are thermoscreen at a temperature of 150-170°C and a pressure of 0-0,2 MPa. Use polyethylene mark N. GOST 10354-84, stekloboya brand BMD-f TU 6-48-93-92 or brand BMD-TU 6-11-529-80.

thermal bonding (adhesion) sheets of polyethylene and saklabanaki included in the heat-accumulating material, based on the properties of polyethylene to change the phase state of solid-liquid when heated.

thermal bonding process can be carried out PA any press with the normalized force, equipped with a heating system.

Example 1. Polyethylene and stekloboya cut sheets of a length of 400 mm, a width of 200 mm to Form a package of alternating layers of polyethylene film and saklabanaki in the following order: on each side of saklabanaki put three sheets of polyethylene.

The package is subjected to thermoscreen when the temperature is ur 170°C and a pressure of 0 MPa for 5 minutes

The resulting material is a flexible thermal storage material in the form of a sheet and can be used in methods of respiratory protection, protective clothing and other

Example 2. Sheets of polyethylene film and saklabanaki prepared as described in example 1. Form a package of alternating layers of polyethylene film and saklabanaki in the following order: on each side of saklabanaki placed two sheets of polyethylene and then, with one hand placed on polyethylene sheet saklabanaki and two sheets of polyethylene.

The package is subjected to thermoscreen at a temperature of 150°C and a pressure of 0.2 MPa for 10 minutes

The resulting material is a flexible thermal storage material in the form of a plate and can be used in methods of respiratory protection, protective footwear, handbags special purpose and other

Example 3. Sheets of polyethylene film and saklabanaki prepared as described in example 1. Form a package of alternating layers of polyethylene film and saklabanaki in the following order: two sheets of polyethylene, a layer of saklabanaki, then this alternation is repeated three more times and top place two sheets of polyethylene. The total number of sheets of the composition is: 4 sheet saklabanaki and 10 sheets of polyethylene.

The package is subjected to thermoscreen at a temperature of 160°C and pressure the Sri 0.1 MPa for 6 minutes

The resulting material is a flexible thermal storage material in the form of a plate and can be used in methods of respiratory protection, protective footwear, as items of protective clothing and other

Example 4. Sheets of polyethylene film and saklabanaki prepared as described in example 1. Form a package of alternating layers of polyethylene film and saklabanaki in the following order: three sheets of polyethylene, a layer of saklabanaki, then this alternation is repeated three more times and top place three sheets of polyethylene. The total number of sheets of the composition is: 4 sheet saklabanaki and 15 sheets of polyethylene.

The package is subjected to thermoscreen at a temperature of 150°C and a pressure of 0.05 MPa for 20 minutes

The resulting material is a flexible thermal storage material in the form of a plate and can be used in methods of respiratory protection, protective footwear, boxes and other

Research results physico-chemical characteristics (thermal conductivity, heat capacity) of the samples of flexible heat-retaining materials but the examples 1-4, are presented in figure 1 and figure 2.

Figure 1 presents the dependence of thermal conductivity of samples of flexible heat-retaining materials received but the examples 1-4, the temperature.

Figure 2 presents the dependence of the heat treatment the samples of flexible heat-retaining materials, received but the examples 1-4, the temperature.

Curve 1 in figure 1 describes the change in thermal conductivity of flexible heat-retaining material obtained in example 1, when heated.

Curve 2 in figure 1 describes the change in thermal conductivity of flexible heat-retaining material obtained according to example 2, when heated.

Curve 3 in figure 1 describes the change in thermal conductivity of flexible heat-retaining material obtained according to example 3 by heating.

Curve 4 in figure 1 describes the change in thermal conductivity of flexible heat-retaining material received but example 4, when heated.

Curve 5 in figure 1 describes the change in the conductivity of the sample obtained from polyethylene when heated.

As follows from the graphics data in figure 1, the parameters of thermal conductivity of the samples obtained according to examples 1-4 are slightly different from each other and are about to 0.36 W/(MK). thermal conductivity of the sample obtained from polyethylene, lower than the conductivity of samples of flexible heat-retaining materials obtained in examples 1-4, and is reported to be 0.29 W/(MK).

The difference in thermal conductivity of polyethylene and samples of flexible heat-retaining materials obtained in examples 1-4, is about 20%, which might be explained by the introduction in the composition of saklabanaki, and eUSA greater conductivity compared to polyethylene.

Curve 1 in figure 2 characterizes the change of heat capacity flexible thermal storage material obtained in example 1, when heated.

Curve 2 in figure 2 characterizes the change of heat capacity flexible thermal storage material obtained according to example 2, when heated.

Curve 3 in figure 2 characterizes the change of heat capacity flexible thermal storage material obtained according to example 3 by heating.

Curve 4 in figure 2 characterizes the change of heat capacity flexible thermal storage material obtained according to example 4 by heating.

As follows from the graphics data in figure 2, the melting (transition phase "solid-liquid") of the samples obtained in example 1-4, begins at a temperature of 75-80°C.

Test samples of flexible heat-retaining material obtained according to examples 1-4, in the composition of the breathing apparatus, carried out in accordance with GOST R 53260-2009 p.8.12. "Equipment fire. The rescuers insulated with chemically bound oxygen to protect people from toxic products of combustion escape from smoke-filled areas during a fire. General technical requirements. Test methods" at the "Artificial light" and in compliance with European standard EN 13794.

Figure 3 presents the dependence of the temperature on the breath of time tested remedies'or the ANOVA breathing person on the stand simulator external respiration person "Artificial light" using samples of flexible heat-retaining materials, obtained in examples 1-4.

Curve 1 in figure 3 characterizes the temperature change castigating mixture on the inhale from the time of the experiment in the test sample flexible thermal storage material obtained in example 1.

Curve 2 in figure 3 characterizes the temperature change castigating mixture on the inhale from the time of the experiment in the test sample flexible thermal storage material obtained according to example 2.

Curve 3 in figure 3 characterizes the temperature change castigating mixture on the inhale from the time of the experiment in the test sample flexible thermal storage material obtained according to example 3.

Curve 4 in figure 3 characterizes the temperature change castigating mixture on the inhale from the time of the experiment in the test sample flexible thermal storage material obtained in example 4.

Curve 5, figure 3 describes the change in temperature castigating mixture on the inhale from the time of the experiment when testing breathing apparatus without the use of heat-retaining material.

As follows from the graphics data in figure 3, the use of flexible heat-retaining material received but the examples 1-4, allows to reduce the temperature of inhaled air from 80°C to 45°C.

A method of manufacturing a flexible heat-retaining material, include the rd connection thermal storage material with a flexible matrix, characterized in that a flexible matrix use stekloboya, as a thermal storage material use high-pressure polyethylene and low density, with stekloboya placed between sheets of polyethylene and multilayer composition connect termocompressive way.



 

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25 cl, 3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment, namely, to devices for measurement of a dose of low-energy ionising radiation in open space during orbital flights of aircrafts around the Earth. A device to measure ionising radiation comprises a metal vessel, which holds sensitive elements. A device vessel is a truncated cone with an angle of cone opening equal to 90°±5°. At the side of the smaller base of the truncated cone there is an inlet window for sensitive elements protected at the side of the inlet window with a polyethylene terephthalate metallised film. At the side of a larger base of the truncated cone there is a cover fixed with a threaded rod element arranged on it.

EFFECT: making it possible to measure a dose of ionising radiation in open space behind a minimum protection of 5·10-4 g/cm2 with isotropic sensitivity of each dosimeter inside a model for this solid angle in the range from 0 to 2π steradian.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used as outer bad of bag-type container for medical solutions. Multilayer film comprises sequential outer layer from polyethylene terephthalate with inorganic precipitate deposited thereon, first adhesive layer from ester-type polyurethane, first interlayer from ethane and vinyl alcohol copolymer, second adhesive layer from ester-type polyurethane, second interlayer from ester-type polyurethane, and inner propylene-based layer.

EFFECT: improved chemical and physical properties.

17 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

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