Method for sanitary treatment of solid household wastes
SUBSTANCE: method involves depositing a protective layer of air-permeable material onto the surface of solid household wastes, said air-permeable material being a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the wastes, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added. Primary methods of depositing the protective layer of air-permeable material are a float out method and a push method.
EFFECT: method cuts treatment time.
The invention relates to the organization of the storage of solid waste and can be used in the operation of solid waste landfills.
The known method of sanitary preservation of municipal solid waste, comprising coating the surface of the waste of the protective layer of nonflammable solid foam-based urea resin, which is applied to the surface of the waste by pouring that on the one hand provides the sanitary isolation of wastes from the environment, and on the other, due to the partial permeability of hardened foam does not lead to accumulation in the waste layer of explosive concentrations of gases formed during the processes of putrefaction and decay.
However, the method of operation of polygons using sanitary isolation of hardening foam-based urea resins require higher costs, so as to obtain the required air permeability of the foam it is necessary to conduct time-consuming activities for the selection of the composition of the foaming mixture. In addition, to obtain a layer of cured foam must use special equipment to control the thickness of the layer during its deposition and alignment of the not yet hardened foam immediately after its application.
As a prototype accept the way of sanitary conservation solid waste, see atent of the Russian Federation No. 2014164, consisting in coating the surface of the waste of the protective layer is partially permeable hardening foam based on a urea resin, a protective layer is applied by successive casting surface waste non-combustible or slow-curing foam, each subsequent priming is performed after hardening of the material of the previous fill.
The disadvantage of the prototype is the expensive way and a huge time costs, as each subsequent fill is carried out after the hardening of the material of the previous fill.
The aim of the invention is to reduce time and cost reduction method.
This goal is achieved by the fact that, as the breathable material used powdered composition of waste "dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in a ratio of 1:3. The cooking process is the mixing of the components by mechanized methods. Three weight parts of dolomite flour or crumbs add one part of retreat the dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production. The main methods are laying method "thrust fault" and the "confrontation". Laying of solid waste on the object placement method "thrust fault" is over is igenii next shaft waste created by 5-10 compacted waste layers up to 0.5 m, to the previous shaft. A compacted layer of solid waste height of 2 m is isolated by a layer of breathable material is 0.25 m (while providing a seal 3.5 times more Pets insulating layer thickness of 0.15 m). Storage of solid waste by the method of "confrontation" from the top down. In the method of "confrontation" as opposed to "thrust fault" the transport unloaded on top of an isolated object surface placement of solid waste, formed in the previous day. The intermediate layer of insulation in the storage of solid waste by the method of "confrontation" is 0.25 m, and the compaction of waste rollers KM-305 - 0.75 m To enhance biocidal action of retreat the dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production introduces a highly effective drug, Bio Z". The drug, Bio-Z" is a strong fungicide and bactericide.
The application of the proposed method of conservation of solid waste provides reduced time and cost savings when performing the protective layer of the landfill through the use of a powder composition of waste "dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in a ratio of 1:3. Cos the main methods are laying method "thrust fault" and "confrontation. To enhance biocidal action of retreat the dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production introduces a highly effective drug, Bio Z". The drug, Bio-Z" is a strong fungicide and bactericide.
1. How sanitary preservation of municipal solid waste, comprising coating the surface of solid waste protective layer of air-permeable material, characterized in that as the breathable material used powdered composition of waste "dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in a ratio of 1:3.
2. How sanitary preservation of municipal solid waste according to claim 1, characterized in that in order to enhance biocidal action of retreat the dust of ferrous metals uncontaminated" metallurgical production introduces a highly effective drug, Bio Z".
3. How sanitary preservation of municipal solid waste according to claim 2, characterized in that the main methods of laying the protective layer of air-permeable material is a method of "thrust fault" and the "confrontation".
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to community services, particularly, to sanitary purification. Municipal wastes are collected by trucks equipped with compacting facilities. Note here that unified container to carry wastes is fitted on the truck. Wastes are compacted by mounted compacting appliance. Said filled unified containers are delivered in territories of railway or water terminals for storage. Said containers are delivered from said territories on railway or water transport facilities and carried to stations of sorting, processing and recovery.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, better environmental protection.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: storage comprises regional confining layer, said layer there above, at least one layer of loam and/or clay sediments making sorption (filtration) shield above sand layer, system of horizontal tubular drains fitted in sand layer along storage edges to extend to pits for possible feed of filtrate to surface. Proposed method comprises selecting regional confining layer proceeding from hydrogeological data on estimates of flows over refining layer, analysing engineering survey of soil stratum section town to refining layer to reveal shielding and filtering layers at future storage bed and excavating soil to reach, at least, one pillar of loan and/or clay beds making a natural sorption and/or filtration shield. Note here that, additionally, cuts in pillar are exposed along pit edges down to sand layer under lower filtration layers for laying horizontal drains along pit edges and mounting pumps therein.
EFFECT: decreased costs.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and utility plants and may be used for non-polluting stockpiling of various wastes. Horizontal piezometer is arranged at accumulator foundation. Then, dam is dumped. Cell-like forms are arranged on foundation surface to be filled with ash concrete. Thus, anti-filtration ash concrete shield of foundation is produced. Ash concrete shields are made on inner slopes of said dam by laying ash concrete bulk in layers. Then, gas-escape drainage is installed on anti-filtration shield to be built up as accumulator comes filled layer by layer. After dumping next layer of wastes, intermediate ash concrete layer is dumped thereon. Waterproof shield made from ash concrete is created on the surface of filled accumulator to be covered by soil reclamation layer.
EFFECT: improved environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for burial of harmful and toxic wastes, in particular, chrome-containing ones. The method to bury chrome-containing wastes includes combination and layerwise refinement of a waste massif onto an upper insulation layer, a working layer, a protective adsorption layer, a lower insulation layer. The protective adsorption layer is represented by non-toxic industrial vegetable wastes, such as lignin, husks or chips. Insulation layers are industrial wastes of mineral origin, for instance, a lime cake (a mineral waste of sugar production) or slag of a waste incineration plant with an adsorption capacity by a chrome ion of at least 0.56 mg/g and low filtration coefficient. The ratio between the height of adsorption layer and the height of the lower insulation layer must make from 3:1 to 4:1.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to minimise carryover of toxic chrome ions from a massif of a chrome-containing waste, their negative impact to environment and a landfill body, to eliminate the necessity to use containers and warehouses for preliminary stacking and accumulation of huge masses of non-toxic wastes in areas of their occurrence, to increase duration of landfill operation.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 25 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processing and storing of solid domestic wastes and may be used in communal services for disposal, transportation and burial of solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises briquetting of solid wastes, their transportation to location of burial, filling underground cavities via borehole extending to surface and bridging said borehole by backfill material. Casing is fitted in borehole. Briquetting is carried out with the help of device wherein solid domestic wastes are compacted and arranged in metal container made up of two hinged thin-wall semi-cylinders to be carried to location of burial Filled borehole is bridged by backfill material to drill new borehole above underfilled underground cavity whereto frame with mechanisms and lift crane for described cycle to be repeated unless exhausted gas deposit is completely filled.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances due to reuse of briquette containers.
8 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological reclamation of refuse tips and to methods of environmental protection against contamination by solid household wastes and may be used for afforestation. Refuse tip is inspected, cleaned of detected metal subjects, tip surface is leveled and 20 cm-thick layer of humus is applied on garbage. Then, 10 cm-thick layers of potentially fertile soil is applied thereon. Soil is compacted, disked, harrowed, herbaceous and lignosa vegetation are sown and filtrate collection channel is arranged along site perimetre.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and lower labor input.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to oil industry, particularly, to method of hydrocarbons-containing wastes disposal and recovery of mineral resources as well as to device to this end. In compliance with proposed method, packing material is fed via stowing oriented well into free subsurface space. After filling, said space is shut down. Proposed device comprises unit for grinding of fed packing material, mixer of ground packing material with water, pump station and pipeline with gate valve for feeding pulp into free subsurface space.
EFFECT: neutralisation of industrial and household wastes, better ecology.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: planting method involves formation of the substrate from decomposing wastes at the surface of the wetlands and bedding plants. Planting stocks is carried out on the surface of substrate layer of solid domestic wastes. Root system of stocks is powdered with fertile soil, and an elevation is formed. Alternatively, planting stocks can be carried out in deepenings made in a layer of the substrate for the stock root system of 15-30 cm tall. After that, the root system of plants is powdered with fertile soil. Layer of the substrate of domestic wastes is formed on the selected area of surface of wetlands with height of 0.5-2.5 m which is sufficient for passage of track machines on the layer of wastes. For penetration of the roots of plants stocks into the layer of wastes and moisture supply to the roots of stocks at least one hole is made at a depth of 0.5-1.5 m in a layer of waste. After that, part of the roots of the stock is placed in the hole made in the layer of household wastes.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the survival rate of stocks on wetlands that can improve ecological purity of landscapes and effectiveness of domestic wastes disposal.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disposal of organic wastes directly at location of their accumulation or formation, particularly, on solid household wastes polygons. Proposed polygon comprises foundation and band erected thereon from wastes, forest shelter belt arranged around the polygon at no more than 50 m therefrom and of width not smaller than 10 m, as well as natural or artificial water-resisting bed jointed with the system of drainage pipes communicated by collector wherefrom said wastes are fed in processing apparatus. Artificial pyramid-shaped bank of wastes is erected with faces covered by vegetable layer of filled-up ground. Bank is reinforced by horizontal intermediate isolation layers inclined layers made from, for example, processed scrap metal wastes to make meshes or grid. Isolation layers on bank top layers are cross-inclined to help retain garbage trucks and other equipment of polygon.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of disposal and recovery.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation in an immediate proximity from inflammable reservoirs and/or storages, in a water-filled natural impounded body and/or artificial foundation pit, a suction dredge used to supply a pulp made of mixed water and nonflammable disperse grounds from a body bottom and coast and/or a foundation pit bottom and borders by a branched quick-assembled pipeline system presented by pulp lines; a protective layer of the disperse grounds is deposited on a surface of potential or actual seats of fire; a solid mass of combustible materials is soaked with barring oxygen thereto simultaneously. The pulp lines are lengthened as the protective layer is formed, and simultaneously cavities formed by ignition of combustible materials are washed away. The pulp lines are lengthened both in frontal, and in flange directions with disassembling the pipes of the pre-assembled branches of the pipeline system which are not used for fire suppression, and their transmitting onto new fire fighting areas.
EFFECT: invention provides prevention of self-ignition of the inflammable combustible materials during drought, fast fire extinguishing in case of their ignition, and also organic fuel preservation.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.
FIELD: equipment for neutralizing range proving grounds for storage of solid domestic wastes by extracting of biogas for further utilization thereof.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has collector, perforated gas collecting pipes, condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler, switching-off device, conveyance pipeline, and compressor station. Branches of perforated gas collecting pipes are connected to collector through flexible inserts. Stoppers are located at free ends of gas collecting pipes and collector. Condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler and switching-off device are mounted on collector which is connected by conveyance pipeline through compressor station to cogenerator. Conveyance pipeline is equipped with compressed gas outlet.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency of biogas collecting apparatus.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: dumping solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises trenching during the period of the beginning of soil freezing and laying heat and hydraulic insulation on the trench bottom and over the trenches during the period of the beginning of defrosting soils. The trenches are then filled with solid waste, and during the next period of freezing, the trenches filled with solid waste are trenched from both sides.
EFFECT: improved environmental protection.
FIELD: protection of environment, in particular, disinfection of industrial and domestic dumps, including shaft rock dumps and piles of other kinds.
SUBSTANCE: method involves leveling dump surface; placing onto leveled dump surface the following materials: clay in volume sufficient for constructing of low-permeable 0.5 m thick shield; sand in volume sufficient for constructing of drainage and leveling layers of 0.5-0.6 thickness; clay layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; bird dung layer kept for at least one year and meeting sanitary and microbiological norms, said bird dung layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; providing biological recultivation process, with top layer being preliminarily mixed through depth of 0.3 m.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in disinfecting of various kinds of dumps.
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: methods for temporary or constant disposal of sewage water sediment, in particular, for preservation of toxic bottom oil sludge and other kinds of sludge from storage pools in oil refining and chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sequentially laying and compacting water-and-oil impermeable screen formed from drilling sludge and wastes which had been preliminarily dehydrated to residual moisture content of 5-30%; covering said sludge and wastes with water-and-oil impermeable screen, compacting, spilling layer of soil-plant ground thereon and planting. Dehydration of said sludge and wastes to residual moisture content is provided by evaporation in open air.
EFFECT: simplified disposal of toxic industrial wastes.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to insulating materials.
SUBSTANCE: it may be used at burial places of toxic industry wastes of the third and the fourth degree of danger including solid domestic wastes. The material contains clay, sediment of staked lime or sludge of chemical water purification in quality of used lime waste material, bottom, floating oil-slime or soil polluted with mineral oils in quality of oil-slime at the following content of components, mass%: clay- 1-60, used lime waste- 15-40, oil-slime- 25-50.
EFFECT: allows to improve quality of insulating material and expand resources of raw materials.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing of the "tuilings" of the concentrating mill with carbonates with a subsequent storage of them without construction of a dam. Crumbs of brucite, as well as products of wood chemical processing of wood - lining are additionally introduced in the mixing, the place of storage is coated with a layer of an isolating water-proof film, 2 mm thick, withstanding without any rupture the action of the wheeled and caterpillar machinery. Shower and snowmelt waters are discharged by a water - way trench to the underlying area of the valley with a subsequent cleaning of them.
EFFECT: reduced danger of contamination of the ecosystems in the process of assimilation of mineral resources.
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.
3 cl, 1 dwg