System for monitoring local surface earthquake precursors

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a system for monitoring local surface earthquake precursors on a secure territory, having two supply earth terminals connected to a probe current pulse generator, and a system of receiving earth terminals connected to a receiver which is connected to a signal processing unit. The system of receiving earth terminals is formed by N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are arranged uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0.5-0.6 km, and one central electrode placed at the centre of said circle. Radial conductors are connected each of the N-1 electrodes of the system of receiving earth terminals. Electrodes of the supply earth terminals are spaced apart by a distance L=(15-20)D. The system of receiving earth terminals is directed in the plan randomly relative electrodes of the supply earth terminals and lies from the latter at a distance X=(1.5-1.6)L. The probe current pulse generator generates current pulse bursts with frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, burst duration of 10-30 s and current in the pulse of 1-10 KA at least twice a day at the same time of the day.

EFFECT: high reliability of information on the hypocentre of an imminent surface earthquake and its parameters, particularly the event time and amplitude estimate.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the electrical and can be used for short-term forecast of earthquakes in earthquake-prone areas.

It is known that the surface of the earthquake (PZ) arise in the process of tectonic activity, the centers of which are located at depths of up to 50 km PZ is characterized by unpredictability and great danger for the population and industrial facilities. With respect to the object PZ there is a consensus among seismologists in the understanding of the fact that to date there is no model PZ and the solution to this problem stretches over 50 years. In connection with the above, it is especially important to monitor, as well as activities to influence PZ in the area of location of critical facilities (power plants, hazardous industries, spaceports, and other).

Described techniques and tools for earthquake prediction techniques electrical sensing technology have been mined in the search of oil and gas, and other minerals.

So, from the publication "METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PREDICTING EARTHQUAKES", CA 1196688 (A1) VAROTSOS et al., 12.11.1985, the known method and device for predicting earthquakes by registering their own electric fields arising in the process of seismic activity with multiple stations, spaced at a distance of 100 m Each station sod is rgit two electrodes, buried in the ground to a depth of 0.5-2 m, connected to the filter allocating frequency of 0.5-1.0 Hz, associated with the differential amplifier, counter and indicator. Detected electrical pulses of desired amplitude within a specified period of time occurring between the electrodes, or the intensity of the electric field, which, when the joint processing of the signals from given formulas in different directions referred to as precursors of earthquakes. In another invention of the "EARTH CRUST ACTIVITY MONITORING SYSTEM" (JP10268057 (A), HATA MASATADA, 09.10.1998)described a system for monitoring activity of the earth's crust and earthquake prediction using network receivers of electromagnetic waves, the signals are collected, processed, and compared with the status signals of the electric field in the atmosphere, vibrations, etc. Monitorrole center connected to the computer, which analyzes the state of activity of the earth's crust according to the control device, compares them with previous observations and then determines the location of the seismic source areas and predicts the amount and date of occurrence of earthquakes. These inventions relate to so-called passive control methods by monitoring the natural electromagnetic fields in a possible earthquake. However, the tools are not the residual polgasowita, is not specified and the expected start time of the event.

However, a well-known implementation of instrumental methods of registration of earthquake precursors using active excitation pulse sources of the electric field.

Thus, in the invention of "geoelectroprospecting and device for its implementation" (SU 1770774 A1, Rachlinski and others, 23.10.1992) described geophysical surveys for the study of dynamic processes in time in the earth's crust. The excitation of electromagnetic fields in the environment carried out using alternating current source to the two specified frequencies. At a given distance from the source, which is 20 miles or more, measured at both frequencies relations second geometric differences of the potentials of the electric field to the first, releasing these ratios only in-phase with the electromotive force of the source phase component. The device consists of a horizontal dipole AC source, receiver, including the sensors of the first and second geometric difference of the electric potentials of the divider, the synchronous detector, the drive and logger.

In another invention described system electromagnetic monitoring seismically active zones of the earth's crust through an active electro (EN 2408037 C2, Il and others, 27.12.2010). C the STD control, collection and processing of information connected via radio links on razvetvlenno-beam scheme with a generator set and a network of measurement points. Each measuring station includes a sensor unit of the electromagnetic field that is connected to the digital measuring station, and a data device, made in the form of a radio modem. The data device connected bidirectional communication with the digital measuring station. The measuring station consists of a generator test signals and analog-to-digital Converter (ADC)connected to the unit of the measuring amplifiers and micro-computer. The satellite navigation system receiver connected to the micro-computer bidirectional communication lines of the serial interface. The generator of clock pulses is connected by its output to the synchronization input of the ADC, and in the case of a generator to the input of the system control and diagnostics. However, this system does not reveal the location topology of the actual measuring system on-site that is monitored.

In the invention "geoelectroprospecting" (EN 1835939 Subnav and others, 27.06.1995 - the closest analogue) for the prediction of earthquakes is described principle of the registration system in the time of the change of conductivity in a stationary observation points. It provides who shall Videnie in terms of sources of periodic signals of the current pulse frequency of about 0.25 Hz and a force of several hundred amperes. The excitation is grounded electrical lines placed perpendicular to the first one, then the other), size of 1-2 km At a distance of 20-25 km measured potential difference using a system grounded dipole and quadrupole settings. The measured difference is the system of equations that determines the tensor characteristic conductivity. Change elements of the tensor characteristics over time judge about changes in subsurface electrical properties of the section. There are three frequency excitation, which provide the study section to a depth of 2-3 km Measurements are performed 4-6 times a day.

However, in the nearest analogue is not disclosed design of the measuring system of the device for direct monitoring of PZ on a small local area, such as in the area of hazardous production or military facility, where PZ can cause significant damage.

The present invention is directed to a system of active electro precursors of surface earthquakes.

The control system of the forerunners of the local surface of earthquakes in the protected area contains two power supply ground is connected to the generator excitation current pulses, and the foster system ground is connected to the receiver, is connected to the signal processing unit.

The difference is that the system is receiving grounding formed N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are placed uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0,5-0,6 km, and a single, Central, placed in the center of the said circle. To each of N-1 electrode system of the receiving ground attached posted radial wires, the free ends of which are interconnected and connected to one input of the receiver, to the other input of which is connected to the Central electrode. The electrodes supply grounding spaced from each other by a distance L=(15-20)D, the system receiving ground oriented in terms of arbitrarily relative to the electrode feeding ground and removed from the latter at a distance of X=(1,5-1,6)L. the Generator excitation current pulses is configured to generate packets of pulses with a frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, duration tutu with 10-30 and the value of the current pulse 1-10 KA at least two times per day at the same time.

The system can be characterized by the fact that the signal processing unit is configured to analyze the electrical signals at the output of the receiver and their changes in time synchronously with the feed on the feeding ground of the probe pulses and determine the precursors of surface earthquakes in ascending order in time of the amplitude of the recorded otrazhennoj the signal in the first hours after the filing of the probing pulses relative to the background values, certain in the absence of surface earthquakes.

The system can be characterized by the fact that the signal processing unit is arranged to generate an alarm and/or control signal for supplying an electric impact on the center surface of earthquakes in a protected area and that are placed at a distance not exceeding 150 km from the Central part of the protected area, and, in addition, the fact that the number of electrodes of the foster system grounding is N=6-12.

The technical result consists in providing a control precursors of surface earthquakes on the local territory sizes of 100-300 km in diameter and increase the accuracy of the information about the hypocenter of the upcoming EP and its parameters in terms of time, events and evaluation of the amplitude for taking the necessary measures of organizational and technical plan.

The basis of the invention lies experimentally based model of surface earthquakes with foci at depths of up to 20 km, which can be predicted for 1-2 days before the start of the process. The model is built around the concept Caracena A.V., S. Grigoryan and others about the status of the fracturing of the earth's crust in the process of earthquake preparation due to the so-called dilatancy effect of diffuse enlargement of the cracks and the associated motion is fluid with a high electrical conductivity. Changing the state of the earth's crust causes and the change reflected from these layers of an electrical signal active electrical method. The term "local" PZ mean PZ, with the hypocenter near the controlled object or directly on site, which may affect the operability posted on this local site. Synchronous data analysis duty of monitoring the local area and reception disturbances in the ionosphere above the fireplace upcoming ST using known methods will allow high accuracy to determine the time and to estimate the magnitude of expected events and tarasovat tools electric sensing PZ.

Patent-pending tools allow you to predict the occurrence of events for 1-2 days and thereby improve the safety of work on this local site.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, where:

figure 1 is a plan presents the layout of the electrodes of the supply and receiving grounding on the protected territory;

figure 2 - block diagram of the system;

figure 3 graphs the dependence of the amplitude of the recorded signal on time (explanation in text).

The control system of the forerunners of the local surface of earthquakes in the protected area (see figure 1, 2) contains two power supply ground And The In, connected to the generator 1 pulse current. The system receiving grounding M connected to the receiver 2, associated with the unit 3 signal processing. The system is placed at a distance not exceeding 150 km from the Central part of the protected area. Unit 3 is connected with the detector 4.

The system receiving the grounding of M formed by N (N=7-13) recessed into the ground at 1-1,5 meter electrodes M1...MN. The Central electrode placed in the center of said circle, the remaining (N-1) peripheral electrodes are placed uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0,5-0,6 km, for Example, as shown in figure 2, the system may consist of 7 electrodes: one Central and six peripheral. The received signal is normalized by a parameter that is proportional to current density, and not on the magnitude of the current of the generator 1 pulse current (as is usually done). This parameter is invariant to the lateral heterogeneity of the studied environment and is not subject to the distorting effects of local inhomogeneities directly below the observation point (see darlings L.G., Karakin AV, Rachlinski NI "ON the possibility of forecasting and impact on surface earthquake", report at the conference "SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT of RESORTS of RUSSIA". Sochi-2007, 19-22 April, organized by the Department of social Sciences).

To each of N-1 electrodes M with the system receiving ground attached posted radial conductors R, the free ends of which are interconnected and connected to one input of the receiver 2, to the other input of which is connected to the Central electrode of the MIS.

The electrode feeding ground and spaced from each other by a distance L=(15-20)D. foster System grounding can be oriented in terms of arbitrarily relative to the electrodes supply grounding And, In and removed from the latter at a distance of X=(1,5-1,6)L. Accordingly, the distance L=(15-20) (0.5 to 0.6) 7.5-12 km, and the distance between the feeding and receiving grounding is in the range X=10-20 km

The generator excitation current pulses is configured to generate packets of pulses with a frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, duration tutu with 10-30 and the value of the current pulse 1-10 kA. Control system the generator must ensure stabilization of the amplitude of the output pulses and the generation of a signal with the given parameters at least twice per day at the same time.

Unit 3 signal processing is performed on the basis of a personal computer or dedicated controller with the ability to analyze electrical signals at the output of the receiver and their changes in time synchronously with the feed on the feeding ground of the probe pulses. Harbingers PZ are defined in ascending order in time of the amplitude of the reflected signal detected from the area fo miroudot earthquake during the first hours. In other words, the harbinger of PZ is a noticeable deviation of the amplitude of the signal after the filing of the probing pulses from the average background values determined in the absence of PZ when debugging measuring complex with simultaneous analysis of seismic monitoring data.

Unit 3 signal processing can be performed with the possibility of formation of an alarm signal to the alarm device 4 using the well-known traditional radio communications and control (for example, as in the aforementioned patent RU 2408037).

Unit 3 signal processing can be performed with signal to supply active electric impact on the center surface of earthquakes in the protected area in accordance with known recommendations. This is possible by using mobile MHD generators of high-power pulsed discharges (up to 10 MJ) (see, Tarasov, N.T. "Change in seismic crust under electrical influence", DAN, 1997, t, No. 4, p.54-545; Velikhov E.P., darlings L.G., Karakin AV "ON the possibility of applying the methods of physics to forecast and impact on shallow earthquakes", DAN, 2005, No. 2, s-241). When exposed to such a powerful electric discharge to the grounded electrodes placed near to the epicenter PZ, as shown, a strong PZ is divided into bore is only weak and not dangerous PZ for population and securable objects.

Figure 3 shows a plot of the amplitude of the recorded signal from time to time. Curve a) shows a noticeable deviation of the amplitude from the center PZ probing signal relative to the average values for the time around 50 hours from the start of monitoring. The accumulation of statistics on a specific subject monitoring site will allow you to identify dangerous levels of signal amplitude. In this case activates the warning device 4 for alarm, and can also output the corresponding control signal for connecting the active suppression PZ powerful electrical discharges from the MHD generator.

From the progress curve b) shows that the deviation from the background values is small and growing slowly, and then fades out in a natural way that does not presuppose dangerous PZ over the coming days. Curve b) shows the level of background values, certain traditional acoustic means in the absence of PZ. It should be emphasized that modern seismic stations record earthquake and its hypocenter only after the fact.

Estimates show that the control of precursors surface of earthquakes at depths of up to 20 km on the basis of the results of the duty of monitoring the earth's crust within a radius of not less than 15 km from the important protected object (for example, constructed of the cosmodrome "East") will warn about serious PZ at least 1-2 days before the start of the process.

1. The control system of the forerunners of the local surface earthquakes in a protected area containing two supply ground is connected to the generator excitation current pulses, and the foster system ground is connected to the receiver associated with the signal processing unit, characterized in that the system is receiving grounding formed N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are placed uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0,5-0,6 km, and a single, Central, placed in the center of said circle, each of N-1 electrode system of the receiving ground attached posted radial wires, the free ends of which are interconnected and connected to one the receiver input, another input of which is connected to the Central electrode, the electrode feeding ground separated from each other by a distance L=(15-20)D, the system receiving ground oriented in terms of arbitrarily relative to the electrode feeding ground and removed from the latter at a distance of X=(1,5-1,6)L, the generator excitation current pulses is configured to generate packets of pulses with a frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, duration tutu with 10-30 and the value of the current pulse 1-10 KA at least the VA times a day at the same time.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the signal processing unit is configured to analyze the electrical signals at the output of the receiver and their changes in time synchronously with the feed on the feeding ground of the probe pulses, and determining the harbingers of surface earthquakes in ascending order in time of the amplitude of the recorded echo signal during the first hours after the filing of the probing pulses relative to the background values determined in the absence of surface earthquakes on the results of a duty of monitoring.

3. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that the signal processing unit is arranged to generate an alarm and/or control signal for supplying electromagnetic impact on the center surface of earthquakes in the protected area.

4. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that the number of electrodes of the foster system grounding is N=6-12.

5. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that located at distances not exceeding 150 km from the Central part of the protected area.



 

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1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: current is cutoff to soil through two point sources. The first source is placed close by vertical interface, and the second is taken to infinity. Position of one equipotential line of electric field is detected. Measuring electrodes is mounted by tangent to equipotential line symmetrically to tangency point of ray lined from auxiliary point presenting mirror reflection of point source relative to interface with specified equipotential. Besides, measuring electrodes can be placed by line, perpendicular to interface symmetrically to power supply provided close by interface. Near to interface there is compensatory point source with current value fixed by parity where I0, Ik are currents from the first and compensatory sources, ΔΨ1MN is differential of the space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to the first source, ΔΨ2MN is differential of space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to compensatory source. Measuring electrodes voltage indicates time variations of resistivity.

EFFECT: simplified positioning of electrical survey unit and improved measurement accuracy.

1 dwg

FIELD: geoelectrical prospecting.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geoelectrical prospecting by the electrical resistance method. The method uses two fixed supplying grounding circuits, the first of them being located in practical infinity, the other one along with two fixed reception grounding circuits being arranged nearby the observation profile, two additional movable grounding circuits located at equal distance from the second supplying grounding circuit. In measurements, in every position of the movable grounding circuits, the latter are connected in turns to a power source or an instrument. On connecting them to the power source, a voltage drop between the fixed reception grounding circuits is measured. On connecting them to instrument and measuring the voltage drop between them, the fixed supplying grounding circuits are connected to electric power source. The aforesaid operations are effected for all preset positions of the movable grounding circuits. Proceeding the measurement results, sections of apparent electrical resistance and voltage drop are plotted to estimate the availability of geoelectrical irregularities in the section.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of revealing geoelectrical irregularities and lower ambiguity in experimental data interpretation.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: current pulse is excited in the medium under investigation, and parameters of its induced polarisation are defined. Geoelectric section is generated to make a conclusion about the presence of hydrocarbon fields on the basis of abnormal manifestations of induced polarisation parameters. At that, electromagnetic and seismic waves are excited simultaneously or with a time shift. To excite the said waves unipolar rectangular impulses of direct current are generated, their absolute and relative duration depending on parameters of medium under investigation. In the beginning of timing pulse electric field is measured simultaneously at measuring probe groups of two detector lines towed at different depth. Besides, detector line depth and hydroacoustic pressure of seismic source are measured. Also a device is offered, which includes pulse generator, capacitor charging unit, power generator, bank of capacitors, switchboard, seismic emitter, transmitter/receiver line, receiver line, multi-channel gauge, echo-sounder, GPS satellite navigation receiver, signal processor.

EFFECT: higher reliability of research results.

18 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: geophysical prospecting by electric means by the method of induced polarization.

SUBSTANCE: the device has an exciting field forming unit and a signal measurement unit. The exciting field forming unit has a ship generator, switch forming bipolar DC square pulses, generating plant and a ballast device. The signal measurement unit has a receiving multi-electrode line, resistivimeter, multi-channel measuring device, ship echo sounder, Global Position System receiving indicator and a signal processor. According to the claimed method, the research of the geological medium along the observation outline is carried out by excitation of periodic alternating current pulses and determination of geoelectric medium parameters, geoelectric sections are constructed, a conclusion is made on the presence of a deposit of hydrocarbons according to the exposed anomalies of conduction and the parameters of induced polarization.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the research results.

8 cl, 5 dwg

The invention relates to the engineering-geological surveys to obtain data on the structure of the upper part of the section (high frequency resolution) of rocks to issue recommendations for the construction of engineering structures, primarily in the areas of crossings over water obstacles

The invention relates to the field of geophysical methods of prospecting and exploration of minerals and can be used to determine the parameters of the geological section and detect local variations

FIELD: geophysical prospecting by electric means by the method of induced polarization.

SUBSTANCE: the device has an exciting field forming unit and a signal measurement unit. The exciting field forming unit has a ship generator, switch forming bipolar DC square pulses, generating plant and a ballast device. The signal measurement unit has a receiving multi-electrode line, resistivimeter, multi-channel measuring device, ship echo sounder, Global Position System receiving indicator and a signal processor. According to the claimed method, the research of the geological medium along the observation outline is carried out by excitation of periodic alternating current pulses and determination of geoelectric medium parameters, geoelectric sections are constructed, a conclusion is made on the presence of a deposit of hydrocarbons according to the exposed anomalies of conduction and the parameters of induced polarization.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the research results.

8 cl, 5 dwg

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