# Device and method for estimating friction of earth surface in contact with transport facility

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to estimation of friction on the surface of contact between vehicle wheel and soil or adhesion between wheels and road surface. Envisaged are module (or step) of first input, module (or step) of second input and module (or step) of output. Module of first input sets first input that represents ratio between first force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in first direction and first degree of wheel skid. Module of second input sets second input that represents ratio between second force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in second direction and second degree of wheel skid. Module of output derives output from first and second inputs that makes parameter describing adhesion of transport facility wheel.

EFFECT: high accuracy of estimation.

56 cl, 78 dwg

**The technical field**

The invention relates to a device or to a device and method for assessment of friction on the contact surface between the wheel of the vehicle and the ground or condition of the clutch with the surface of the road wheel of the vehicle or the maximum allowable relative limit friction.

**The level of technology**

As the previous technology of this type, there is a system, designed to illustrate the point corresponding to the actual speed of the slipping wheel and the friction coefficient of the road surface in a two-dimensional map, with the horizontal axis representing the speed of a degree of slip of the wheel, and the vertical axis represents the coefficient of friction of the road surface, and assessment of friction of the tires from the slope of the straight line passing through the point on the graph and the origin (see JP 2006-34012 A: next - Patent Document 1). In accordance with the assessed condition of the friction of the tires, this system manages the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force of the wheel.

**The invention**

However, the system according to the earlier technology of the Patent Document 1 cannot figure out the limit for the friction of the tire and, therefore, cannot determine the acceptable margin to limit the friction of the tire. The objective of the present invention is the provision of the assessment of the condition of the clutch and the maximum allowable to limit the friction more properly.

To resolve this problem, according to the present invention, the module of the first input specifies the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the earth contact in the first direction, and the first degree of slip of the wheels to the vehicle wheels. The second module input sets the second input, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the earth contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and the second degree of slip of the wheels to the vehicle wheels. In accordance with the inputs specified by the modules of the first and second inputs, the output module determines the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic indicating a characteristic of the traction wheels of the vehicle.

**Brief description of drawings**

Figure 1 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the tire characteristic curve (characteristic curve Fx-λ) between the speed λ of the slip of the vehicle wheels and the longitudinal force Fx wheels of the vehicle.

Figure 2 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and more specifically, x is characteristic views, showing characteristic curves of the bus (the characteristic curves Fx-λ) and circles of friction for different values of μ of the road surface.

Figure 3 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the slope of the tangent or slope of the tangent to each of the characteristic curves of the bus (the characteristic curves Fx-λ) different μ-values of the road surface at the point of intersection with a straight line passing through the origin of the characteristic curve of the tire.

Figure 4 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, other characteristic views showing the slope of the tangent to each of the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface at the point of intersection with a straight line passing through the origin of the characteristic curve of the tire.

Figure 5 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and more specifically a view showing characteristic, consisting of a set of points on the graph between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ slides, representing the point of intersection of an arbitrary straight line and the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fx-λ), and the slope of the tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tires point in the intersection.

6 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the characteristic curve (characteristic curve of the clutch, two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient)obtained from the points on the graph in figure 5.

Fig.7 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a view used to explain the process of determining the slope of the tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fx-λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and more specifically a view for showing the relation between the characteristic curve (two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient), the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fx-λ) and a range of friction.

Fig.9 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ sliding and slope of tangent (μ-gradient) to the characteristic curve of the tire obtained when the load varies on the wheel.

Figure 10 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a typical form, while yuushin tire characteristic curve (characteristic curve Fy-βt) between the angle βt slip of the vehicle wheels and the transverse force Fy wheels of the vehicle.

11 is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing characteristic curves of the bus (the characteristic curves Fy-βt) and the circles of friction for different values of μ of the road surface.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the tangent slopes of the characteristic curves of the bus (the characteristic curves Fy-βt) different μ value of the road surface at the point of intersection with a straight line passing through the origin of the characteristic curve of the tire.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, other characteristic views showing the slope of the tangent to each of the characteristic curves of the bus (the characteristic curves Fy-βt) different μ value of the road surface at the point of intersection with a straight line passing through the origin of the characteristic curve of the tire.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the relationship (characteristic curve of the clutch, two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip, representing the point of intersection of Rosolini straight line and the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fy-βt), and the slope of the tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre at the point of intersection.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a view used to explain the process of determining the slope of a tangent curve tires (characteristic curve Fy-βt) of the lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and more specifically a view for showing the relation between the characteristic curve (characteristic map μ-gradient), the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fy-βt) and friction circle.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip and slope of tangent (μ-gradient) to the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fy-βt)obtained when the load varies on the wheel.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the friction circle on an orthogonal coordinate plane representing the driving/braking force (longitudinal force Fx along the first axis and a transverse force Fy along the second axis.

Field views, used for illustration of the process showing the relationship between the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ slip in a three-dimensional coordinate system, the underlying technology, and a characteristic view showing the relationship between the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the process of showing the relationship between lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip in a three-dimensional coordinate system, the underlying technology, and a characteristic view showing the relationship between lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the process of showing the relationship between the force on the wheel (longitudinal force Fx, lateral force Fy) and the degree of the slip rate λ of the slip angle βt slip) in the three-dimensional coordinate system, the underlying technology, and a characteristic view showing the relationship between the force on the wheel (longitudinal force Fx, lateral force Fy) and the degree of the slip rate λ of the slip angle βt slip) in the form of a three-dimensional curved surface.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology. Figa is a characteristic view showing the line of intersection between the three-dimensional curved surface representing the relationship between the degree of slip and the force on the wheel, and the plane that contains the age of the PRS resultant or combined force F of the longitudinal force Fx and lateral force Fy and the z-axis. FIGU is a characteristic view showing the tire characteristic curve (characteristic curve F-Z)representing the relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of Z slip due to the resultant force F.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology. Figa is a characteristic view showing circles friction tyres of various sizes in three-dimensional coordinate system. FIGU is a characteristic view showing the variation of the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve F-Z) due to the difference in the absolute value of the maximum friction force that determines the size of the friction circle.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology. Figa is a characteristic three-dimensional coordinate system to show that the slope at the point of intersection between the characteristic curve of the tire and a straight line passing through the origin O of the coordinates (the point at which the degree of slip and the force on the wheel is equal to zero), is constant irrespective of the absolute maximum value of the friction force. FIGU is a characteristic two-dimensional coordinate system to show that the slope at the point of intersection between the characteristic curve of the tire and a straight line passing through the origin O of the coordinates is constant bastnasite is about the absolute maximum value of the friction force.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the relationship (two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve F-Z).

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing the relationship between the slope γ is tangent to one of the many characteristic curves tires (characteristic curves (F-Z), existing in dependence on the direction of the resultant force F, and the ratio of the resultant force F and the degree of Z-slide.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view for illustrating the process of displaying multiple relationships (two-dimensional characteristic maps μ-gradient) Fig together in a three-dimensional coordinate system.

Fig is a view used to illustrate the underlying technology, and, more specifically, a characteristic view showing max(F/Z) and max(γ).

Fig is a characteristic view showing the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the nature of the statistical curve tires (curve F-Z), in the form of a three-dimensional curved surface (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient).

Fig is a schematic view showing the overall construction of the electric vehicle according to the first variant implementation of the present invention schematically.

Fig is a block diagram showing an example of the structure of the device estimates the motion state of the vehicle.

Fig is a block diagram showing an example of the structure of the module estimation of slip angle of the tires.

Fig is a view used to explain the strength of the field acting on the body of the vehicle in motion when turning.

Fig is a view used to explain the strength of the field acting on the body of the vehicle in motion when turning.

Fig is a characteristic view used for explanation of the control circuit to set the gain compensation.

Fig is a view used to explain a linear two-wheel vehicle model.

Fig is a characteristic view showing the relation between input (Fx/λ, Fy/βt) and o (μ-gradient γ) three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process module computing commands correction of longitudinal forces on the basis of longitudinal to the component μ-gradient.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process module computing the characteristics of the turnability on the basis of the transverse component of the μ-gradient.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process module computing commands help turn based static maximum allowable SM.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process of computing device estimates the motion state of the vehicle.

Fig is a characteristic view showing the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and slope of a tangent curve tires (μ-gradient) if the load varies on the wheel.

Fig is a characteristic view showing the relationship between wheel load and increased HP modifications.

Fig is a block diagram showing another example of construction of a device for estimating the state of motion of the vehicle in the first embodiment.

Fig is a characteristic view showing a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient, variable depending on the load on the wheel.

Fig is a schematic view showing the overall construction of the electric car coz the ACLs to the second variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig is a block diagram showing an example of the structure of the device estimates the motion state of the vehicle according to the second variant implementation.

Fig is a block diagram showing an example of the structure of the module estimation of slip angle of the tire according to the second variant implementation.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process, on the basis of the μ-gradient of the evaluation module commands correction of longitudinal strength according to the second variant implementation.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the control process of the rotation evaluation module commands correction of the longitudinal force and the evaluation module commands aid in the rotation according to the second variant implementation.

Fig is a flowchart of the operational sequence of the method, showing the process of computing device estimates the motion state of the vehicle according to the second variant implementation.

**The best ways of carrying out the invention**

The following is a clarification of the embodiments of the present invention with reference to the drawings.

__The technology underlying the option(s)__

First, explanation is focused on the technology, which is based on an implementation option.

(1) the Ratio between the rate of slip of the wheels and the longitudinal force wheels

Figure 1 shows the characteristic curve of the tyre, which represents the overall relationship between the speed or rate λ glide wheels and a longitudinal force on the driving wheel (or the driving/braking force Fx. For example, the characteristic curve of the tire obtained by using the model of tires, such as MagicFormula. The longitudinal force Fx is the force acting on the tire to the surface of the earth. The longitudinal force Fx corresponds to the strength of the wheel acting on the wheel contact surface of the earth, and the speed λ of the slip of the wheel corresponds to the degree of slip of the wheel or the degree of slippage.

As shown in figure 1, on the characteristic curve of the tire, the relationship between the rate λ of the slide and the longitudinal force Fx is changed from linear to non-linear as the absolute value of the speed λ of slip increases. Thus, the relationship between the rate λ of the slide and the longitudinal force Fx is linear, when the speed λ of the slide is in a predetermined range from zero. The relationship between the rate λ of the slide and the longitudinal force Fx becomes nonlinear when the rate λ slip (absolute value) is increased to some extent. Thus, the characteristic curve of W is t includes a line segment and a non-linear segment.

In the nonlinear region in the example of figure 1, the rate of increase of the longitudinal force Fx relative to the coefficient λ slip becomes less about a situation in which the speed λ of the slide equal to 0.1. About factor λ slip 0.15, the longitudinal force Fx reaches the highest values. After that, the longitudinal force Fx decreases as the coefficient λ slip increases. This relationship is evident when the focus is on the slope or gradient of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire.

The slope of the tangent line to the curve of the tire can be expressed by the ratio of the change in speed λ slip and change in the longitudinal force Fx, which is the coefficient for private derivative of the longitudinal force Fx relative to the speed λ of the slip. The slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire can be viewed as the slope of the tangent line to the characteristic of the tire at the point of intersection (marked by ○ in figure 1) between the characteristic curve of the tire and an arbitrary straight line a, b, c, d, ..., intersects the characteristic curve of the tire. You can assess the condition of the friction of the tires, if the position of such a characteristic curve of a tire can be determined, i.e. if you know the speed λ of the slide and the longitudinal force Fx. When voltage is emer, the position is located at the point x0, which is a non-linear region of the characteristic curve of the tires, but which is close to the linear region, as shown in figure 1, it is possible to estimate that the state friction tires is stable. From the definition that the condition of the friction of the tires is stable, we can estimate that the tire is still on the level, allowing for the achievement of its performance properly, or the vehicle is in a stable condition.

Figure 2 shows the characteristic curves of the tires and the friction circles for different μ value of the road surface. Figa shows characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface, and FIGU-2D show the circles of friction for different μ value of the road surface. μ of the road surface is equal to 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 in this example. As shown in figa, the characteristic curves of tires for different values of the coefficient of friction μ of the road surface are trends that are qualitatively similar to each other. As shown in FIGU-2D, the circle of friction becomes smaller as μ of the road surface becomes lower. Thus, the lower the coefficient of friction μ of the road surface, the lower longitudinal force that can be implemented through a bus. Thus, the characteristic of a tire is fo the mu characteristics, includes, as a parameter, the coefficient of friction of the road surface (μ road surface). As shown in figure 2, depending on the values of the coefficient of friction of the road surface, it is possible to obtain the characteristic curve tires for low friction characteristic curve tires for medium friction and tire characteristic curve for high friction, etc.

Figure 3 shows the relationship between the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface and an arbitrary straight lines a, b, c and d, passing through the origin. As shown in figure 3, in the same way as in figure 1, the slope of the tangent to each of the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface is determined at the point of intersection of the characteristic curve of the tire and each of the straight line b, c or d. In other words, the respective slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface are determined in the respective points of intersection with the straight line b. The corresponding slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface are determined in the respective points of intersection with a straight line c. The corresponding slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ-values of the surface the surface of the road are defined in the respective points of intersection with the straight line d. By determining the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire thus, it is possible to obtain the same results that the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire on the intersections of a straight line are equal to each other.

Figure 4 attention is drawn to the straight line c shown in figure 3, as an example. As shown in figure 4, the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface at the point of intersection with the straight line c are equal to each other. In other words, the ratio of (Fx1/λ1) longitudinal forces Fx1 and speed λ1 slip that identifies the intersection point x1 with the characteristic curve of the tire μ=0,2 road surface, the ratio (X2/λ2) longitudinal force Fx2 and coefficient λ2 slip that identifies the intersection point x2 of the characteristic curve of the tire μ=0,5 road surface, and the ratio (Fx3/λ3) longitudinal force Fx3 and speed λ3 slip that identifies the intersection point of the x3 with the characteristic curve of the tire μ=1.0 in the road surface, equal to one value. The slopes of the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface are equal to each other in these intersection points x1, x2 and x3.

Figure 5 shows the relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx to the speed λ slip, expressing the point of intersection between an arbitrary straight line and the characteristic is teristically curve tires, and the slope of the tangent (∂ longitudinal force/∂ sliding speed) characteristic curve of the tyre at the point of intersection. Figure 5 illustrates the values obtained in different μ value of the road surface (μ=0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 in this example). As shown in figure 5, regardless of μ of the road surface, there is a constant relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx to the speed λ sliding and slope of a tangent curve tires.

6 shows a characteristic curve obtained from the points on the graph in figure 5. As shown in Fig.6, this characteristic curve shows that the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx to the speed λ of the slide and tilt tangent curve bus connected to each other by a constant ratio regardless of μ of the road surface. Therefore, the characteristic curve in Fig.6 is valid and appropriate even on road surfaces with different values of the coefficient μ of friction, such as dry asphalt road surface and ice-covered road surface. Thus, the characteristic curve of the tire, shown in Fig.6, includes tire characteristic curve in the case of a high friction road surface with high friction, having a higher coefficient of friction, and characteristic the massive curve of the tyre in case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient of friction, lower a higher coefficient of friction. This characteristic curve of the tire is characterized by the fact that the slope is not affected by μ of the road surface. Thus, this characteristic curve is characterized by the fact that the slope can be determined without the need to obtain or evaluate information on the condition of the road surface. The characteristic curve of the tires on 6 represents the characteristic curve of the tire, similar to figure 1. However, the characteristic curve of the tires on 6 may be referred to as the characteristic curve of the clutch, for example, in contrast to figure 1.

On the characteristic curve 6, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is negative in a region (region a smaller ratio), in which the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip is small. In this area as the ratio (Fx/λ) becomes larger, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the bus (corresponding to the parameter of the clutch characteristic) first decreases and then starts to increase. The negative slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the coefficient on private derivative of the longitudinal force relative sliding velocity is negative.

In region (region bol is higher ratios), in which the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ slip more, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is positive. In this area the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire increases as the ratio (Fx/λ) becomes larger. In the field, in which the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ large slide, the characteristic curve in Fig.6 has the form of a monotonically increasing function.

The positive slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the coefficient on private derivative of the longitudinal force relative sliding velocity is positive. In addition, the highest value of the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the slope of the tangent is the slope of the linear region of the characteristic curve of the tire. In the linear region, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is constant regardless of the ratio of the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip.

The slope of the tangent thus obtained characteristic curve of the tyre is a parameter of the clutch characteristic variable representing the state of adhesion of the tires, or a parameter representing the state of saturation of the power on the bus, which may be formed by tire transverse to the direction. In particular, this option presents the following trends. In case of a positive region of the longitudinal force Fx can also be increased by increasing the speed λ of the slip. In the case of zero or negative, even if the speed λ of the slip increases, the longitudinal force Fx is not increased, but the longitudinal force Fx can be reduced.

The characteristic curve of the clutch (see Fig.6) can be obtained by performing differentiation by parts for the characteristic curve of the tyre (see figure 1) and continuous tracking.

As mentioned above, it was found that, relative to the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface, the slopes of the tangents become equal to each other at their points of intersection, each of which is an intersection point between a straight line passing through the origin of each of the characteristic curve, the characteristic curve of the tire. Then, the authors of this proposal have come to the conclusion that the relationship between the ratio Fx/λ longitudinal force Fx to the speed λ sliding and slope of tangent curves tires can be expressed by the characteristic curve (characteristic curve of the clutch) (see Fig.6) regardless μ of the road surface. Using this characteristics the th curve, you can get information on the condition of the friction of the tires, if the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ slip known, without having information μ of the road surface. The process of obtaining information on the condition of the friction of the tire illustrated in Fig.7 relation.

First, the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip read. Then, by using the characteristic curve shown in figa (similar to the characteristic curve 6), we can determine the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre corresponding to read of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ slip (according to Fx/λ). For example, as shown in figa, get tilts Id1, Id2, Id3, Id4 and Id5 tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Of these tangent slopes of the characteristic curve of the tire, it is possible to determine the position of the characteristic curve of the tire μ of the road surface, as shown in figv. For example, you can specify the position Xid1, Xid2, Xid3, Xid4 and Xid5 corresponding to the tilt Id1, Id2, Id3, Id4 and Id5 tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Position on the characteristic curve of the tyre represents the state of the friction and the bus when μ of the road surface at which the characteristic curve of the bus is valid. Accordingly, it is possible to know the state friction tires and features (such as adhesion) of the tire n is a means of determining the position on the characteristic curve of the tire, as shown in figv, when μ of the road surface characteristic curve of the tire. When, for example, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is negative or close to zero (for example, Id4 or Id5), it is possible to determine, from a position (for example, Xid4 or Xid5), determined from the slope of the tangent that the adhesive force of the tire is in the marginal region or critical region. As a result, even when the adhesive force of the wheel is in the marginal region, we can estimate the allowable margin to limit the friction force of the clutch tires properly.

Through this process, if the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slide, you can determine the status of the friction and the bus when μ of the road surface at which the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slide is obtained by using the characteristic curve (characteristic curve of the clutch).

Fig shows the relationship with the circle of friction. Figa shows the relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) between the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ sliding and slope of a tangent curve tires (like 6). Figv shows the characteristic curve of the tire, and Fig(C) shows the friction circle. In these relationships, first you get the slope of the tangent Id characteristic curve of the tyre corresponding to the longitudinally the force Fx and speed λ slip (corresponding to Fx/λ) (see figa). Accordingly, the position on the characteristic curve of the tire can be determined (see figv). In addition, the relative importance of longitudinal forces in the circle of friction can be determined. Thus, it is possible to determine the acceptable margin M for the longitudinal force, which can be implemented via a bus. The slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre represents the rate of change of the longitudinal force Fx relative changes in the speed λ of the slip. Therefore, the value along the vertical axis, the characteristic curve shown in figa (the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire)can be regarded as a value indicating a rate of variation in behavior of the vehicle.

In addition, the interrelation between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ sliding and slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire when the wheel load is varied through a process similar to the above process. Figure 9 shows this relationship. In this example, the load on the wheel varies by multiplying the initial value Fz wheel load (wheel load obtained when there is no variation) 0.6, and 0.8 and 1.2. In the case of multiplication by 1.0, the load on the wheel is equal to the original value of Fz. When the load is at stake is with the tire becomes smaller, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire obtained by each value of the wheel load becomes smaller, as shown in Fig.9. In this case, the largest value of the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire obtained by each value of the wheel load (the linear region), moves on a straight line passing the origin of the characteristic species. In addition, the characteristic curve representing the relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ sliding and slope of a tangent curve tires (the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre), varies in size, and the shape is maintained, so that the shapes are similar similar drawings of different sizes. It was also found the ratio of the load on the wheel.

(2) the Relationship between the slip angle of the wheel and the transverse force wheels

Figure 10 shows the characteristic curve of the tyre, which represents the overall relationship between the angle βt sliding wheel and the transverse force Fy wheels. For example, by adjusting the tyre model in accordance with the experimental data, it is possible to obtain an equivalent characteristic diagram (tire characteristic curve) for the two wheels, the respective front and rear wheels. Model bus is based on, for example, MagicFomula. Shear force Fy is the value represented by the force produced by the rotation, and lateral forces. Shear force Fy is the force acting on the tire to the surface of the earth. Shear force Fy corresponds to the strength of the wheel acting on the wheel contact surface of the earth, and the angle βt slip of the wheel corresponds to the degree of slip of the wheel or the degree of slippage of the wheels.

As shown in figure 10, the characteristic curve of the tire, the relationship between the angle βt slip and lateral force Fy is changed from linear to non-linear as the absolute value of the angle βt slip increases. Thus, the relationship between the angle βt slip and lateral force Fy is linear, when the angle βt slide is in a predetermined range from zero. The relationship between the angle βt slip and lateral force Fy becomes nonlinear when the angle βt slip (absolute value) is increased to some extent. Thus, the characteristic curve of the tire includes a line segment and a non-linear segment.

The transition from linear to non-linear form is evident when attention is drawn to the slope (gradient) of the tangential line tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. The slope of the tangent line characteristically curve tires can be expressed by the ratio of the change in angle βt slip and changes in the lateral force Fy, which is the coefficient for private derivative of the lateral force Fy relative angle βt slip. The slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire can be viewed as the slope of the tangent line to the characteristic of the tire at the point of intersection (marked by ○ figure 10) between the characteristic curve of the tire and an arbitrary straight line a, b, c,..., intersects the characteristic curve of the tire. You can assess the condition of the friction of the tires, if the position of such a characteristic curve of a tire is determined, i.e. if the angle βt slip and shear force Fy known. When, for example, the location is located at the point x0, which is a non-linear region of the characteristic curve of the tires, but which is close to the linear region, as shown in figure 10, it is possible to estimate that the state friction tires is stable. From the definition that the condition of the friction of the tires is stable, we can estimate that the tire is still on the level, allowing for the achievement of its performance properly, or the vehicle is in a stable condition.

11 shows characteristic curves of the tires and the friction circles for different μ value of the road surface. Figa shows characteristic curves of tires for different μ-values of the surface of the roads, and FIGU, 11C and 11D show the circles of friction for different μ value of the road surface. μ of the road surface is equal to 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 in this example. As shown in figa, the characteristic curves of tires for different values of the coefficient of friction μ of the road surface are trends that are qualitatively similar to each other. As shown in FIGU-11D, the circle of friction becomes smaller as μ of the road surface becomes lower. Namely, the lower the coefficient of friction μ of the road surface, the less shear force, which can be implemented through a bus. Thus, the characteristic of the tire is a characteristic, which includes, as a parameter, the coefficient of friction of the road surface (μ road surface). Depending on the values of the coefficient of friction of the road surface, provided the characteristic curve of the tire in case of low friction low friction characteristic curve of a tire with an average friction for the average friction and tire characteristic curve in the case of high friction for higher friction, as shown in figure 11.

Fig shows the relationship between the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface and an arbitrary straight lines a, b and c passing through the origin. As shown in Fig, in the same way as Fig, the slope of the tangent to each of the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface is determined at the point of intersection of the characteristic curve of the tire and each straight line a, b or c. In other words, the respective slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface are determined in the respective points of intersection with a straight line. The corresponding slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface are determined in the respective points of intersection with the straight line b. The corresponding slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface are determined in the respective points of intersection with a straight line c. By determining the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire thus, it is possible to obtain the same results that the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire on the intersections of a straight line are equal to each other.

On Fig attention is drawn to the straight line c shown in Fig, as an example. As shown in Fig, the slopes of the tangent to the characteristic curve of tires for different μ value of the road surface at the point of intersection with the straight line c are equal to each other. In other words, the ratio is s (Fy1/βt1) lateral force Fy1 and angle βt1 slip, determining the intersection point x1 with the characteristic curve of the tire when μ=0,2 road surface, the ratio (Fy2/βt2) lateral force Fy2 and angle βt2 slip that identifies the intersection point x2 of the characteristic curve of the tire when μ=0.5 road surface, and the ratio (Fy3/βt3) lateral force Fy3 and angle βt3 slip that identifies the intersection point of the x3 with the characteristic curve of the tire when μ=1.0 in the road surface, equal to one value. The characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface are identical to the slope of the tangent at these points of intersection x1, x2 and x3.

On Fig shows the relationship of the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy to the angle βt slip, expressing the point of intersection between an arbitrary straight line and the characteristic curve of the tire, and the slope of the tangent (∂Fy/∂βt) is the characteristic curve of the tyre at the point of intersection. As shown in Fig, whatever value μ of the road surface (for example, μ=0,2, 0.5 or 1.0), there is a constant relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy to the angle βt slip and slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Therefore, the characteristic curve for Fig is valid and appropriate even on road surfaces with different values of the coefficient μ of friction, such as dry asphalt road surface and Ledeneva the road surface. Thus, the characteristic curve of the tire shown in Fig, includes tire characteristic curve in the case of a high friction road surface with high friction, having a higher coefficient of friction, and tire characteristic curve in the case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient of friction, lower a higher coefficient of friction. This characteristic curve of the tire is characterized by the fact that the slope is not affected by μ of the road surface. Thus, this characteristic curve is characterized by the fact that the slope can be determined without the need to obtain or evaluate information on the condition of the road surface. The characteristic curve of the tires on Fig represents the characteristic curve of the tire, similar to figure 10. However, the characteristic curve for pig may be referred to as the characteristic curve of the clutch, for example, in contrast to the characteristic curve of the tyre with figure 10.

On the characteristic curve with Fig, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the bus (corresponding to the parameter characteristics of the clutch) is negative in a region (region a smaller ratio), in which the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip is small. In this area, as the ratio is s (Fy/βt) is becoming more the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire at first decreases and then starts to increase. The negative slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the coefficient on private derived shear forces relative to the glide angle is negative.

In region (region a larger ratio), in which the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip more, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire becomes positive. In this area the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire increases as the ratio (Fy/βt) becomes larger. In the field, in which the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip more characteristic curve for pig has the form of a monotonically increasing function.

The positive slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the coefficient on private derived shear forces relative to the glide angle is positive. In addition, the highest value of the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of a tire means that the slope of the tangent is the slope of the linear region of the characteristic curve of the tire. In the linear region, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is constant regardless of the ratio of the lateral force Fy IPLA βt slip.

The slope of the tangent thus obtained characteristic curve of the tyre is a parameter of the clutch characteristic variable representing the state of adhesion of the tires, or a parameter representing the state of saturation of the power on the bus, which may be formed through a bus in the transverse direction. In particular, this option presents the following trends. In case of a positive transverse force Fy (force arising from the rotation) can also be increased by increasing the angle βt slip. In the case of zero or negative, even if the angle βt slip increases, the lateral force Fy (force arising from the rotation) is not increased, but the transverse force Fy may be reduced.

The characteristic curve of the clutch (see Fig) can be obtained by performing differentiation by parts for the characteristic curve of the tyre (see figure 10) and continuous tracking. As mentioned above, it was found that, relative to the characteristic curves of tires for different μ value of the road surface, the slopes of the tangents become equal to each other at points of intersection between a straight line passing through the origin, and the corresponding characteristic curves of the tire. Then, the authors of this proposal have come to the conclusion that the relationship between the ratio Fy/βt lateral force Fy to the angle βt slip and slope of tangent curves tires can be expressed by the characteristic curve (characteristic curve of the clutch) (see Fig) regardless μ of the road surface. Using this characteristic curve can provide information on the condition of the friction of the tires of the lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip, without having information μ of the road surface. The process of obtaining information on the condition of the friction tyres are explained in relation to Fig.

First read the transverse force Fy, and the angle βt slip. Then, by using the characteristic curve shown in figa (similar characteristic curve with Fig), you can determine the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre corresponding to the read the transverse force Fy and angle βt slip (according Fy/βt). For example, as shown in figa, get tilts Id1, Id2, Id3, Id4 and Id5 tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Of these tangent slopes of the characteristic curve of the tire, it is possible to determine the position of the characteristic curve of the tire μ of the road surface, as shown in figv. For example, you can specify the position Xid1, Xid2, Xid3, Xid4 and Xid5 corresponding to the tilt Id1, Id2, Id3, Id4 and Id5 tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Position on the characteristic curve of the tyre represents the state of the friction and the bus when μ of the road surface at which the characteristic curve of the bus is valid. Accordingly, it is possible to know the status the e friction tires and features (such as adhesion) bus by determining the position of the characteristic curve of the tire, as shown in figv, when μ of the road surface characteristic curve of the tire. When, for example, the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire is negative or close to zero (for example, Id4 or Id5), you can determine out (Xid4 or Xid5), determined from the slope of the tangent that the lateral force of the tire is in a marginal area of the critical region. As a result, even when the adhesive force of the wheel is in the marginal area, you can assess the stock tires to limit the friction force of the clutch properly.

Through this process, if the lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip, you can determine the status of the friction and the bus when μ of the road surface, in which the lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip out through the use of the characteristic curve (characteristic curve of the clutch).

Fig shows the relationship with the circle of friction. Figa shows the relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) between lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip and slope of a tangent curve tires (similar Fig). Figv shows the characteristic curve of the tire, and figs shows the friction circle. In these relationships, first you get the slope of the tangent Id characteristic curve of the tyre corresponding to the lateral force Fy and angle βt chip is the position (corresponding Fy/βt) (figa). Accordingly, the position on the characteristic curve of the tire can be determined (pigv). In addition, the relative importance of shear forces in the circle of friction can be determined. Thus, it is possible to determine the acceptable margin M for the transverse forces, which can be implemented via a bus. The slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre represents the rate of change of the lateral force Fy on the change in angle βt slip. Therefore, the value along the vertical axis, the characteristic curve shown in figa (the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire)can be regarded as a value indicating a rate of variation in behavior of the vehicle.

Moreover, the relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip and slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire detected when the load varies on the wheel, through a process similar to the above process. Fig shows this ratio. In this example, the load on the wheel varies by multiplying the initial value Fz wheel load (wheel load obtained when there is no variation) 0.6, and 0.8 and 1.2. In the case of multiplication by 1.0, the load on the wheel is equal to the original value of Fz. When the load on the wheel of the bus becomes the I less the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire obtained by each value of the wheel load becomes smaller, as shown in Fig. In this case, the largest value of the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire obtained by each value of the wheel load (the linear region), moves along a straight line passing the origin of the characteristic view shown in Fig. In addition, the characteristic curve representing the relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip and slope of a tangent curve tires (the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre), varies in size, and the shape is maintained, so that the shapes are similar similar drawings of different sizes. It was also found the ratio of the load on the wheel.

(3) the ratio between the friction circle of the tire and the force at the wheel

Fig shows the friction circle described on the orthogonal coordinate plane represented by the X axis expressing the longitudinal force Fx and the Y axis expressing a transverse force Fy.

The friction circle of the tire indicates the limit for the friction to which the tire can maintain a state of friction on the contact surface of the earth. Limit the friction is still not achieved, and the tire on titsa in the state, supporting state friction when the value of the lateral force Fy, the longitudinal Fx or resultant force resulting from the lateral force Fy and the longitudinal force Fx, is within the friction circle. When the value of the force is equal to the friction circle, idle, forming the largest force of friction. When the external force applied to the tire on the surface of contact of the tyre and the ground exceeds the friction circle, the tire is in a state in which the state of friction between the tire and the ground surface is lost, and the relative offset between the tire and the ground surface becomes larger, i.e. the bus is in the so-called state of slippage. This means the connection of the friction circle of the tire and of the adhesion forces in the longitudinal and transverse directions, in which the greatest forces of cohesion cannot be achieved simultaneously in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

You can describe the friction circle of the tire, having an elliptical shape by drawing on the graph the highest value of the resultant force of the longitudinal force Fx as a result of adhesion forces in the longitudinal direction and the lateral force Fy as a result of adhesion forces in the transverse direction, in accordance with the direction of the resultant force. In the following explanation, the transverse force Fy, the longitudinal force Fx and the resulting strength of the transverse and longitudinal with the l Fy and Fx, in General, referred to as the force on the wheel, as a General term.

Consequently, it is possible to determine, in accordance with the ratio between the friction circle of the tire and the absolute magnitude of the force on the wheel that as the absolute value of the force on the wheel approaches the radius of the friction circle (outer circle), the friction force approaches the highest value, which can be formed by bus (the limit for friction). Thus, it is possible to theoretically determine the acceptable margin or degree valid stock or scope traction tires to limit friction. However, determination of the size of the friction circle of the tire is difficult in practice to the present time it is impossible to determine the acceptable margin to limit friction on the basis of the above theory.

The size of the friction circle is determined by the highest value of the friction force between the tire and the contact surface of the earth. Previous technology known to date can be assessed only by the largest value of the friction force in the state, exceeding the limit by friction. Thus, the system of earlier technology is unable to estimate the largest value of the friction force before the limit friction is achieved, and cannot know the acceptable margin to limit friction in order to limit the friction, so it is difficult to control the manage friction force of the tire, to avoid the limit by friction. In contrast, this variant implementation of the present invention allows to determine the acceptable margin to limit friction directly without depending on the friction force.

(4) the Ratio between the power wheel and clutch status (μ-gradient) using three-dimensional coordinates

As mentioned above, this alternative implementation of the present invention allows to determine the acceptable margin or degree maximum allowable to limit friction directly without depending on the friction force. To this end, the relationship (three-dimensional characteristic map) between the force on the wheel sprocket and clutch status (μ-gradient) is obtained through the use of three-dimensional coordinate system according to the following process, as explained below.

(4-1) the Ratio between the force on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel using a three-dimensional coordinate system.

Fig shows the process of transforming the relationship between the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ slip (two-dimensional coordinate system) in the form in three-dimensional coordinate system. As shown in figa, according to the characteristic curve of the tyre (the characteristic curve Fx-λ), sliding speed at which the longitudinal force Fx becomes the highest, is defined as λpeak. Namely, p is Odolena force Fx increases with speed λ slip. However, when the speed λ of the slip increases to a certain level, the longitudinal force Fx becomes saturated, and then the longitudinal force Fx is reduced. This point of saturation, in which the longitudinal force Fx reaches saturation, defined as λpeak. Then, as shown in figv, the axis speed λ sliding is converted into a dimensionless form of λpeak in λ/λpeak, and then the location of the λ/λpeak equal to the unit is changed to the origin (the axis of the longitudinal force Fx is shifted to the value λ/λpeak equal to one). Then, as shown in figs, a two-dimensional coordinate system on FIGU rotated 90°. After that, the line of the relationship (characteristic curve) between the longitudinal force Fx and λ/λpeak is illustrated in one quadrant of the three-dimensional coordinate system, as shown in fig.19D. On fig.19D, the axis of the λ/λpeak is the axis Z. As mentioned below, Z is the degree of slip.

Fig shows the process of transforming the relationship between lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip (two-dimensional coordinate system) in the form in three-dimensional coordinate system. The relationship between lateral force Fy and the angle βt slide is converted into a three-dimensional coordinate system in the same way as for the relationship between the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip. As shown in figa, according to the characteristic curve of the bus features the standard curve Fy-βt in figure 10), the glide angle at which the lateral force Fy is becoming the largest, is set as βpeak. Shear force Fy increases with increasing angle βt slip. However, when the angle βt slip increases to a certain level, the transverse force Fy can become saturated and after that decreases. The point of saturation, in which the transverse force Fy is saturated, is defined as βtpeak. Then, as shown in figv, the axis of the slip angle β is converted into dimensionless axis βt/βtpeak, and the value of β/βpeak equal to the unit, is set as the origin (the axis of the lateral force Fy is shifted to the value of βt/βtpeak equal to one). After that, as shown in figs, a two-dimensional coordinate system on FIGU rotated 90°. Then, as shown in fig.20D line relationships (characteristic curve) between lateral force Fy and βt/βtpeak illustrated in quadrant three-dimensional coordinate system. On fig.20D, axis βt/βtpeak is defined as the z axis.

Fig shows a three-dimensional curved surface obtained by interpolation between line correlations of the longitudinal force Fx and λ/λpeak (characteristic line, plane Fx-Z), shown in fig.19D, and line interconnections lateral force Fy and βt/βtpeak (characteristic line, plane, Fy-Z), shown in fig.20D. Three-dimensional curved surface on Fig obtained through the rate of the ellipse, the corresponding friction circle of the tire for each value along the Z-axis, between the line of the relationship (characteristic line "a" fig.19D between the longitudinal force Fx and λ/λpeak and line relationships (characteristic line) "b" fig.20D between lateral force Fy and βt/βtpeak. Three-dimensional curved surface on Fig is a curved surface that exists between the plane of the Fx-Z containing the axis Fx and Z-axis, and the plane of the Fy-Z containing the axis of the Fy and the z-axis.

As mentioned above, the degree of slip (Z) is used as a collective noun for the name, in General, the speed λ-slip related to the longitudinal force Fx, and the angle βt slip related to the transverse force Fy. Accordingly, the Z-axis shown in Fig, is the axis representing the degree of slip (λ/λpeak, βt/βtpeak). Three-dimensional curved surface represents the relationship between the degree of slip and the force on the wheel. On Fig, three-dimensional curved surface representing the relationship between the degree of slip and the force on the wheel, shown in part only for 1/4 part (quadrant) and a little more from the entire circumference. However, the three-dimensional curved surface representing the relationship between the degree of slip and the force on the wheel, in practice goes around the entire circumference, and, accordingly, the three-dimensional curved surface, to depict alausa the relationship between the degree of slip and the force on the wheel, is domed or hemispherical.

On Fig rate λ slip and angle βt slip, which differ in the units illustrated in the same coordinate system by bezrazmernye in λ/λpeak and βt/βtpeak, respectively. Therefore, the three-dimensional curved surface on Fig represents the set of lines of the relationship between the resultant force F of the longitudinal force Fx and lateral force Fy and the degree of Z-slip related to the resultant force F. the Resultant force F corresponds to the inclined force acting in the downward direction of the tire. Degree Z-slip related to the resultant force F, is a term formed by combining the speed λ slip and angle βt slip.

Fig is a view for explanation of a set of line relationships (two-dimensional characteristic curves) between the resultant force F of the longitudinal force Fx and lateral force Fy and the degree of Z-slip related to the resultant force F, shown in Fig. In the three-dimensional coordinate system provided by countless combinations of absolute value and direction of the resultant force F resulting from different combinations of the scalar magnitudes and directions of the longitudinal force Fx and the scalar magnitude and direction of the lateral force Fy. In this embodiment, the OS is enforced, the force on the wheel (F) may act in any direction 360° around the Z axis, and illustrates an implementation option suited for all directions. Accordingly, we can say that the relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of slip related to the resultant force F in the three-dimensional coordinate system is a set of two-dimensional characteristics, shown in the plane containing the Z axis and ravnodeystvuiushchey force F. As shown in figv, you can obtain the relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of Z-slip related to the resultant force F, in the form of a two-dimensional curve. Provides an infinite number of planes containing the Z axis and ravnodeystvuiushchey force F, depending on the direction of the resultant force F about the Z-axis, and the plane shape of the beam plane, with the Z axis as the axis. Each of these planes includes a two-dimensional characteristic curve, as shown in figv.

Below is the explanation regarding the maximum allowable (or the extent permitted stock) resultant force F to limit the friction in the three-dimensional coordinate system. The characteristic curve of the tire shown in figv, is the line of intersection between the three-dimensional curved surface representing the relationship between the degree of skidding pad is of and force on the wheel (Fx, Fy, F), shown in figa, and the plane containing the resultant force vector F and the z-axis the slope of the tangent thus obtained characteristic curve of the tire shown in figv, is a value representing a valid stock to limit the friction of the tire. As the slope of a tangent curve tires on FIGU becomes closer to zero from a positive value, the state becomes closer to the limit by friction. Therefore, if the slope of the tangent line to the curve of the tire is read, it is possible to determine the acceptable margin to limit the friction in the state before the limit friction is achieved. When the slope of the tangent line to the curve tires on figv is negative, the tire is in a state in which the frictional force is saturated, i.e. in a state of slip. At this point you can identify a valid stock to limit the friction (friction force is saturated before the bus reaches the state of slip, if the slope of the tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire can be determined.

On Fig shows the relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of Z slip caused by the resultant force F, when the size of the friction circle of the tire varies. As mentioned above, the size of the friction circle of the tire is determined by means of the greatest values of the friction force between the tire and the contact surface of the earth (hereinafter called "the greatest force of friction"). The friction circle of the tire becomes smaller when the maximum value of the friction force between the tire and the contact surface of the earth. Therefore, as shown in Fig(A) and 23(B), the characteristic curve of the tire (circle friction tyres) changes depending on the absolute value of the maximum friction force. Because it is impossible to estimate the largest value of the friction force before the limit friction is achieved, as mentioned above, the application to the operation of the vehicle is impossible, if nothing is done.

On Fig shows the relationship between the characteristic curves of the bus (characteristic curves (F-Z) for different values of maximum friction force (for example, μ road surface) and a straight line (shown by a straight line with a chain of single points), passing through the origin O of the coordinates (i.e. the point at which the degree of slip and the force on the wheel is equal to zero). As shown in figa and 24B, the angle (hereinafter referred to as μ-gradient) at the point of intersection between the characteristic curve of the tire and a straight line passing through the origin O of the coordinates is constant regardless of the absolute value of the maximum friction force. Thus, relative to the characteristic curves of tires of different values of maximum friction force, the slopes are equal to each other, if the ratio (F/Z) rawmode the corresponding force F and the degree of the Z slide is identical. Using this property, the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire can be reassembled into a form that does not depend on most of the friction force.

(4-2) the Relationship between the force on the wheel and clutch status (μ-gradient) using a three-dimensional coordinate system

Fig shows the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. You can get one concentrated characteristics (two-dimensional characteristic curve), which does not depend on most of the friction force, as shown in Fig by rearranging the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. Through the training of characteristic data Fig in advance in the form of the characteristic map, for example, you can determine the value of the slope of the tangent line to the curve of the tire by using the characteristic data to determine the acceptable margin to limit friction, if the resultant force F and the degree of slip can be determined. Thus, it is possible to determine the acceptable margin to limit friction without receiving the information at the higher friction force (without evaluation of greatest friction force).

Because the absolute value and direction of the resultant force F in the three-dimensional coordinate axes can assume an uncountable number of values due to various combinations of values of the scalar magnitudes and directions of the longitudinal force Fx and the scalar magnitude and direction of the lateral force Fy, there are countless forms of relationship, shown in Fig, between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tyre, in countless number corresponding to the number of directions of the resultant force F. In the plane containing the Z axis and the axis of the Fx in the three-dimensional coordinate system shown in figa, there is a relationship between the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and speed λ sliding and slope γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire, as shown in fig.26D. In the plane containing the Z axis and the axis of the Fy, there is a relationship between the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip and slope γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire. In the plane containing the Z axis and ravnodeystvuiushchey force F, there is a relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent to the characteristic curve of the tire.

By using the above technology as a core technology authors infusion is her proposal to implement a view uncountable forms the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and slope of tangent to the tire characteristics (μ-gradient) together in one three-dimensional the coordinate system.

Figa shows, as an example, the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and tilt γ tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tire in three-dimensional coordinate system. On Fig(C), the axis representing the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F (force on the wheel) and the extent of the Z slide, otraslevaya (normalized) ((F/Z)/max(F/Z)) by using the maximum values max(F/Z) ratio (F/Z) resultant force F (force on the wheel) and the degree of Z slide to set the value represented by the axis, equal to one if the maximum value max(F/Z). Thus, as shown in figv, axis representing the ratio (Fx/λ) longitudinal force component of the resultant force F and velocity λ slip, otraslevaya ((Fx/λ)/max(Fx/λ)) using the maximum values max(Fx/λ) ratio (Fx/λ)to specify the value represented by the axis, equal to one if the maximum value max(Fx/λ). In addition, as shown in fig.27D, axis representing the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy as a component of the resultant force F and the angle βt slip, otraslevaya (normalized) ((Fy/βt)/max(Fy/βt)) using the maximum values max(Fy/βt) ratio (Fy/βt)to set the value on the axis is equal to unity at the maximum value max(Fy/βt).

In addition, the camping, representing the slope γ tangent curve tires, otraslevaya (normalized) using the maximum value max(γ) of the slope of the tangent to specify the value represented by the axis, equal to one if the maximum value max(γ).

The highest value of max(F/Z) and max(γ) are defined as follows, as shown in Fig. The highest value of max(F/Z) and max(γ) are the values in the state in which the degree of the Z slide is very small, and the tire is securely located in the state of the clutch, i.e. values in the linear state characteristics of the tire. As shown in figa, in line Association of the characteristic curve of the tire) the resultant force F and the degree of Z slide, the largest value max(γ) is the slope of the tangent line interconnections in the region in which the change in the resultant force F and the change in the degree of Z slides are in linear dependence. Thus, max(γ) is the slope of the tangent at the beginning O of the coordinates. As shown in figv, the largest value max(F/Z) is the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide, which turns out max(γ). This is the maximum value max(F/Z) is the value internally present in the vehicle. Tilt max(γ) is constant, even if the frictional force acting on the surface and between the tyre and the ground, varies. Consequently, it is possible to determine the tilt max(γ) and max(F/Z) a simple way in advance.

The relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of Z slide can be explained as follows by using the ratio between the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip. The highest value of max(Fx/λ) and max(γ) are the values in the state in which the speed λ of the slip is very small, and the tire is securely located in the state of the clutch, i.e. values in the linear state characteristics of the tire. In line Association of the characteristic curve of the tire) of the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slide, the largest value max(γ) is the slope of the tangent line interconnections in the region in which the change in the longitudinal force Fx and the change in velocity λ slides are in linear dependence. Thus, max(γ) is the slope of the tangent at the beginning O of the coordinates. The largest value max(Fx/λ) is the ratio (Fx/λ) of the longitudinal force Fx and the speed λ of the slip at which it turns out max(γ). This is the maximum value max(Fx/λ) is the value internally present in the vehicle. Tilt max(γ) is constant, varies even if the frictional force acting on the contact surface of the tire and the ground. Consequently, it is an easy way to pre-determine the slope of the max(γ) and max(Fx/λ).

With the relationship between the resultant force F and the degree of Z slide can be explained similarly as follows by using the ratio between transverse and Fy angle βt slip. The highest value of max(Fy/βt) and max(γ) are the values in the state in which the speed λ of the slip is very small, and the tire is securely located in the state of the clutch, i.e. values in the linear state characteristics of the tire. In line Association of the characteristic curve of the tyre) cross-Fy and angle βt slip, the largest value max(γ) is the slope of the tangent line interconnections in the region in which the change in the lateral force Fy and the change in angle βt slip are in linear dependence. Thus, max(γ) is the slope of the tangent at the beginning O of the coordinates. The largest value max(Fy/βt) is the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fy and the angle βt slip at which it turns out max(γ). This is the maximum value max(Fy/βt) is the value internally present in the vehicle. Tilt max(γ) is constant, even if the frictional force acting on the contact surface of the tire and the ground varies. Consequently, it is possible to determine the tilt max(γ) and max(Fy/βt) is a simple way in advance.

Thus, it is possible to obtain the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and slope of tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tire in the form of features (characteristics of the μ-gradient) in the three-dimensional coordinate system.

On Fig shows the relationship m is the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and slope of tangent (μ-gradient of the characteristic curve of the tire, in the form of features (characteristics of the μ-gradient) in the three-dimensional coordinate system. On Fig, γ0 corresponds to the reference value, which is max(γ); (Fx0/λ0)corresponds to the reference value, which is max(Fx/λ); and (Fy0/βt0) corresponds to the reference value, which is max(Fy/βt). Options for implementation are made with the ability to determine the status of the clutch and a valid stock or the degree of the maximum allowable to limit friction directly regardless of the friction force by having characteristics as shown in Fig, in the form of a map (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient).

__Embodiments of the invention__

The following is a clarification of the embodiments that are implemented through the use of the above technologies.

The first variant embodiment of the invention

Design

Fig is a view schematically showing the overall structure of the vehicle according to the first variant implementation. The vehicle shown in Fig is an electric four-wheel drive vehicle. As shown in Fig, the vehicle includes a sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheels, the sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis, the sensor 3 lateral acceleration sensor 4 longitudinally what about the acceleration, the sensor 5 of the wheel speed, the electronic control module electronic power steering (EPSECU) 6, the motor 7 of the electronic power steering (EPS) and the device or module 8 assessment of the state of motion (or operation) of the vehicle. The vehicle additionally includes a drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR, connected directly with the respective wheels 11FL-11RR vehicle and an electronic control unit (ECU) 22 of the driving/braking of the motor.

The sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheel reads the rotation angle of the steering shaft 10 rotating as one unit with the wheel 9. The sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheels gives the result of reading the angle of rotation of the wheels) in unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle. Sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis reads the speed of rotation around the vertical axis of the vehicle and delivers the result of the read unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle. Sensor 3 lateral acceleration reads lateral acceleration of the vehicle and transmits the readout device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle. Sensor 4, a longitudinal acceleration reads longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and delivers the result of reading devices in the 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle. The sensor 5 of the wheel speed reads the rotation speed of the wheels for wheels 11FL-11RR provided in the body of the vehicle, and delivers the results to the readout device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle.

EPSECU 6 displays command help taxiing in the EPS motor 7 in accordance with the angle of rotation of the wheels, which are read by a sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheels. This command help taxiing is a command signal for implementing aid in the regulation of effort on the steering wheel. In addition, the EPSECU 6 displays command help taxiing in the EPS motor 7 in accordance with the command (the command help in limiting the unstable behavior), formed through the device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle. This command help taxiing is a command signal for limiting the unstable behavior of the vehicle.

The EPS motor 7 transmits torque to the steering shaft 10 in accordance with the command help taxiing, the output of the EPSECU 6. Therefore, the EPS motor 7 provides assistance to move when steering left and right front wheels 11FL and 11FR through the mechanism of the rack and pinion (gear 12 and the rail 13)connected to the steering shaft 10, a lateral steering thrust 14 and levers knuckle.

The ECU 22 of the drive/tormoznoy what about the motor operates the drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR in accordance with inputs from the driver on the brake pedal 15 and the accelerator pedal 16 and information from the unit 8 assessment of traffic tools.

Unit 8 assessment of the state of the vehicle movement estimates the state of motion (or operation) of the vehicle in accordance with the results of the read sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheels, sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis sensor 3 lateral acceleration sensor 4, a longitudinal acceleration sensor 5 speed wheels. In accordance with the evaluation result, the evaluation device 8 state of motion of the vehicle outputs a command (command help in limiting the unstable behavior) in the EPSECU 6 and the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor. This command is a command signal to control the EPS motor 7 and the longitudinal force to restrict the unstable behavior of the vehicle.

Fig shows the internal configuration of the device or module 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle. As shown in Fig, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle includes a module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle, the module 42 evaluation of the sliding velocity, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces, the module 46 estimate the ratio of the longitudinal force and the slip speed (hereinafter called the evaluation module Fx/λ), the module 47 the evaluation of the ratio of the lateral force and slip angle (hereinafter called the evaluation module, Fy/βt), module 48 calculate the status of the coupling bus (module calculate the μ-gradient), the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal forces, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability and module 51 calculation commands help when turning.

Module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle estimates the speed of the vehicle body in accordance with rotation speeds of the wheels that is read by a sensor 5 of the wheel speed, and lateral acceleration that is read by a sensor 4 longitudinal velocity. In particular, the module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle calculates the mean value (or average) speed of rotation of the wheels to the driven wheels 11RL and 11RR or mean (or average) speed of rotation of the wheels for wheels 11FL-11RR and sets the calculated value as the base value of the speed of the body of the vehicle. Module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle it modifies the underlying value of the longitudinal acceleration. In particular, the module 41 calculate the speed of the vehicle body modifies the base value, to exclude the influence of errors due to slippage of the tire during rapid acceleration and lock the tires during hard braking. Module 41 calculate the speed of the bodies of vehicles the sets thus the modified value as the estimated speed of the vehicle body. Module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle displays the result of the calculation module 42 evaluation of the sliding velocity and the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires.

Module 42 evaluation sliding velocity calculates the rate λf and λr slip front and rear wheels (two front wheels and two rear wheels) in accordance with the rotational speeds of wheels for wheels 11FL-11RR read by a sensor 5 of the wheel speed, and the speed of the vehicle body calculated by module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle. Then, the module 42 evaluation sliding velocity outputs the results of calculation in the module 46 calculate Fx/λ.

Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength evaluates the longitudinal force (the driving/braking torques) Fxf and Fxr displayed in the front and rear wheels in accordance with the rotational speed and current drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR. For example, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength gets speed and current drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR through the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor. Regarding the calculation of the longitudinal force Fxf and Fxr front wheels and rear wheels, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength specifically calculates the driving/braking torques TTir drive/deceleration is different motors 21FL-21RR according to the following mathematical expression (1).

Mathematical expression 1:

Each of the drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR generates torque, which is proportional to the current I. The proportionality of this proportional relationship is K_{MTR}. In addition, since there is concomitant loss of torque, proportional to angular acceleration and angular velocity relative to the angle θ_{MTR}motor, and torque losses due to friction, is the correction of these torque losses. In this case, the gain, the corresponding inertia is I_{MTR}by strengthening, appropriate internal friction (includes opposing electromotive force)is C_{MTR}and friction is RMTR, and these parameters are identified in advance.

Then, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength specifies the amount of driving/braking torque T_{Tir}drive/brake motors 21FL and 21FR to the front wheels 11FL and 11FR as driving/braking torque for the left and right front wheels. In addition, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength specifies the amount of driving/braking torque T_{Tir}drive/brake motors 21RL and 21RR for rear wheel 11RL and 11RR as privatemi is in motion/brake torque for the left and right rear wheels.

Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength calculates the longitudinal force Fxf for the front wheels by multiplying the driving/braking torque T_{Tir}the front wheels on their dynamic radius and calculates the longitudinal force Fxr to the rear wheels by multiplying the driving/braking torque T_{Tir}the rear wheels on their dynamic radius. Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength displays the results of the calculation (evaluation results) in the calculation module 45 Fx/λ. Longitudinal force Fxf is the resultant force of the left and right front wheels and the longitudinal force Fxr is the resultant force of the left and right rear wheels.

Module 46 calculate Fx/λ calculates the ratio (Fxf/λf, Fxr/λr) longitudinal force Fxf and Fxr front and rear wheels and speeds λf and λr slip front and rear wheels, respectively, in accordance with rates λf and λr slip front and rear wheels calculated by the module 42 evaluation of sliding velocity, and longitudinal forces Fxf and Fxr front and rear wheels calculated by module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength. Module 46 calculate Fx/λ displays the results of calculations in the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires.

Module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires estimates a slip angle β of the vehicle body (the angle of sideslip is salvage tool) and converts the estimated slip angle β of the vehicle body in the angle βt slip (slip angle of the tire) of each of the front and rear wheels.

To this end, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires first estimates the angle of sideslip of the vehicle (glide angle) in accordance with the angle of rotation of the wheel (angle δ of rotation of the tire)that is read by a sensor 1 of the angle of rotation of the wheels, speed γ of rotation around the vertical axis (f')that is read by a sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis, the transverse acceleration that is read by a sensor 3, lateral acceleration, longitudinal acceleration, is read by a sensor 4, a longitudinal acceleration, and velocity V of a body of the vehicle calculated by module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle.

Fig shows, as an example, the configuration module 44 estimating slip angle of the vehicle body to assess the angle of sideslip of the vehicle (glide angle). As shown in Fig, module 44 estimating slip angle of the vehicle body includes a linear module 61 observations with two inputs, evaluating one or more state variables of the vehicle (the angle of sideslip β of the vehicle, the slip angle β). With this construction, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the vehicle body evaluates the angle of sideslip β of the vehicle the glide angle). Linear module 61 observations with two inputs based on a two-wheeled vehicle model which can be expressed by the following mathematical expression (2), by using the equilibrium of forces in the transverse direction and torque of the vehicle.

Mathematical expression 2:

In these equations, A, B, C and D shown in Fig are matrices defined by a linear two-wheel vehicle model. By setting the angle of rotation of the tire as input u and the speed of rotation around the vertical axis and lateral acceleration as output y, we can obtain the equation of state (equation output) of the mathematical expression (2)is expressed by the following mathematical expression (3).

Mathematical expression 3:

In these equations m is the mass of the vehicle, I is causing the rotation moment of inertia, lf is the distance between the center of gravity of the vehicle and the front axle, lr is the distance between the center of gravity of the vehicle and the rear axle, Cpf is the power at the turn of the front wheels (the sum of the left and right wheels), Cpr is the power to turn the rear wheels (the sum of the left and right to the forest), V is the speed of the body of the vehicle, β is the angle of sideslip of the vehicle, γ is the speed of rotation around the vertical axis, Gy is the transverse acceleration, and a11, a12, and b1 are elements of matrices A and B.

Based on the equation of state linear module 61 observations with two inputs is formed by setting the speed of rotation around the vertical axis and lateral acceleration as input and use the gain K1 of the monitoring module. The gain K1 of the module monitoring is the value specified to limit the influence of modeling errors and to provide a stable estimate. You can replace the module monitoring using actual measurements using GPS (global positioning), or any other technology or method of assessment, other than the above estimates.

Linear module 25 observations with two inputs includes module 63 compensation for estimating β, is used to modify the input module 62 integration. With the help of this module 63 compensation for estimating β, the linear module 61 observations with two inputs can provide sufficient accuracy even in the limiting or critical areas. Using module 63 compensation for estimating β, we can estimate the angle β of the side how the texts accurately even in the case of state changes μ of the road surface in the case of the critical behavior of the vehicle, and in the linear region, in which there is a state μ of the road surface, estimated during the development of a linear two-wheel vehicle model and characteristics of the angle of sideslip bus becomes nonlinear.

On Fig shows the vehicle in motion when the rotation angle of sideslip β of the vehicle body. As shown in Fig, the field strength acting on the body of the vehicle, i.e. the centrifugal force acting outside of the center of rotation, is also formed in a direction deflected from the width direction of the vehicle at the value corresponding to the angle of sideslip β. Therefore, the module 63 compensation for estimating β calculates the deviation β2 force field according to the following mathematical expression (4). This deviation β2 acts as a reference value (target value) G used in order to modify the angle of sideslip β of the vehicle, estimated through linear module 61 observations with two inputs.

Mathematical expression 4:

(4)

In this equation Gx is the longitudinal acceleration. In addition, as shown in Fig, the balance of power due to the switching speed is taken into account. The COO is responsible, by extracting only components caused by motion in the rotation, the expression (4) can be rewritten as the following mathematical expression (5).

Mathematical expression 5:

(5)

Module 63 compensation for estimating β subtracts the target value β2 of the angle of sideslip β, estimated through linear module 61 observations with two inputs. In addition, the module 63 compensation for estimating β multiplies the result of subtracting the gain K2 of the compensation specified under the scheme of control Fig. Then, the module 63 compensation for estimating β uses the result of the multiplication as input to the module 62 integration.

In the control circuit shown in Fig, the gain K2 compensation is set equal to zero when the absolute value|Gy|) lateral acceleration Gy of the vehicle is less than or equal to the first threshold value, and is supported with a relatively large constant value, when the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy of the vehicle is greater than or equal to the second threshold value exceeds the first threshold value.

When the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy of the vehicle is between the first and second threshold values, the gain K2 of compensation increase is provided as as the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy increases.

Using the map control Fig, in which the gain K2 compensation is set equal to zero when the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy is less than or equal to the first threshold value and is close to zero, the system does not erroneous modification, since there is no need of modification in a situation such as the situation forward in a straight line, in which the rotation G is not performed. In addition, the map control Fig, the coefficient K2 feedback (gain compensation) increases in proportion to the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy, when the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy becomes greater than the first threshold value (for example, 0,1G), and the gain K2 compensation is maintained always at a constant value, in order to stabilize the control when the absolute value of the lateral acceleration Gy becomes greater than or equal to the second threshold value (for example, 0,5G). By adjusting gain K2 compensation therefore, the system improves the accuracy of estimates of the angle of sideslip β.

Then, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire calculates the angles βf and βr slip front and rear wheels (angles βf and βr of the sliding wheel in accordance with the thus calculated by the angle β of the side of the IC is Lunia vehicle (slip angle of the vehicle) by using the following expression (6).

Mathematical expression 6:

(6)

Module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire displays the calculated angles βf and βr slip front and rear wheels (βt) in module 47 calculation Fy/βt.

Module 45 evaluation of shear forces calculates the lateral forces Fyf and Fyr front and rear wheels in accordance with the rate γ of rotation around the vertical axis that is read by a sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis, and the transverse acceleration Gy which is read by a sensor 3 lateral acceleration by using the following expression (7).

Mathematical expression 7:

(7)

The rate γ of rotation around the vertical axis and the lateral acceleration Gy are the values, as shown in Fig. Module 45 evaluation of shear forces outputs the calculated lateral forces Fyf and Fyr module 47 calculation Fy/βt. Each of the lateral forces Fyf and Fyr front and rear wheels is the resultant force of the left and the rear two wheels on the front or the back.

Module 47 calculation Fy/βt calculates the ratio of (Fyf/βtf, Fyr/βtr) lateral forces Fyf and Fyr and angles βtf and βtr slip in accordance with the corners βtf the βtr slip front and rear wheels and lateral forces Fyf and Fyr front and rear wheels, calculated by module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire and module 45 evaluation of shear forces. Module 47 calculation Fy/βt displays the results of calculations in the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires.

Module 48 calculate the status of the coupling bus (module calculate the μ-gradient) assesses the state of coupling of the front wheels and the condition of the rear traction wheels in accordance with the relations (Fxf/λf, Fxr/λr) longitudinal force Fxf and Fxr front and rear wheels and speeds λf and λr slip front and rear wheels calculated by the module 46 calculate Fx/λ, and the ratio of (Fyf/βtf, Fyr/βtr) lateral forces Fyf and Fyr front and rear wheels and angles βtf and βtr slip front and rear wheels calculated by module 47 calculate Fy/βt. Thus, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tyres estimates μ-gradient of the front wheels and the μ-gradient of the rear wheels. To this end, the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires has a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient shown in Fig. The calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires has such a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient for the front wheels and the rear wheels. For example, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires locates the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient stored in the media storage data, such as zapomina the expansion device.

Three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient prepared on the basis of data obtained through a test run straight motion and test rotary motion at a given reference road surface in advance. In particular, the actual measurement is performed for the characteristic curve of the sliding velocity and the longitudinal force through experiment acceleration on the straight to the actual vehicle on the reference road surface. In addition, the actual measurement is performed for the characteristic curve of shear forces (forces arising from the rotation) and the slip angle of the tire by an experiment associated with the rotation (preferably circular motion when the rotation acceleration with a constant turning radius) for the actual vehicle on the reference road surface. Three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient is formed from the results of actual measurements. When direct measurement is not feasible, it is possible to measure another physical quantity and convert the measured value. For example, you can receive lateral forces Fyf and Fyr front and rear tires by measuring the lateral acceleration Gy and the rate γ of rotation around the vertical axis and solving the above system of equations (7), which includes floor the size and parameters of the vehicle (see Fig).

Accordingly, the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires gets µ-gradients through search or analysis of three-dimensional characteristic maps μ-gradient. Fig shows the ratio to obtain the μ-gradient of the three-dimensional map μ-gradient as the ratio between inputs and output a three-dimensional map μ-gradient. As shown in Fig, the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires is referred to as a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient for the front wheels, uses, as inputs, the ratio (Fxf/λf) longitudinal force Fxf the front wheels and the speed λf slip of the front wheels and the ratio of (Fyf/βtf) lateral force Fyf front wheels and the angle βtf slip of the front wheels and calculates (or outputs) μ-gradient (γ/γ0) of the front wheels to the front wheels corresponding to the inputs. Similarly, the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires is referred to as a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient to the rear wheels, uses, as inputs, the ratio (Fxr/λr) longitudinal force Fxr rear wheels and speed λr slip of the rear wheels and the ratio of (Fyr/βtr) lateral force Fyr rear wheels and angle βtr slip of the rear wheels and calculates (outputs) μ-gradient (γ/γ0) of the rear wheels to the rear wheels corresponding to the inputs.

In this case, through this, the module 48 calculate the state of the scene is of the tire determines the μ-gradient (γ/γ0) one of the characteristic curve (corresponding to two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient), forming a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient of the characteristic surface). Thus, in a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient, as in the two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient (see 6 and 14), μ-gradient in the form of a slope of a tangent curve tires is a parameter of the clutch characteristic variable representing the state of adhesion of the tires, or a parameter representing the state of saturation of the force that the tire can be created in the transverse direction. Therefore, the μ-gradient, the system can determine that the force of adhesion of the tires is in the marginal region. As a result, the system can evaluate the allowable margin of traction tires to limit the friction properly, even when the adhesive force of the wheel is in the marginal region.

In addition, the module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires lays out each of the μ-gradient (γ/γ0) of the front wheels and rear wheels on the component, contributing in the longitudinal direction, and the component contributing in the transverse direction. Without such a decomposition computed μ-gradient (γ/γ0) is the size in the direction of the resultant force F of the longitudinal force Fx and lateral force Fy. μ-gradient (γ/γ0) in the direction of the resultant force F is decomposed into a longitudinal component, ways the current in the longitudinal direction, and the transverse component, contributing in the transverse direction, and is output. Component contributing in the longitudinal direction of the calculated μ-gradient (γ/γ0) (hereafter referred to as the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient)is proportional to μ-gradient in the longitudinal direction of the wheel. Component contributing in the transverse direction of the calculated μ-gradient (γ/γ0) (hereinafter called the transverse component of the μ-gradient)is proportional to μ-gradient in the transverse direction of the wheel. Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires displays the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and outputs the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability.

Module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces command displays the correction of longitudinal control force in accordance with the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient. Fig shows an example of the process. As shown in Fig, first at step S1, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that exceeds the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient threshold value Kx1 or not. Specified threshold Kx1 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. For example, the specified threshold value is their Kx1 is an arbitrary positive value. The longitudinal component of the μ-gradient is a value obtained from μ-gradient bezrazmernogo in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the specified threshold Kx1 is the value determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

When the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient exceeds a threshold value Kx1 (longitudinal component μ-gradient>Kx1), module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force is transferred to the step S2. When the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value Kx1 (longitudinal component μ-gradient≤Kx1), the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force is transferred to the step S3. When the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient Kx0 is in the linear region (region in which the relationship between the change in force on the wheel and the change in the degree of slip is linear), then Kx0 exceeds the specified threshold Kx1 (Kx0>Kx1).

At step S2, the module 49 commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that the idle clutch (state higher clutch), and performs the normal control of longitudinal force (normal control). Accordingly, the command correction control the longitudinal forces are not displayed in the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor by a module 49 commands correction of longitudinal forces. Alternatively, the module 49 calc is of commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control, allowing the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the electric motor to perform normal control of longitudinal force. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force terminates the process shown in Fig.

At step S3, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that exceeds the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient threshold value Kx2 or not. Specified threshold Kx2 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. Specified threshold Kx2 less than the specified threshold Kx1 (Kx2<Kx1). For example, the specified threshold Kx2 is the value close to zero. The longitudinal component of the μ-gradient is a value obtained from μ-gradient bezrazmernogo in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the specified threshold Kx2 is the value determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

When the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient exceeds a threshold value Kx2 (Kx1≥ longitudinal component μ-gradient >Kx2), module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S4. When the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value Kx2 (longitudinal component μ-gradient≤Kx2), the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S5.

At step S4, the module 49 coma is dy correction of longitudinal forces determines the that condition is a nonlinear condition, but the adhesive force has not yet reached the saturation point, and performs control of longitudinal force to limit further increase the longitudinal force (the control mode to prevent increasing the longitudinal force). Accordingly, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control to limit the increase in longitudinal force based on the operation of the acceleration or braking operation, the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor. For example, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control, which is set to the value to subtract the value of increasing the longitudinal force due to the operation of the acceleration or braking operation. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force terminates the process shown in Fig.

At step S5, module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that the state is in a state in which adhesive force is saturated, and performs control of longitudinal force (control mode to reduce the longitudinal force)to restore bond strength by reducing the longitudinal force. Accordingly, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs, the ECU 22 of the driving/braking nm is the engine, command correction control in order to reduce the longitudinal force (uses longitudinal force). For example, even if the operation of the acceleration or braking operation, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control in order to reduce the longitudinal force while suppressing increase of the longitudinal force due to this operation. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force completes the process Fig.

As explained above, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force performs a process in accordance with the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient. Module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force executes the process in accordance with each of the longitudinal components of the μ-gradient of the front wheels and the rear wheels.

The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines the state of the turnability (the behaviour of the vehicle) in accordance with the transverse component of the μ-gradient according to the process definition. Fig shows an example of a process definition. As shown in Fig, first, at step S11, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability calculates the valid static margin SM, acting as the index of the behavior of the vehicle. The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability of this example which calculates the valid static margin SM in accordance with the transverse components of Kf and Kr μ-gradient of the front and rear wheels by using the following expression (8).

Mathematical expression 8:

(8)

Static permissible margin SM is a value indicating the ease of occurrence of drift and drift. In addition, valid static margin SM is a value indicating the state of saturation of the lateral force of the tire. For example, when the state of coupling of the front wheels 11FL, 11FR reaches (transverse power bus becomes saturated), and the transverse component Kf μ-gradient of the front wheels becomes zero or negative, valid static margin SM becomes smaller. Thus, valid static margin SM becomes smaller when the drift potential increases in the state (the saturation state forces on the wheel), in which the force on the wheel does not increase at the front wheels regardless of the increase in the degree of slip.

In the next step S12 module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines the equal valid static margin SM, calculated at S11, zero or not. The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability goes to step S13, when the valid static margin SM is equal to zero (SM=0) and the step S14, when the valid static margin SM is not equal to zero (SM≠0). At its discretion, can determine what is valid static margin SM is equal to zero when the static is opustily margin SM is within a given range, includes zero.

At step S14, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines what is valid static margin SM is positive or not. The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability goes to step S15, when the valid static margin SM is positive (SM>0), and to step S16, when the valid static margin SM is positive (SM<0).

At step S13, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines that the characterization of the turnability of the vehicle is a tendency neutral controllability (the probability of neutral controllability is high). At step S15, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines that the characterization of the turnability of the vehicle is a tendency of insufficient controllability (the likelihood of insufficient controllability is high). At step S16, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability determines that the characterization of the turnability of the vehicle is the tendency of excess controllability (the likelihood of excessive controllability is high). The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability outputs the result of the determination module 51 calculation coma is d care when turning.

Thus, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability performs operations in accordance with the transverse components of the μ-gradient of the front and rear wheels.

Module 51 calculation commands help turn calculates the help command when turning in accordance with the result of the determination module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability. Fig shows an example of a process performed by module 51 calculation commands help when turning. As shown in Fig, first, at step S21, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines what is characteristic of turnability trend neutral manageability (SM=0) or not. When the characteristic of the turnability is a tendency neutral handling, the module 51 calculation commands help turn completes the process Fig. Otherwise (when SM≠0, if trends insufficient controllability or trends excessive handling), the module 51 calculation commands help turn goes to step S22.

At step S22, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines what is characteristic of turnability trend insufficient controllability (SM>0) or not. Module 51 calculation commands help turn goes to step S23, when the characteristic of the turnability predstavlyaetsia insufficient controllability (the likelihood of insufficient controllability is high), and goes to step S25 otherwise (SM≤0, the trend of excessive handling).

At step S23, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines the smaller transverse component (cross-coupling) μ-gradient of the front wheels of the threshold Ky1 or not. Specified threshold Ky1 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. For example, the specified threshold Ky1 is the value close to zero. The transverse component of the μ-gradient is a value obtained from μ-gradient bezrazmernogo in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the specified threshold Ky1 value is determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

Module 51 calculation commands help turn goes to step S24, when the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is less than a predetermined threshold value Ky1 (transverse component μ-gradient<Ky1), and terminates the process according pig, when the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is greater than or equal to the specified threshold value Ky1 (transverse component μ-gradient≥Ky1).

At step S24, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines that the probability of demolition of the vehicle is high, and performs a control amount of the feedback on the steering wheel EPS. In particular, the module 51 vechicle the Oia teams help turn displays command help when turning to add value feedback on the steering wheel in the direction limiting the operation of the taxi driver in the direction of rotation from the neutral position, in EPSECU 6. Then, the evaluation module commands help taxiing 51 terminates the process shown in Fig.

At step S25, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines the smaller transverse component μ-gradient of the front wheels of the threshold Ky2 or not. Specified threshold Ky2 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. Specified threshold Ky2 can be set equal to the specified threshold value or Ky1 can be set equal to a value other than the specified threshold value, Ky1. For example, the specified threshold Ky2 is the value close to zero. The transverse component of the μ-gradient is a value obtained from μ-gradient bezrazmernogo in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the specified threshold Ky2 value is determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

Module 51 calculation commands help turn goes to step S26, when the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is less than a predetermined threshold value (the transverse component of the μ-gradient<Ky2), and ends the process Fig, when the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is greater than or equal to the given threshold value is Ky2 (transverse component μ-gradient≥Ky2).

At step S26, the module 51 calculation commands help turn determines that the probability of skidding of the vehicle is high, and performs a control amount of the feedback on the steering wheel EPS. In particular, the module 51 calculation commands help turn displays command help when turning, to add the amount of feedback on the steering wheel in the direction to make the operation of the taxi driver in the opposite direction to the neutral position, in EPSECU 6. Thus, torque is added to help resist sliding (table taxiing). Then, the module 51 calculation commands help turn completes the process according Fig.

Thus, the module 51 calculation commands help turn performs operations based on the result of the determination module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability.

__Actions and operations__

Fig shows one example of the process unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle. Unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs this process in the course of the motion or movement of the vehicle.

First, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle, the module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle calculates the velocity of a body transportadores (step S31). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 42 evaluation sliding velocity calculates the rate λf slip of the front wheels and the speed λr slip of the rear wheels in accordance with the speed of the body of the vehicle (step S32). In addition, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire in the device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle calculates the angle βtf slip of the front wheels and the angle βtr slip of the rear wheels (step S33). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength calculates the longitudinal force Fxf front wheel longitudinal force Fxr rear wheels (step S34). In addition, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces in unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle calculates the lateral force Fyf front wheels and lateral force Fyr rear wheels (step S35). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle module 46 calculate Fx/λ calculates the ratio (Fxf/λf, Fxr/λr) longitudinal force Fxf, Fxr speed (λf, λr) slip (step S36). In addition, the module 47 calculation Fy/βt calculates the ratio of (Fyf/βtf, Fyr/βtr) lateral force Fyf, Fyr to the corner βtf, βtr slip (step S37).

Then, the calculation module 48 state of coupling of the bus unit 8 assessment of the state of the vehicle movement estimates μ-gradient (parameter characteristics when Alenia) based on the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient (step S38). Thus, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires calculates μ-gradient (γ/γ0) for each pair of front wheels and a pair of rear wheels during movement corresponding to the ratio (Fx/λ) longitudinal force Fxf or Fxr speed λf or slip λr, and the ratio (Fy/βt) lateral force Fyf or Fyr to the corner βtf or βtr slip, through the use of three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient for the front wheels, or three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient to the rear wheels. Then, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires lays out each of the μ-gradient of the front wheels and the μ-gradient of the rear wheels (γ/γ0) component affecting in the longitudinal direction (the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient), and component affecting in the transverse direction (transverse component μ-gradient) (step S39).

In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control for the longitudinal force (i.e. each of the longitudinal force of the front wheels and the longitudinal force of the rear wheels) in accordance with the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels or the rear wheels (step S40). On the other hand, the module 50 evaluating the performance of turnability in unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle determines the state of poweraqua is on (the behavior of the vehicle) in accordance with the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels and the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the rear wheels (step S41). In accordance with the result of the determination module 50 evaluating the performance of turnability, the module 51 calculation commands help turn calculates the help command when turning to management to add value feedback on the steering wheel (EPS control) (step S42).

Thus, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of a body of the vehicle performs the longitudinal control force and the control amount of the feedback on the steering wheel as follows in accordance with the longitudinal component and the transverse component of the μ-gradient (parameter characteristics of the clutch).

Thus, when the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient exceeds a threshold value Kx1 (longitudinal component μ-gradient>Kx1), unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle determines that the wheel satisfying this condition is the condition of the clutch, and performs the normal control of longitudinal force (normal control) (S1→S2).

In addition, when the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value Kx1 and exceeds the threshold value Kx2 (Kx1≥longitudinal component μ-gradient>Kx2), the unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of a body of the vehicle performs the control of longitudinal force to limit the increase in longitudinal force glycoles, satisfy this condition (the control mode to prevent increasing the longitudinal force) (S1→ S3→ S4). Accordingly, the system may not allow the saturation of the adhesion forces by increasing the longitudinal force caused by the operation of the acceleration or braking operation of the driver.

By performing these processes, when the driver performs an acceleration or braking operation (when the request for increasing the longitudinal force is generated in a time when the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient exceeds a threshold value Kx1, the longitudinal force increases up until the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient becomes less than or equal to the specified threshold value Kx1 (as long as management does not enter into the regime of prohibition of increasing the longitudinal force).

In addition, when the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value Kx1 and exceeds the threshold value Kx2 (Kx1≥longitudinal component μ-gradient>Kx2), the unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of a body of the vehicle performs the control of longitudinal force to limit the increase in longitudinal force to the wheels that satisfy this condition (the control mode to prevent increasing the longitudinal force) (S1→ S3→ S5). With this control, even if the strength of the coupling is to be placed is saturated, the system can restore the strength of coupling.

In the above process unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle determines the state of the clutch wheels only through a comparison of the longitudinal component of the μ-gradient with predetermined threshold values Kx1 and Kx2. Through this, the unit 8 assessment of the state of the vehicle movement estimates the allowable margin to limit the friction adequately and performs control of longitudinal force that is appropriate for the estimated maximum allowable, even when the adhesive force of the wheels is in a state limit (the saturation state or a state near the saturation state).

In addition, in accordance with the transverse component of the μ-gradient, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle, calculates a valid static margin SM (S11). In accordance with the calculated valid static margin SM, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle determines the state of the turnability (the behaviour of the vehicle), and performs control of longitudinal force on the basis of the determination. In particular, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle determines that the characterization of turnability is a tendency of insufficient controllability when the static let the initial stock of SM is positive (SM> 0) (step S15). In this case, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs a control to add the amount of feedback on the steering wheel in the direction of limiting the operation of the taxi driver from the neutral position, provided that the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is less than a predetermined threshold value Ky1 (S21→ S22→ S23→ S24). Thus, when the clutch characteristic is reduced, the system performs control to increase the slip angle of the tire, and thereby prevents the demolition of the vehicle.

In addition, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle determines that the characterization of turnability is the tendency of excessive handling, valid when the static margin SM is negative (SM<0) (step S16). In this case, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs a control to add the amount of feedback on the steering wheel in the direction to instruct the driver to perform an operation reverse taxiing to the neutral position under the condition that the transverse component of the μ-gradient of the front wheels is less than a predetermined threshold value Ky2 (S21→ S22→ S25→ S26). With this control, the control system adds torque to help prativadi is to contribute to a slip (table taxiing), and thereby prevents skidding of the vehicle.

In this process, also, the system determines the state of the clutch wheels only through a comparison of the transverse component of the μ-gradient with predetermined threshold values Ky1 and Ky2. Through this, the system evaluates the allowable margin to limit the friction adequately and performs control to add value feedback on the steering wheel, suitable for estimated maximum allowable, even when the adhesive force of the wheels is in a state limit (the saturation state or a state near the saturation state).

__Modification of the first variant embodiment of the invention__

(1) Can be modified μ-gradient in accordance with the variation of the load on the wheel. Fig shows the characteristic curve (corresponding to two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient), forming a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient of the characteristic surface). As shown in Fig, wheel load varies by multiplying the initial value Fz wheel load (wheel load obtained when there is no variation) 0.6, and 0.8 and 1.2. The characteristic curve representing the relationship between the ratio (F/Z) resultant force F and the degree of Z slide and μ-gradient varies depending on N. the load on the wheel. In particular, the characteristic curve varies according to the form similar characteristic curves (group of characteristic curves)with different sizes depending on the load on the wheel and having a similar shape, similar to similar drawings of different sizes.

Fig shows the variation of the characteristic curve depending on the load on the wheel in the form of the relationship between wheel load and Kw gain modification factor modification for increase and decrease of the characteristic curve. As shown in Fig, strengthening Kw modification increases as the wheel load increases. In addition, the speed boost Kw modification decreases as the wheel load increases.

Fig shows one example of the structure for correcting the μ-gradient in accordance with the variation of the load on the wheel. As shown in Fig, provided by the module 52 calculate the wheel load and the module 53 map modification.

Module 52 calculate the load on the wheel calculates the variation of the load on the wheel in accordance with the lateral acceleration that is read by a sensor 3 lateral acceleration, and longitudinal acceleration that is read by a sensor 4, a longitudinal acceleration. In particular, the module 52 calculate the load number is from computes the value of the variation of the load on the wheel, the corresponding lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration. Module 52 calculate the load on the wheel displays the result of the calculation module 53 map modification. Module 53 map modification modifies the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient through the use of amplification Kw modification shown in Fig. In this example, the characteristic curve shown in Fig, is obtained in advance as a map of the coefficients of the modification of the load and the like, from the test results using the machine for tyre testing. Module 53 map modification defines the value of Kw gain correction corresponding to the measured value of the load on the wheel, through the use of map coefficients modification of the load and adjusts the μ-gradient. In particular, the module 53 map modification multiplies the input(s) in the three-dimensional map μ-gradient (see Fig) 1/Kw and multiplies the output of the three-dimensional map μ-gradient (see Fig) on Kw.

(2) in Addition, you can prepare a variety of three-dimensional characteristic maps μ-gradient of the characteristic surfaces)corresponding to the load on the wheel, as shown in Fig to modify the gradient in accordance with the variation of the load on the wheel. In this case, the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient of the characteristic surface)used for the ycycline μ-gradient, specified or selected in accordance with the measured value of the wheel load.

(3) In the first embodiment, given the nonlinear relationship between the two input variables Fx/λ and Fy/βt and the output variable that is a parameter of the clutch characteristic (μ-gradient), has the form of a characteristic map or a characteristic drawing. In contrast, at its discretion, may consider such a non-linear relationship in the form of a mathematical expression(s). In addition, if possible, in its sole discretion, you can simplify the nonlinear relationship into a linear relationship.

(4) In the first embodiment, the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient is obtained by rocking the longitudinal forces and lateral forces simultaneously in different directions, i.e. by shifting the direction of the resultant force in width. Instead, in its sole discretion, you can obtain a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient by obtaining the characteristic map μ-gradient of the longitudinal direction (longitudinal force Fx) (two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) and the characteristic map μ-gradient of the transverse direction (lateral force Fy) (two-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) separately and additions gap between the Hara is turisticheskie cards μ-gradient. In this case, the gap between the characteristic maps μ-gradient supplemented through the use of elliptic approximation.

(5) In the first embodiment, the system is designed with the ability to control the behavior when turning or behavior in the transverse direction of the vehicle by performing control operations (management to add value feedback on the steering wheel). However, the system can control the behavior of the vehicle by controlling the movement when rotated by the difference between the longitudinal forces of the left and right wheels, such as VDC (dynamic control of the vehicle). In this case, the system can implement a more sensitive control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle (control for preventing side slip).

(6) In the first embodiment, the vehicle is a vehicle with running from the front wheels. However, the vehicle may be the vehicle from the rear wheels, having driven rear wheel(a).

(7) In the first embodiment, the system is designed with the ability to determine the characteristic of the vehicle or to control the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with μ-g is adiantum front wheels (option adhesion characteristics) and μ-gradient of the rear wheels (the parameter characteristics of the clutch). However, the system can determine the characteristics of the vehicle or to control the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the μ-gradient of the left wheel (option adhesion characteristics) and μ-gradient of the right-wing wheels (option adhesion characteristics).

(8) In the first embodiment, the system includes a module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces to control the longitudinal force in accordance with the μ-gradient, and the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability and module 51 calculation commands help to manage the added value of the feedback on the steering wheel in accordance with the μ-gradient. However, the system may include only one module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces and module 51 calculation commands help (which includes the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability). Thus, the system can perform only one of the longitudinal control force and control to add value feedback on the steering wheel.

In the first embodiment, each design includes a module 42 evaluation of the sliding velocity, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength and module 46 calculate Fx/λ, and the structure, which includes the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces and module 47 calculation Fy/βt, R is implementing production one of the first input module to specify the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on the wheel in the first direction on the contact surface of the earth, to the first degree of slip of the wheels to the wheel, and the second module input to set the second input, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on the wheel in the second direction, different from the first direction on the contact surface of the earth, to the second degree of slip of the wheels to the wheel. In addition, the module 48 assessment clutch tires implements the module output to define the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic represents a characteristic of the clutch wheel, in accordance with the first and second inputs specified by the modules of the first and second inputs. Thus, the device assessment friction contact surface of the earth and of the vehicle is implemented in the first embodiment, by module 42 evaluation of sliding velocity, module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength of the module 46 calculate Fx/λ, module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire module 45 evaluation of shear forces, module 47 calculation Fy/βt and calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires.

In this embodiment, one module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength and module 45 evaluation of the lateral force implements module determining a first force on the wheel in order to determine the value of the first force on the wheel. One module 42 evaluation of sliding velocity and module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires implements module determining a first degree of slip of the wheel to determine a first degree of slip of the wheel. One module 46 calculate Fx/λ and module 47 calculation Fy/βt implements the first division unit for determining if a first force on the wheel to the first degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the first force on the wheel determined by the determining module of the first force on the wheel, to the first degree of slip of the wheel, determined by the determining module of the first degree of slip of the wheel. Another module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength and module 45 evaluation of the lateral force implements the module to identify a second force on the wheel to determine a second force on the wheel. Another module 42 evaluation of sliding velocity and module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire module implements the definition of second degree of slip of the wheel to determine the second degree of slip of the wheel. Another module 46 calculate Fx/λ and module 47 calculation Fy/βt implements the second division unit for determining if a second force on the wheel to the second degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the second force on the wheel defined by a module to identify a second force on the wheel, on the second degree of slip of the wheel defined by what redstem module determining the second degree of slip of the wheel.

In the first embodiment, the calculation module 48 state of coupling bus (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of sliding without friction coefficient of the surface of the earth.

In addition, the module 48 calculate the status of the coupling bus (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic in accordance with a ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip in the nonlinear region, in which the first force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the first degree of slip, and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip in the nonlinear region in which a second force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the second degree of slip.

In the first embodiment, the calculation module 48 state of coupling bus (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of the slip number is sa according to a given non-linear relationship between the two input variables, represented by the two inputs and the output variable, represented by output. In this case, the μ-gradient implements the parameter characteristics of the clutch, which is a value representing a valid stock to limit the friction of the tires.

In the first embodiment, the speed λ slip and angle βt slip are degrees of slip of the wheel (first and second degrees of slip of the wheels), which are the degrees of slip of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the longitudinal force Fx and the direction of the lateral force Fy, the calculation module 48 state of coupling bus (three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module, configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of sliding without friction coefficient of the surface of the earth.

In the first embodiment, the speed λ slip and angle βt slip are the values representing the vector of the relative speed of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the force on the wheel (the first and second force on the wheel). Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires (triple and family the RNA characteristic map μ-gradient) implements the output module, made with the possibility to determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

In the first embodiment, each of the longitudinal force and lateral force is one of the first and second forces on the wheel, which are the forces on the bus in the first and second directions acting on the tire. μ-gradient (parameter of the clutch characteristic is a value representing the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tire resultant force on the tire relative to the resulting degree of slip of a wheel, with the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the wheel, is formed in the direction (the direction of the resultant force (F) combination of the first force on the wheel and a second force on the wheel, and the resultant force on the tire is the combined force on the bus, which is the result of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel. Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires (characteristic map μ-gradient) implements the output module is configured to determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and first the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

In the first embodiment, the characteristic curve of the tire (for example, shown in Fig and Fig) implements the characteristic curve of a tire, which includes a line segment in which the resultant force on the tire increases linearly from zero when the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel increases from zero in a region smaller slip, in which the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is smaller, and non-linear segment, in which the resultant force on the bus varies nonlinearly when the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel is increasing at a greater slip, in which the absolute value of the resulting degree of wheel slip increases beyond the area of the smaller the slip. The parameter characteristics of the coupling is increased from zero to the highest value of the parameter, when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases. The highest value represents the gradient of the line segment of the characteristic curve of the tire. Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires (characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module, configured to determine Grady is NT a nonlinear segment of the characteristic curve of the tire from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel.

In the first embodiment, the characteristic curve of the tire includes a tire characteristic curve in the case of a high friction road surface with higher friction, which has a higher coefficient of friction, and tire characteristic curve in the case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient of friction, lower a higher coefficient of friction. μ-gradient (parameter of the clutch characteristic is a value representing the gradients of the characteristics of the bus in case of high friction and tire characteristics in the case of low friction. Module 42 evaluation of the sliding velocity, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength, the module 46 calculate Fx/λ, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces and module 47 calculation Fy/βt implement output modules, configured to determine the current value of the ratio of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel from the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel. Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires (characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module that determines the current value of the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the current values of the ratios of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheels and set the value of the gradient Hara is turisticheskiy curve tires in case of high friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel, and the value of the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of low friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheels equal to each other and equal to the current value of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

In the first embodiment, the characteristic curve of the tire is a characteristic curve representing the characteristic of the tire, depending on the friction coefficient of the road surface. Module 48 calculate the status of the clutch tires (characteristic map μ-gradient) implements an output module, configured to determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the road surface.

In the first embodiment, the μ-gradient (parameter characteristics of the clutch) is a function that is increasing, when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases from the predetermined critical value ratio. C is this critical ratio is the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel or the value of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel, when the μ-gradient equal to zero. In the field a greater ratio exceeding a certain critical value of the ratio when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases, the parameter of the clutch characteristic nonlinear increases so that the rate of increase of the parameter characteristics of the clutch in relation to the increase of this ratio force on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel is increased.

In the first embodiment, in the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient parameter of the clutch characteristic is equal to a critical value, when the value of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel equal to the critical value or values of the ratio. Alternatively, the setting of the clutch characteristic is equal to a critical value when a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is equal to the highest value of this ratio, and the other from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip and sootnoshenie the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is equal to the critical value of the ratio. In addition, in the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient parameter of the clutch characteristic is reduced below the critical value of the parameter, when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is reduced below the critical value of the ratio. In the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient parameter of the clutch characteristic is increased above a critical value of the parameter, when the value of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is increased above a critical value or values of the ratio.

In the first embodiment, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force implements the control module. In particular, the mode control to reduce the longitudinal force module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force implements control to restore the clutch to increase the setting of the clutch characteristic is above a critical value of the parameter in the critical region, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is less than or equal to the critical value corresponding to the specified threshold value Kx1). The control mode for the request is the value of increasing the longitudinal force module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force implements control to prevent reduction of the clutch, in order to prevent deterioration of characteristics parameter coupling to a critical value of the parameter when the parameter of the clutch characteristic is in the critical region, in which the parameter characteristics of the clutch exceeds a critical value, but less than the specified threshold parameter (corresponding threshold Kx1), which exceeds the critical value. Normal mode management module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force implements the management state of the clutch, which is performed when the setting of the clutch characteristic exceeds the threshold value.

In the first embodiment, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implements the module stability evaluation in order to evaluate the parameter stability of the vehicle, representing the stability of the vehicle, from the parameter characteristics of the clutch. In addition, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implements the module stability assessments made with the possibility of estimation of the parameter stability of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the first clutch wheel (one of the front and rear wheels or one of the left and right wheels), and parameter specifications of the second clutch wheel (drugog is from the front and rear wheels or the other of the left and right wheels).

In the first embodiment, the module 51 calculation commands help turn implements the control stability of the vehicle to control the vehicle in accordance with the parameter stability of the vehicle. In addition, in the first embodiment, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implement the assessment module of the behavior of the vehicle in order to evaluate the behaviour of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

In the first embodiment, the calculation module 48 state of coupling bus implements the module decomposition to decompose the parameter characteristics of the coupling on the transverse component in the transverse direction and a longitudinal component in the longitudinal direction. The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implements the assessment module transverse behavior to evaluate the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse direction in accordance with the transverse component of the option characteristics of adhesion, spread through the module decomposition. In particular, the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implements module 50 evaluation of the behavior of the vehicle implements the assessment module is Ogadenia of the vehicle (longitudinal assessment module behavior which evaluates the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse direction in accordance with the transverse component of the parameter characteristics of the first clutch wheel (one of the front and rear wheels) of the vehicle and setting characteristics of the second clutch wheel (the other of the front and rear wheels) of the vehicle. The module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability implements the assessment module features the turnability to evaluate the characteristics of the turnability of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the clutch. Module 49 calculation commands longitudinal correction is a function of the modulus of longitudinal assessment of behavior in order to evaluate the longitudinal behavior of the vehicle in the longitudinal direction in accordance with the longitudinal component of the option characteristics of adhesion, spread through the module decomposition. It is possible to provide at least one assessment module lateral behavior of the vehicle and module evaluation longitudinal behavior.

In the first embodiment, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and the module 51 calculation commands help when turning the implement module control the behavior of the vehicle to control the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the tvii with the behavior of the vehicle, assessed through module evaluation behavior of the vehicle.

In addition, in the first embodiment, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces (in particular, prohibition of increasing the longitudinal strength and the mode control to reduce the longitudinal force) controls the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle to increase the parameter characteristics of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic becomes lower. Module 51 calculation commands help when turning (the management to add value feedback on the steering wheel) controls the actuating mechanism to control the behavior of the vehicle to increase the parameter characteristics of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic is below.

In the first embodiment, the module 51 calculation commands help when turning (the management to add value feedback on the steering wheel) controls the actuating mechanism to control the behavior of the vehicle to reduce the slip angle of the wheels when the clutch characteristic is below.

In the first embodiment, the method of assessment friction contact surface of the earth and the vehicle for evaluating the performance of the clutch wheels of the vehicle on which poverhnosti contact with the ground by way comprising: a first input to set the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the first direction, and first-degree glide wheels for the wheels of the vehicle; a second input to set the second entry, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and second-degree glide wheels for the wheels of the vehicle; and an output stage, to determine from the inputs specified through the stages of the first and second input, the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic indicating a characteristic of the traction wheels of the vehicle.

__The results of the first option exercise__

(1) the Module of the first input specifies the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the earth contact in the first direction, and the first degree of slip of the wheels to the vehicle wheels. Module second input to set the second entry, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface the earth contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and the second degree of slip of the wheels to the vehicle wheels. In accordance with the inputs specified by the phases of the first and second inputs, an output module to determine the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic indicating a characteristic of the traction wheels of the vehicle.

By linking bus characteristics (characteristics of the clutch wheel vehicle) by using the ratio of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel, you can determine the characteristics of the bus while suppressing the influence of variation of μ of the road surface. In addition, it is possible to suppress the influence of the variation of μ of the road surface and characterization tires without receiving the influence of the variation of μ of the road surface regardless of the direction of force on the wheel. Accordingly, if the force on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel can be determined in the first direction and the second direction, the evaluation system according to the first variant implementation can get the option of clutch characteristic represents a characteristic of the clutch wheel from the ratios of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel. From the setting of the clutch characteristic represents a characteristic of the clutch wheel, the system may assessed the ü state of the clutch properly. Even when the adhesive force of the wheel is in the marginal region, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch properly and, consequently, to estimate the allowable margin to limit the friction properly.

In addition, you can determine or receive the option of clutch characteristic only of the relationship between the longitudinal force and the slip velocity or only from the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. In other words, you can define the parameter of the clutch characteristic, provided that the force acts only in one direction of the wheel, such as a longitudinal direction or a transverse direction. In this case, however, the accuracy of determination of the parameter characteristics of the clutch may become lower when the vehicle is greatly accelerated during turning of the vehicle or when the vehicle is operated during braking. In contrast, the system of the first variant implementation can accurately determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic even in a situation of rapid acceleration during the movement in the rotation, and the like, by defining a parameter of the clutch characteristic of the relationship of forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel in one direction and the relationship of forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel in the other direction.

(2 Parameter of the clutch characteristic is the rate of change of force on the wheel relative to changes in the degree of slip of the wheel. Thus, the system of the first variant implementation can assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly on the basis of the rate of change of force on the wheel relative to the magnitude of the change or variation of the degree of slip of the wheel.

(3) the output Module may determine the setting of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of sliding without friction coefficient of the surface of the earth.

Thus, by construction, which does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth, the system of the first variant implementation can implement a simple design without the need for multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient and to assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(4) the output Module may determine the setting of the clutch characteristic of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel in the nonlinear region, in which the first force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the first degree of slip of the wheel, and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip in the nonlinear region in which a second force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the second degree is d slip of the wheel.

The ratio between the force on the wheel, the degree of slip of the wheel and the parameter characteristics of the clutch can be reassembled in the form of a predetermined relationship between the ratio of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel and the parameter characteristics of the coupling in the nonlinear region where the force on the wheel varies nonlinearly in accordance with the degree of slip of the wheel. An output module configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic through the use of this relationship. Therefore, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(5) the output Module may determine the setting of the clutch characteristic of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of a wheel according to a given non-linear relationship between the two input variables, represented by the two inputs and the output variable, is represented by o, and the setting of the clutch characteristic is a value representing a valid stock to limit the friction of the tires.

The ratio between the force on the wheel, the degree of slip of the wheel and the parameter characteristics of the clutch can be reassembled in the form specified the relationship and, allowing for the provision of setting the clutch characteristic (output variable) from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheels of the two input variables). The parameter characteristics of the clutch can be formulated as a value representing a valid stock to limit the friction of the tire. The output module may determine the parameter characteristics of the clutch according to this relationship. Therefore, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(6) Given the nonlinear relationship between the input variables and the output variable has the form of one of the characteristic curved surface and mathematical formulas.

If the output module is of such simplified construction, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(7) the First degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the first force on the wheel, a second degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the second force on the wheel, parameter characteristic is erotici clutch is variable, representing the possibility of adhesion of the wheels of the vehicle, and an output module configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

By design, which does not require friction coefficient of the road surface, the system first variant implementation can achieve a design that does not require multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient of the road surface and evaluates the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(8) the First degree of slip of the wheels is set to a value representing the vector of the relative speed of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the first force on the wheel, a second degree of slip of the wheels is set to a value representing the vector of the relative speed of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the second force on the wheel, and an output module configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second si is s on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

By design, which does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth, the system implements a simple construction which does not require multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient, and the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(9) the First force on the wheel is the force on the bus in the first direction, acting on the tire, the ratio of the first force on the wheel to the first degree of slip of the wheel is the ratio of power on the bus in the first direction to the first degree of slip of the wheel, a second force on the wheel is the force on the bus in the second direction, acting on the tire, the ratio of the second force on the wheel to the second degree of slip of the wheel is the ratio of power on the bus in the second direction to the second degree of slip of the wheel, and the setting of the clutch characteristic is the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tire resultant force on the tire relative to the resulting degree of slip wheels, with the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the wheel, is formed in the direction of the combination of the first force on the wheel and a second force on the wheel, and the resultant force on the tire is the combined force on the bus, which is the result of the first forces on the wheel and a second force to the ECE. The output module is configured to determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

By design, which does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth, the system implements a simple construction which does not require multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient, and the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(10) the Characteristic curve of the tire includes a linear segment in which the resultant force on the tire increases linearly from zero when the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel increases from zero in a region smaller slip, in which the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is smaller, and non-linear segment, in which the resultant force on the bus varies nonlinearly when the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel is increasing at a greater slip, in which the absolute value of the resulting degree of wheel slip increases beyond the area of the smaller slide. The parameter characteristics of the clutch by increasing the is from zero to the highest value of the parameter when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases. The highest value represents the gradient of the line segment of the characteristic curve of the tire. The output module can determine the gradient of the nonlinear segment of the characteristic curve of the tire from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel.

In this design, the system can determine the gradient of the nonlinear segment of the characteristic curve of the tire as a parameter characteristic of the tyre in the form of the relationship of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel and the resultant force on the bus.

(11) the Characteristic curve of the tire includes a tire characteristic curve in the case of a high friction road surface with higher friction, which has a higher coefficient of friction, and tire characteristic curve in the case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient of friction, lower a higher coefficient of friction. The setting of the clutch characteristic is the gradient of the characteristics of the bus in case of high friction and tire characteristics in the case of low the th friction. The input module is configured to determine the current value of the ratio of forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel from the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel. The output module is configured to determine the current setting of the clutch characteristic of the current values of the ratios of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheels and set the value of the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of high friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel, and the value of the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of low friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheels equal to each other and equal to the current value of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

Thus, the design that does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth is achieved through the system using the characteristic curve of a tire, which includes the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of high friction road surface with higher friction, which has a higher coefficient of friction, and tire characteristic curve in the case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient tre the Oia, below a higher coefficient of friction. By design, which does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth, the system implements a simple construction which does not require multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient, and the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(12) of the tire Characteristic curve is a characteristic curve representing the characteristic of the tire, depending on the friction coefficient of the road surface, and an output module can determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the road surface.

By design, which does not require friction coefficient of the surface of the earth, the system implements a simple construction which does not require multiple cards for different values of the friction coefficient, and the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(13) the Parameter of the clutch characteristic is a function that increases when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of wheel slip ratio vtoro the forces on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases from the predetermined critical value ratio.

By using the clutch characteristic in the form of a function, the system can assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(14) In the area of greater ratio exceeding a certain critical value of the ratio when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases, the parameter of the clutch characteristic nonlinear increases so that the rate of increase of the parameter characteristics of the clutch in relation to the increase of this ratio force on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel is increased.

Thus, by using the clutch characteristic in shape, having a given characteristic, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(15) the Parameter of the clutch characteristic is equal to a critical value, when the value of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel equal to the critical value or values of the ratio. The parameter characteristics of the clutch is reduced below a critical value PA is ametra, when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is reduced below the critical value of the ratio. The parameter characteristics of the clutch is increased above a critical value of the parameter, when the value of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is increased above the critical value(s) ratio.

Thus, by using the clutch characteristic clarify in shape, having a given characteristic, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(16) One of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force on a wheel of the vehicle. Usually, just to get information on the longitudinal or the driving/braking force applied to the wheel. Accordingly, the system can easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(17) One of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force, one of the first degree of slip of the wheel and the second step is no slip of the wheel, the corresponding longitudinal or the driving/braking force, is the degree of longitudinal slip, and one of the first input and the second input is a value obtained by dividing the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force on the degree of longitudinal slip.

Therefore, the system can determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the value obtained by dividing the longitudinal or the driving/braking force on the degree of longitudinal slip. Thus, the system can easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(18) the Degree of longitudinal slip is the slip velocity of the vehicle wheels. In General, just to get information on the speed of a degree of slip of the wheel. Accordingly, the system can easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(19) One of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is a transverse power bus or power tyres arising from the rotation acting on a wheel of the vehicle. In General, just to get information on the transverse strength or power bus that occur when turning. Accordingly, the system can easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(20) One of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheels which is a transverse power bus or power, occur when turning, one of the first degree of slip of the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel corresponding to the transverse power bus or power arising upon rotation, is the degree of cross-slide, and one of the first input and the second input is a value obtained by dividing the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, the degree of cross-slide.

Therefore, the system can determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the value obtained by dividing the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, the degree of cross-slide, and thereby easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(21) the Degree of cross-slip is the slip angle of the vehicle wheels. Information on the angle of slip of the wheel is information that can be obtained, in General, easily. Accordingly, the system can easily assess the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit friction.

(22) the Force on the wheel or each of the forces on the wheel are the resultant force of the forces on the wheel to the left and right wheels. Therefore, by using the averaged forces on the wheel, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(23) the First and second inputs are dimensionless quantities, and input modules can define the dimensionless input by dividing the balance of power on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel on the reference value. Consequently, through the use of the generalized process, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(24) the Parameter of the clutch characteristic is a dimensionless quantity, and the output module can define a dimensionless quantity by dividing by the reference parameter. Thus, through the use of the generalized process using bezrazmernye the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(25) the output Module may determine the output of the two inputs according to a given relationship between the two inputs and the output, and the relationship between the two inputs and the output is the relationship that can be expressed by three-dimensional curved surface in three-dimensional coordinate system having a first axis representing the first input, which is the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and first-degree slide, a second axis representing a second input, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree RMS is Jenia wheel, and a third axis representing the parameter of the clutch characteristic.

Thus, if the output module has a simple structure, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(26) the First axis represents a ratio of the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, and the degree of cross-slide and the ratio of the longitudinal or the driving/braking force and the degree of longitudinal slip, and the second axis is different from the ratio of the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, and the degree of cross-slide and the ratio of the longitudinal or the driving/braking force and the degree of longitudinal slip.

Thus, if the output module has a simple structure, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.

(27) First, second and third axes are dimensionless, and the first and second axis is designed so that the dimensionless quantity is determined by dividing the balance of power on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel in the direction of each axis at the reference value, and the third axis is designed so that the dimensionless quantity is determined by dividing the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the reference parameter.

<> Thus, using the process summarized by bezrazmernye, the system can evaluate the condition of the clutch and allowed the stock to limit the friction properly.(28) the input Modules contain the module read the first force on the wheel to read the first force on the wheel, the module reads the first degree of slip of the wheel to read the first degree of slip of the wheel, the first division unit, to determine the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the first force on the wheel defined by a module reading the first force on the wheel, to the first degree of slip of the wheel defined by the module read the first degree of slip of the wheel, the module reads the second force on the wheel to read the second force on the wheel, the module reads the second degree of slip wheel to read the second degree of slip of the wheel, and the second division unit, to determine the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the second force on the wheel defined by a module reading the second force on the wheel, on the second degree of slip of the wheel defined by the module reads the second degree of slip of the wheel.

(29) the Module read loads on the wheel determined by the t of the load on the wheel for vehicle wheels, and the modification module modifies the relationship between inputs and output in accordance with the load on the wheel defined by a module read loads on the wheel.

Therefore, the system can obtain the parameter of the clutch characteristic accurately without receiving the influence of the load on the wheel.

(30) the modification Module for correcting the variation of the load on the wheel calculates the coefficient modification in accordance with the load on the wheel. The modification module performs a modification of each of the first and second inputs by dividing each entry by a factor of modifications and performs the modification of the output by multiplying the output determined from the modified first and second input by a factor modification. Therefore, the system can determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic which is modified appropriately in accordance with the load on the wheel. The system can obtain the parameter of the clutch characteristic accurately without receiving the influence of the load on the wheel.

(31) the Factor modification increases as the load increases on the wheel. Therefore, the system can determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic adequately in accordance with the increase in friction with increasing load on the wheel.

(32) the Rate of increase of the coefficient of fashion the classification decreases as load increases on the wheel. Therefore, the system can determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic adequately in accordance with the power grip, which increases so that the rate of increase becomes lower with increase in the load on the wheel.

(33) the control Module performs control to restore the clutch to increase the setting of the clutch characteristic is greater than the specified critical value of the parameter in the critical region, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is less than or equal to the critical value of the parameter, and management to prevent reduction of the clutch to prevent the decrease of the parameter adhesion characteristics to a critical value of the parameter when the parameter of the clutch characteristic is in the critical region, in which the parameter characteristics of the clutch exceeds a critical value, but less than the specified threshold parameter that exceeds a critical value of the parameter.

Therefore, when you manage to repair the clutch, the system can provide power clutch by instructing the driver to return the steering wheel. When you manage to prevent reduction of the clutch system can prevent decrease of the adhesion forces by not too strong powertable driver.

(34) the control Module may control the state of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic exceeds a threshold value. The management state of the clutch is controlled, adapted to the situation, when the normal state of the clutch is provided. Therefore, in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic, the system can perform control, adapted to the normal condition of the clutch.

(35) Module stability assessment can evaluate the parameter stability of the vehicle, representing the stability of the vehicle, from the parameter characteristics of the clutch. Thus, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(36) the input Modules can determine the value of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip for the second wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel of the vehicle. The output module outpredict parameter of the clutch characteristic of the first wheel from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel and the second ratio of the forces on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel for the first wheel and the setting of the clutch characteristic of the second wheel from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel. The assessment module stability can estimate the parameter stability of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the first clutch wheel and the parameter characteristics of the second clutch wheel.

Thus, the system can evaluate the parameter stability of the vehicle from the parameters of the friction characteristics of the first and second wheels. In addition, the system can evaluate the parameter stability of the vehicle from the difference of the parameter characteristics of the coupling between the first and second wheels.

(37) the First wheel and the second wheel of the vehicle are the front and rear wheels or left and right wheels of the vehicle. Therefore, the system can evaluate the parameter stability of the vehicle from the difference of the parameter characteristics of the coupling between the front and rear wheels or between the left and right wheels.

(38) Module stability control can control the vehicle in accordance with the parameter stability of the vehicle. Thus, the system can perform from the management to stabilize the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(39) the assessment Module of the behavior of the vehicle can evaluate the behaviour of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(40) a Device or system for evaluating the condition of the friction contact surface of the earth and the vehicle includes a module decomposition to decompose the parameter characteristics of the coupling on the transverse component in the transverse direction and a longitudinal component in the longitudinal direction, and the assessment module of the behavior of the vehicle includes at least one assessment module longitudinal behavior to assess the longitudinal behavior of the vehicle in the longitudinal direction in accordance with the longitudinal component of the option characteristics of adhesion, spread through the module decomposition, and assessment module transverse behavior to evaluate the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse direction in accordance with the transverse component of the option characteristics of adhesion, spread through the module decomposition.

Thus, the system can decompose the parameter adhesion characteristics on the longitudinal component and the transverse component. Also, the system evaluates the behaviour of the vehicle in the longitudinal direction and the behaviour of the vehicle in aparecem direction separately in accordance with the longitudinal component of the parameter characteristics of the clutch and the transverse component of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

(41) the assessment Module transverse behavior assesses the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse direction in accordance with the transverse component of the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the first wheel of the vehicle and the transverse component of the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the second wheel of the vehicle. Thus, the system can evaluate the transverse behaviour of the vehicle appropriately in accordance with the transverse components of the characteristic parameters of coupling first and second wheels.

(42) Module control the behavior of the vehicle controls the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the behaviour of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle. For example, the module control the behavior of the vehicle controls at least one of the longitudinal behavior and lateral behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the evaluation result, at least one assessment module longitudinal behavior and assessment module longitudinal behavior. Thus, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(43) Module control the behavior of vehicles is and controls the behavior of the vehicle by controlling the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle (EPS motor 7 in accordance with the behaviour of the vehicle, assessed through module evaluation behavior of the vehicle. Thus, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(44) the Executive mechanism to control the behavior of the vehicle (EPS motor 7) is used as the actuator aid in the effort on the steering wheel to help in the effort on the steering wheel for the driver of the vehicle, or the Executive control mechanism angle of rotation of the wheels to control the angle of rotation of the wheels of the vehicle. Therefore, by assisting the driver in steering or by controlling the rotation angle of the wheels, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle.

(45) Module control the behavior of the vehicle can control mechanism to control the behavior of the vehicle (braking/drive motor 21) thus, to increase the parameter characteristics of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic is reduced.

Thus, the system can restore bond strength by increasing the parameter characteristics of the clutch. Thus, the system can perform control for stabilization is Ogadenia of the vehicle by increasing the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

(46) Module control the behavior of the vehicle can control mechanism to control the behavior of the vehicle in such a way as to reduce the slip angle of the vehicle wheels, when the clutch characteristic is reduced.

Therefore, the system can restore the strength of the coupling by reducing the slip angle of the tires. The system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle by reducing the slip angle of the tires.

(47) the assessment Module of the behavior of the vehicle can evaluate the characteristics of the turnability of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the clutch, and the control behavior of the vehicle can control the behavior when turning the vehicle in accordance with the characteristics of the turnability of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

Therefore, the system can evaluate the characteristics of the turnability of the vehicle through the use of parameter adhesion characteristics, and performs control to stabilize the behavior of the vehicle by using the estimated characteristics of the turnability.

(48) the assessment Module surface is the origin of the vehicle can be estimated, at least one of the trends of the demolition of the vehicle and trends of skidding of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the clutch, and the control behavior of the vehicle can control the behavior when turning the vehicle in such a way as to reduce the tendency of which is, at least, one of the trends of the demolition of the vehicle and trends of skidding of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

Thus, the system can control the vehicle to stabilize the behavior when turning the vehicle by reducing the tendency of the demolition of the vehicle or trends skidding of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(49) the control Module torque wheels (ECU brake/drive motor 22 and the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force) controls the torque of the wheel, which is one of the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel, in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

Thus, the system can control the characteristic of the clutch wheel by controlling at least one of the brake torque is omenta and driving torque of the wheel and thereby to achieve the desired characteristics of the clutch wheel.

(50) the control Module torque wheel can control at least one of the braking torque and driving torque of the wheels in accordance with the longitudinal component of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

By using the longitudinal component of the parameter characteristics of the clutch system can control the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel properly.

(51) the control Module torque wheel controls actuator torque control wheel (brake/drive motor 21 to control the torque of the wheel.

Therefore, by controlling the actuator torque control wheel, the system can control the braking torque or the driving torque of the wheel properly.

(52) the control Module torque wheel can control at least one of the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel in such a way as to reduce the torque of the wheel up until the parameter characteristics of the clutch becomes higher than a specified critical value (predetermined threshold value Kx2), when the parameter'hara the indices clutch becomes below a preset critical value of the parameter.

Therefore, the system can restore the traction force by controlling the braking force or the driving force of the wheel and the job characteristics of the clutch wheel in the required form.

(53) the control Module torque wheel controls, at least one of the braking torque and driving torque of the wheels so as to limit the increase in torque to the wheels when the clutch characteristic is found in the region, exceeding a certain critical value (threshold value Kx2) and lesser predetermined threshold value (predetermined threshold value Kx1).

Therefore, the system can prevent decrease of the adhesion forces by controlling the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel and achieving the desired shape characteristics of the clutch wheel.

(54) control Module torque wheel controls, at least one of the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel thereby to increase the torque of the wheel up until the parameter characteristics of the clutch becomes smaller the threshold, when receiving a request of a driver of the vehicle to increase prodolny the force, when the clutch characteristic exceeds a critical value of the parameter.

Thus, the system can generate a longitudinal force in accordance with the driver's intention while preventing reduction of the adhesion forces by controlling the braking torque and driving torque of the wheel.

(55) Given the critical value of the parameter is zero. Thus, the system can control the braking torque and driving torque of the wheels in accordance with grip force, which can become saturated near the point at which the characteristic of the clutch is equal to zero.

__The second option of carrying out the invention__

Design

Fig schematically shows the overall construction of the vehicle according to the second variant of implementation. Fig shows the internal structure of the device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle under the vehicle. As shown in Fig and 47, the basic design of the vehicle the second variant implementation is largely identical construction vehicle of the first variant implementation, shown in Fig and 31. However, in the second embodiment, wheels 11FL-11RR contain, respectively, the foot is by the sensors 71FL-71RR. On the other hand, the system of the second variant implementation does not include EPSECU 6 for EPS, the EPS motor 7 and the module 50 calculate the characteristics of the turnability. In the following explanation of the part in the vehicle according to the second variant implementation assigned identical reference positions are identical parts with identical reference positions in the vehicle of the first variant of implementation, unless otherwise indicated specifically. In the second embodiment, the system can control the longitudinal forces of the wheels 11FL-11RR separately, as explained below. Therefore, at this point, the processes of component parts differ from the processes in the first embodiment.

Module 42 evaluation sliding velocity calculates speed λfl, λfr, λrl, λrr slip wheels 11FL-11RR in accordance with the rotational speeds of wheels for wheels 11FL-11RR read by a sensor 5 of the wheel speed, and the speed of the vehicle body calculated by module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle. Then, the module 42 evaluation sliding velocity outputs the results of calculation in the module 46 calculate Fx/λ.

Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength calculates longitudinal forces Fxfl, Fxfr, Fxrl and Fxrr wheels 11FL-11RR in accordance with the rotational speed and current drive/deceleration is different motors 21FL-21RR. In the first embodiment, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength determines the amount of driving/braking torque TTir left and right wheels to get each of the longitudinal force Fxf front wheel longitudinal force Fxr rear wheels. In the second embodiment, in contrast, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength determines the driving/braking torques TTir drive/brake motors 21FL-21RR wheels 11FL-11RR without adding driving/braking torque TTir left and right wheels. Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength calculates the longitudinal force Fxfl, Fxfr, Fxrl and Fxrr wheels 11FL-11RR, by multiplying each of the driving/braking torque TTir wheels 11FL-11RR on dynamic radius. Module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength displays the results of the calculation (evaluation results) in the module 46 calculate Fx/λ.

Wheel sensors 71FL-71RR shown in Fig read the transverse forces acting on the wheels 11FL-11RR, respectively. Wheel sensors 71FL-71RR withdraw their readings into the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle (module 45 evaluation of shear forces).

In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces calculates the lateral force Fyfl, Fyfr, Fyrl and Fyrr wheels 11FL-11RR in line the AI with the results of the reading wheel sensors 71FL-71RR. Module 45 evaluation of shear forces displays the results of the calculation module 47 calculation Fy/βt.

Module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire shown in Fig, estimates a slip angle β of the vehicle body (the angle of sideslip of the vehicle) in the same manner as in the first embodiment, and transmits the estimated slip angle β of the vehicle body in the angle of slip of the front wheel slip angle of the tire) and the slip angle of the rear wheel slip angle of the tires).

Fig shows one example of the construction module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires to estimate the angle of sideslip of the vehicle (glide angle). The design, shown in the example on Fig, does not contain the module 63 compensation for estimating β and the gain K2 of compensation.

In addition, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tires specifies the angle βtf slip of the front wheels as the angles βtfl and βtfr slip front left wheel and front right wheel and sets the angle βtr slip of the rear wheels as the angles βtrl and βtrr slip rear left wheel and rear right wheel. Module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire prints thus obtained corners βtfl-βtrr slip wheels 11FL-11RR in module 47 calculation Fy/βt.

Module 46 calculate Fx/λ calculates the ratio (Fxfl/λfl-Fxrr/λrr) longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr and velocities λfl-λrr slip in with the accordance with the speed λfl-λrr slip and longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr wheels 11FL-11RR, calculated by module 42 evaluation of sliding velocity and module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength. Module 46 calculate Fx/λ displays the results of calculations in the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires. Module 47 calculation Fy/βt calculates the ratio (Fyfl/βtfl-Fyrr/βtrr) shear forces Fyfl-Fyrr and angles βtfl-βtrr slip in accordance with the corners βtfl-βtrr sliding and shearing forces Fyfl-Fyrr, calculated by module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire and module 45 evaluation of shear forces. Module 47 calculation Fy/βt displays the results of calculations in the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires.

Module 48 calculate the status of the coupling bus (module calculate the μ-gradient) assesses the clutch of each of the wheels 11FL-11RR in accordance with the relations (Fxfl/λfl-FxrR/λrr) longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr and velocities λfl-λrr slip front and rear wheels calculated by the module Fx/λ computation 46, and the relations (Fyfl/βtfl-Fyrr/βtrr) shear forces Fyfl-Fyrr and angles βtfl-βtrr slip, calculated by module 47 calculation Fy/βt. Thus, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tyres estimates μ-gradient of each of the wheels 11FL-11RR. To this end, the calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires has a three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient, as shown in Fig. The calculation module 48 state of adhesion of the tires has such three the policy of the characteristic map μ-gradient for each of the wheels 11FL-11RR. For example, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires locates the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient stored in the media storage, such as a mass storage device.

Accordingly, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires calculates (outputs) μ-gradient (γ/γ0) of each of the wheels 11FL-11RR by reference to the three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient of the corresponding one of the wheels 11FL-11RR and use, as inputs, the ratio (Fxfl/λfl-FxrR/λrr) longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr and speed λfl-λrr slip of the corresponding one of the wheels 11FL-11RR and the ratio (Fyfl/βtfl-Fyrr/βtrr) lateral force Fyfl-Fyrr and angle βtfl-βtrr slip corresponding one of the wheels 11FL-11RR (see Fig).

Module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force performs a control process to prevent slipping and locking wheels 11FL-11RR in accordance with the μ-gradient of the wheels 11FL-11RR. Fig shows one example of process control. As shown in Fig, first, at step S51, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that exceeds the μ-gradient threshold value A1 or not. The specified threshold value A1 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. The specified threshold value A1 is, for example, arbitrary pological the s ' value. μ-gradient is a value obtained by bezrazmernye in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the threshold value A1 is the value determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

When the μ-gradient exceeds the threshold value A1 (μ-gradient>A1), module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S52.

When the μ-gradient less than or equal to the threshold value A1 (μ-gradient≤A1), the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S53. At step S52, the module 49 commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that the wheel is in the clutch status (state higher clutch) and performs the normal control of longitudinal force (normal control). Accordingly, the command correction control the longitudinal forces are not displayed in the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor by a module 49 commands correction of longitudinal forces. Alternatively, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control, allowing the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the electric motor to perform normal control of longitudinal force. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force terminates the process shown in Fig.

At step S53, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces opredeliaete, exceeds μ-gradient threshold value A2 or not. The specified threshold value A2 is an experimental value, experiential value or theoretical value. The specified threshold value A2 is less than a predetermined threshold value A1 (A2<A1). For example, the specified threshold value A2 is a value close to zero. μ-gradient is a value obtained by bezrazmernye in the form γ/γ0. Accordingly, the threshold value A2 value is determined taking into account bezrazmernye.

When the μ-gradient exceeds a threshold value A2 (μ-gradient>A2), module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S54. When the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value A2 (μ-gradient≤A2), module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force goes to step S55.

At step S54, the module 49 commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that the force of adhesion have not yet reached the saturation point, and performs control of longitudinal force (control mode to prevent increasing the longitudinal force) to limit further increase the longitudinal force from the current level. Accordingly, as a control to prevent slipping and blocking module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces command displays adjusting the AI control to limit the increase in longitudinal force based on the operation of the acceleration or braking operation, the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor. For example, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control, which is set to the value to subtract the value of increasing the longitudinal force due to the operation of the acceleration or braking operation. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force terminates the process shown in Fig.

At step S55, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces determines that the state is in a state in which adhesive force is saturated, and performs control of longitudinal force (control mode to reduce the longitudinal force)to restore bond strength by spending longitudinal forces. Accordingly, as a control to prevent slipping and blocking module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs, the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor, the command correction control in order to reduce the longitudinal force. For example, even if the operation of the acceleration or braking operation, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command correction control in order to reduce the longitudinal force while suppressing took the value of the longitudinal force due to this operation. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force completes the process Fig.

Thus, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force performs a process based on the μ-gradient. Module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force executes the process in accordance with the μ-gradient of each of the wheels 11FL-11RR.

In the case of the above control to prevent slipping and locking wheels to control the wheels 11FL-11RR separately (see Fig), the longitudinal force of each wheel 11FL-11RR is regulated independently of the others. Hence, there is a difference in driving the braking torque between the wheels 11FL-11RR (for example, between the left and right wheels). Due to this difference driving/braking torque caused by management to prevent slipping and locking wheels, the vehicle can turn. In addition, regardless of the control to prevent slipping and locking wheels, the vehicle may become unable to rotate properly in accordance with the operation of the steering due to the occurrence of side slipping of the tire. Accordingly, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and the module 51 calculation commands help turn carry out the process, satisfying such a behavior of the vehicle. Fig shows one example of the process. First, at step S61, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces calculates the torque (moment of rotation around the vertical axis) ΔM, formed by the difference of the driving/braking torques of the left and right wheels due to management to prevent slippage and wheel lock.

Then, at step S62, the module 51 calculation commands help turn calculates the base speed of rotation around the vertical axis, predicted in the case of the linear characteristics of the vehicle. In particular, the module 51 calculation commands help turn calculates the base rate γb of rotation around the vertical axis by entering the vehicle speed and the angle of rotation of the wheels in a linear two-wheeled vehicle model (used to calculate the angle βt slip).

In the next step S63, the module 51 calculation commands help turn calculates the difference Δγ (=γ-γb) between the actual speed of rotation around the vertical axis (read speed of rotation around the vertical axis) γ formed actually in the vehicle, and the base rate γb of rotation around the vertical axis, calculated at step S62.

ZAT is m,
at step S64, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces calculates the torque M_{MTR}help turn according to the following mathematical expression (9) by using the torque ΔM calculated on S61, and the difference Δγ speeds of rotation around the vertical axis, calculated on the S63.

M_{MTR}=ΔM+G×Δγ(9)

In this equation, G is gain of care when turning, which is a constant determined through pre-configuration.

Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force outputs a command to control when turning in the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor. Thus, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force delivers, the ECU 22 of the driving/braking of the motor, the command for forming the difference between the left and right longitudinal force to achieve the torque M_{MTR}care when turning, calculated according to the mathematical expression (9).

The command for forming the difference between the left and right longitudinal forces (command, in order to achieve the M_{MTR}is the command to form a longitudinal force to the wheel or wheels with a higher μ-gradient. In case of restriction of the turnability this command for forming the difference between the left and right driving force is one who by the team to increase the braking force of the wheel on the outside of the turn or command to increase the driving force of the wheel on the inside of the turn.
In the case of promoting the turnability this command for forming the difference between the left and right driving force is the command for increasing the driving force of the wheel on the outside of the turn or command to increase the braking force of the wheel on the inside of the turn. When the occurrence of unstable behavior of the vehicle control when the rotation is done only by increasing the braking force without increasing the driving force, as the slowdown acts in the direction of stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle. In addition, if, even in such a case, the driver performs the operation for a sharp acceleration, the priority will be given of the operation of the driver, and control when the rotation is done by increasing the driving force.

__Actions and operations__

Fig shows one example of the process unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle. Unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs this process in the course of the motion or movement of the vehicle.

First, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle, the module 41 calculate the speed of the body of the vehicle calculates the speed of the body of the vehicle (step S71). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 42 evaluation speed gliding is calculates speed λfl-λrr slip wheels 11FL-11RR in accordance with the speed of the body of the vehicle (step S72). In addition, the module 44 estimating slip angle of the tire in the device 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle calculates the angles βtfl-βtrr slip wheels 11FL-11RR (step S73). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, the module 43 evaluation of longitudinal strength calculates longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr wheels 11FL-11RR (stage set S74). In addition, the module 45 evaluation of shear forces in unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle calculates the lateral force Fyfl-Fyrr wheels 11FL-11RR (step S75). In unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle module 46 calculate Fx/λ calculates the ratio (Fxfl/λfl-Fxrr/λrr) longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr speed λfl-λrr slip wheels 11FL-11RR (stage set s76). In addition, the module 47 calculation Fy/βt in unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of a body of the vehicle, calculates a ratio (Fyfl/βtfl-Fyrr/βtrr) lateral force Fyfl-Fyrr to the corner βtfl-βtrr slip (step S77).

Then, the calculation module 48 state of coupling of the bus unit 8 assessment of the state of the vehicle movement estimates μ-gradient (parameter adhesion characteristics) on the basis of three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient (step S78). Thus, the calculation module 48 state of the clutch tires calculates μ-gradient (γ/γ0) for each of the wheels during movement, the corresponding value (Fxfl/λfl-Fxrr/λrr) longitudinal forces Fxfl-Fxrr to the MSE of the spine λfl-λrr slip and value (Fyfl/βtfl-Fyrr/βtrr) lateral force Fyfl-Fyrr to the corner βtfl-βtrr slip, through the use of three-dimensional characteristic map μ-gradient for one of the wheels. Then, the module 49 calculation commands correction of longitudinal forces unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs the control of longitudinal force to prevent slippage and to lock each of the wheels 11FL-11RR (step S78). In addition, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and the module 51 calculation commands help when turning device 8 assessment of the state of vehicle motion manage when turning by controlling the longitudinal forces (step S79).

Thus, unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle performs control to prevent slipping and blocking and control when cornering by controlling the longitudinal forces in the following manner in accordance with the μ-gradient (parameter characteristics of the clutch).

Thus, when the μ-gradient exceeds the threshold value A1 (μ-gradient>A1), the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle determines that the wheel satisfying this condition is the condition of the clutch, and performs the normal control of longitudinal force (normal control) (S51→S52).

In addition, when the μ-gradient less than or equal to that given by ogbomo value A1 and exceeds the threshold value A2 (gradient A1≥μ> A2), the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs the control of longitudinal force to prevent the increase in longitudinal force to the wheels that satisfy this condition (control to prevent slippage and to lock the control mode to prevent increasing the longitudinal force) (S51→S53→S54). Accordingly, the system may not allow the saturation of the adhesion forces by increasing the longitudinal force caused by the operation of the acceleration or braking operation of the driver.

In addition, when the μ-gradient less than or equal to the specified threshold value A2 (A2≥μ-gradient), unit 8 assessment of the state of motion of the vehicle performs the control of longitudinal force to reduce the longitudinal force control to prevent slippage and to lock the control mode to reduce the longitudinal force) for wheels that satisfy this condition (S51→S53→S55). With this control, even if the adhesive force is saturated, the system can restore the strength of coupling.

In the above process, the system determines the state of the clutch wheels only through a comparison of the μ-gradient with predetermined threshold values A1 and A2. Through this, the system evaluates the allowable margin to limit the friction adequately and performs control of longitudinal force, the right to estimated maximum allowable, even when the adhesive force of the wheels is in a state limit.

Unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, calculates a torque ΔM, formed by the difference of the longitudinal forces between the left and right wheels due to management to prevent slipping and blocking (S61). In addition, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle calculates the base rate γb of rotation around the vertical axis and calculates the difference Δγ through the use of calculated base rate γb of rotation around the vertical axis (step S62 and step S63). Then, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle, calculates a torque M_{MTR}assistance during rotation of the computed torque ΔM and difference Δγ speeds of rotation around the vertical axis. In accordance with the calculated torque MMTR care when turning, the unit 8 estimates the motion state of the vehicle performs the control of turning of the vehicle by generating a longitudinal force to the wheel having the higher the μ-gradient (step S64). With this control, the system does not allow rotation of the vehicle through control to prevent slipping and blocking. In addition, the system reaches the turnability according to the operation of the steering control even in the event of a side slip of the tire.

In the second embodiment, the module 49 calculation commands correction of the longitudinal force and the module 51 calculation commands help when turning the implement module estimates the behavior of the vehicle to assess the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

__The results of the second variant embodiment of the invention__

(1) the assessment Module of the behavior of the vehicle evaluates the behaviour of the vehicle, and the control behavior of the vehicle controls the behavior of the vehicle by controlling the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle (braking/drive motor 21 in accordance with the behaviour of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

Thus, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle (including the behavior when turning the vehicle) in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

(2) actuator control the behavior of the vehicle (braking/drive motor 21) is of the form of the actuator longitudinal control force to control the longitudinal forces of the left and right wheels tra the transport means. Thus, the system can perform control for stabilizing the behavior of the vehicle (including the behavior when turning the vehicle) by controlling the longitudinal forces of the left and right wheels.

(3) the System performs the control of turning of the vehicle based on the torque ΔM, formed by the difference of the driving/braking torque between the left and right wheels due to longitudinal control force control to prevent slipping and blocking). Thus, the system may not allow the turning of the vehicle by controlling the longitudinal force control to avoid thrashing and lock).

According to one of the possible interpretations of the illustrated embodiments, it is possible to prepare the following claims.

X1) the System (device or method for evaluating the adhesion characteristics of the vehicle wheels on the contact surface of the earth, comprising: a first element of the input module of the first input or first stage input)to set the first input, which is the ratio of force on the wheel in the first direction acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the earth contact in the first direction, and the degree of skidding pad the FL wheel in the first direction of vehicle wheels; element of the second input module of the second input or the second input to set the second entry, which is the ratio of force on the wheel in the second direction, acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the earth contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and the degree of slip of the wheel in a second direction, the wheels of the vehicle; and an output element (module output or output stage)to determine, from the first entry specified by the element of the first input and second input, given by the element in the second input, the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic, indicating the characteristic of the clutch wheels of the vehicle.

X2) System (device or method) at point X1 in which the first direction is a longitudinal direction of the wheel, the second direction is a transverse direction of the wheel, the element of the first input is configured to determine, as a first input, the ratio of the longitudinal force on the wheel and the degree of longitudinal sliding of the wheels to the wheel, and the element of the second input is configured to determine, as a second input, the ratio of the lateral force on the wheel and the degree of cross-slide wheel to wheel.

X3) System (device or method) at point X1 or X2, in which the element is provided output made with the possibility to have a predetermined characteristic relationship "two-input-one-output" (such as the relationship, shown in Fig) and to determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the ratio of the force on the wheel in the first direction and the degree of slip of the wheel in the first direction and the ratio of the force on the wheel in the second direction and the degree of slip of the wheel in the second direction according to this characteristic the relationship.

X4) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X3, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is a value representing the gradient of the characteristic curve between the force on the wheel in the resulting direction and degree of slip of the wheel in the resulting direction or the combined direction between the first direction and the second direction.

X5) System (device or method) in paragraph X3 or X4 in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic defined by the above-mentioned characteristic correlation increases from the minimum value of the parameter to a positive maximum value of the parameter, when at least one of the first and second inputs increases.

X6) System (device or method) in paragraph X5, the system further comprises a component (module or stage) reading wheel load to determine the load on the wheel to wheel, and element modification (the modification module or phase modification), the element modifications made with the possibility to modify the characteristic relationship so to increase the maximum value of the parameter as the wheel load increases.

X7) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X6, in which the element of the first input specifies the first input for the front two wheels of the vehicle and the first input for the rear two wheels of the vehicle, an item of the second entry specifies the second input for the front two wheels of the vehicle and a second input for rear two wheels of the vehicle, and the output element defines a parameter of the clutch characteristic for the front two wheels of the first and second inlets for the front two wheels according to the relationship of the clutch characteristic for the front two wheels and determines the setting of the clutch characteristic for the rear two wheels of the first and second bushings for the rear two wheels according to the relationship of the clutch characteristic for the rear two wheels.

X8) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X6, in which the vehicle is a vehicle having multiple wheels (for example, 4, 3 or 2 wheels), the element in the first input specifies the first entry for each of the wheels, the item of the second entry specifies the second input for each of the wheels, and the output element defines a parameter of the clutch characteristic for each of the wheels of the first and second inputs for each wheel according to the but the relationship characteristics of the clutch for each wheel.

X9) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X6, in which the specified wheel of the vehicle is an unmanaged wheel (for example, the rear wheel).

X10) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X9, where the element in the second input includes an element (module or stage) calculate a second force on the wheel (for example, 45 shown in Fig)to calculate the force on the wheel in the second direction, at least one of the speed of rotation around the vertical axis (for example, the speed of rotation around the vertical axis of the vehicle, is read by a sensor 2 speed of rotation around the vertical axis) and lateral acceleration (for example, lateral acceleration of the vehicle is read by a sensor 2 lateral acceleration).

X11) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X9, the system further comprises a force sensor on the wheel in the second direction (for example, wheel sensors 71 to read the force on the wheel in the second direction, and the element in the second input includes an element (module or stage) evaluation of the second force on the wheel (for example, 45 shown in Fig)to determine the force on the wheel in the second direction from the output signal of the force sensor on the wheel in the second direction.

X12) System (device or method) on l is the Boma from PPH-X11, which element in the first input includes an element calculations of the first force on the wheel (43)to calculate the force on the wheel in the first direction of the operating state (for example, speed or current value) of the actuator control longitudinal force wheel (for example, braking/drive motor 21).

X13) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X12, in which the first and second input elements are made with the ability to calculate the force on the wheel and the ratio of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel, provided that the tilt pneumatic tires is equal to zero. The force on the wheel (force on the wheel in the transverse direction, the force on the wheel in the longitudinal direction, the force on the wheel in the resulting direction) is a force acting on the wheel contact surface of the earth, and the absolute value of the force on the wheel does not become zero even when the tilt pneumatic tires is equal to zero.

X14) System (device or method according to any one of PPH-X13, in which the output element is configured to determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the ratio of the force on the wheel in the first direction and the degree of slip of the wheel in the first direction and the ratio of the force on the wheel in the second direction and the degree of slip of the wheel in the second direction according to a set of characteristics the banking relationship, "the two-input-one-output between the first input variable, represented by the first input, the second input variable, represented by the second input, and an output variable, represented by o, the characteristic relationship represents the characteristic curve of the clutch in the longitudinal direction of the wheel, when the second input variable is equal to zero, the characteristic relationship represents the characteristic curve of the clutch in the transverse direction of the wheel, when the first input variable of the first input is equal to zero, and the characteristic correlation represents the characteristic curve of the clutch in an inclined direction of the wheel, when the first input variable is not equal to zero (positive or negative), and the second input variable is not equal to zero (positive or negative).

This application is based on the original application to the Japan patent No. 2008-278033, filed October 29, 2008. The contents of this application are incorporated herein by reference. In addition, the present invention relates to the international patent application PCT/JP 2008/057452 filed April 16, 2008. The contents of this international patent application is incorporated herein by reference.

1. Device assessment friction contact surface of the earth and the vehicle for evaluating the performance scaleni the wheels of the vehicle on the surface of contact with the ground,
contains:

the module first enter to set the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the first direction, and first-degree glide wheels for vehicle wheels;

module second input to set the second entry, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and second-degree glide wheels for vehicle wheels; and

an output module to determine from the inputs given by the modules of the first and second input, the output, which is a parameter of the clutch characteristic indicating a characteristic of the traction wheels of the vehicle.

2. The device according to claim 1, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is the rate of change of force on the wheel relative to changes in the degree of slip of the wheel.

3. The device according to claim 1, wherein the output module is configured to determine the parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without using the coefficient tre the Oia surface with the earth.

4. The device according to claim 1, wherein the output module is configured to determine the adhesion characteristics of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel in the nonlinear region, in which the first force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the first degree of slip of the wheel, and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel in a nonlinear region in which a second force on the wheel varies nonlinearly with the second degree of slip of the wheel.

5. The device according to claim 1, wherein the output module is configured to determine the adhesion characteristics of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of a wheel according to a given non-linear relationship between the two input variables, represented by the two inputs and the output variable, is represented by o, and the setting of the clutch characteristic is a value representing a valid stock to limit the friction of the tires.

6. The device according to claim 5, in which a given nonlinear relationship between the input variables and the output variable has the form of one of the characteristic curved surface and mathematical formulas.

7. The device according to claim 1, in which the first degree is calgene wheel is the degree of slip of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the first force on the wheel, the second degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the second force on the wheel, the setting of the clutch characteristic is a variable representing the possibility of adhesion of the wheels of the vehicle, and an output module configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface of the earth.

8. The device according to claim 1, in which the first degree of slip of the wheels is set to a value representing the vector of the relative speed of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the first force on the wheel, a second degree of slip of the wheels is set to a value representing the vector of the relative speed of the vehicle wheels relative to the ground in the direction of the second force on the wheel, and an output module configured to determine a parameter of the clutch characteristic only of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the surface the displacement of the earth.

9. The device according to claim 1, in which:

first force on the wheel is the force on the tire acting on the tire in the first direction,

the ratio of the first force on the wheel to the first degree of slip of the wheel is the ratio of power on the bus in the first direction to the first degree of slip of the wheel,

second force on the wheel is the force on the tire acting on the tire in the second direction,

the ratio of the second force on the wheel to the second degree of slip of the wheel is the ratio of power on the bus in the second direction to the second degree of slip of the wheel,

the setting of the clutch characteristic is the gradient of the characteristic curve of the resultant force on the tire relative to the resulting degree of slip of the wheel, and the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is the degree of slip of the wheel, is formed in the direction of the combination of the first force on the wheel and a second force on the wheel, the resultant force on the tire is the combined force on the bus, which is the result of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel, and an output module configured to determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of coeff the of they the friction surface of the earth.

10. The device according to claim 9, in which the tire characteristic curve includes a linear segment in which the resultant force on the tire increases linearly from zero as the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel increases from zero in a region smaller slip, in which the resultant degree of slip of the wheel is small, and the non-linear segment, in which the resultant force on the bus varies nonlinearly as the absolute value of the resulting degree of slip of the wheel is increasing at a greater slip, in which the absolute value of the resulting degree of wheel slip increases beyond the scope of smaller slip,

the parameter characteristics of the coupling is increased from zero to the highest value of the parameter as at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases,

the highest value represents the gradient of the line segment of the characteristic curve of the bus, and

an output module configured to determine the gradient of the nonlinear segment of the characteristic curve of the tire from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the Torah force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel.

11. The device according to claim 9, in which the characteristic curve of the tire includes a tire characteristic curve in the case of a high friction road surface with higher friction, which has a higher coefficient of friction, and tire characteristic curve in the case of a low friction road surface with low friction, having a lower coefficient of friction, lower a higher coefficient of friction

the setting of the clutch characteristic is the gradient of the characteristics of the bus in case of high friction and tire characteristics in the case of low friction,

the input module is configured to determine the current value of the ratio of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel from the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel, and

an output module configured to determine the current setting of the clutch characteristic of the current values of the ratios of the forces on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheels and set the value of the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of high friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree of slip of the wheel, and the values of the gradient of the characteristic curve of the tyre in case of low friction, corresponding to the current value of the power bus and the current value of the degree RMS is Jenia wheel,
equal to each other and equal to the current value of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

12. The device according to claim 9, in which the tire characteristic curve is a characteristic curve representing the characteristic of the tire, depending on the friction coefficient of the road surface, and an output module configured to determine the gradient of the characteristic curve tires only from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel without the use of a coefficient of friction of the road surface.

13. The device according to claim 1, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is a function that is increasing, when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases from the predetermined critical value ratio.

14. The device according to item 13, in which a larger ratio exceeding a certain critical value of the ratio when at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel increases, the parameter characteristics of the clutch increases nonlinearly so that / min net is ü increasing the value of the adhesion characteristics regarding the increase of this ratio force on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel is increased.

15. The device according to item 13, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is equal to a critical value when each of the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of the slip ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is equal to the critical value of the ratio,

the parameter characteristics of the clutch is reduced below the critical value of the parameter as at least one of a ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is reduced below the critical value of the ratio, and

the parameter characteristics of the clutch is increased above a critical value of the parameter as the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel is increased above a critical value of the ratio.

16. The device according to claim 1, wherein one of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force on a wheel of the vehicle.

17. The device according to clause 16, in which, when one of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force, one of the first with apani sliding wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel, the corresponding longitudinal or the driving/braking force, is the degree of longitudinal slip, and one of the first input and the second input is a value obtained by dividing the longitudinal force or the driving/braking force on the degree of longitudinal slip.

18. The device according to 17, in which the degree of longitudinal slip is the slip velocity of the vehicle wheels.

19. The device according to claim 1, wherein one of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is a transverse power bus or power on the bus that occur during rotation acting on a wheel of the vehicle.

20. The device according to claim 19, in which, when one of the first forces on the wheel and a second force on the wheel is a transverse power bus or force occurring during rotation, one of the first degree of slip of the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel corresponding to the transverse power bus or power arising upon rotation, is the degree of cross-slide, and one of the first input and the second input is a value obtained by dividing the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, the degree of cross-slide.

21. The device according to claim 20, in which the degree of cross-slip is the slip angle of the vehicle wheels.

22. The device according to claim 1 in which the silane wheel is the resultant force of the forces on the wheel to the left and right wheels.

23. The device according to claim 1, wherein each of the first and second inputs is a dimensionless quantity, and each of the input modules made with a defined dimensionless input by dividing the balance of power on the wheel and the degree of slip of the wheel on the reference value.

24. The device according to claim 1, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is a dimensionless quantity, and an output module configured to determine dimensionless by dividing the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the reference parameter.

25. The device according to claim 1, wherein the output module is configured to determine the output of the two inputs according to a given relationship between the two inputs and the output, and the relationship between the two inputs and the output is expressed by a three-dimensional curved surface in three-dimensional coordinate system having a first axis representing the first input, which is the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and first-degree slide, a second axis representing a second input, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel, and a third axis representing the parameter of the clutch characteristic.

26. The device according A.25, in which the first axis represents a ratio of the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, and the step is no cross-slide and the ratio of the longitudinal or the driving/braking force and the degree of longitudinal slip,
and

the second axis is different from the ratio of the lateral force or the force produced by the rotation, and the degree of cross-slide and the ratio of the longitudinal or the driving/braking force and the degree of longitudinal slip.

27. The device according A.25, in which the first, second and third axes are dimensionless,

the first and the second axis is designed so that the dimensionless quantity is determined by dividing the balance of power on the wheel in the direction of each axis and the degree of slip of the wheel on the reference value, and

the third axis is designed so that the dimensionless quantity is determined by dividing the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the reference parameter.

28. The device according to claim 1, in which the input modules contain the module read the first force on the wheel to read the first force on the wheel, the module reads the first degree of slip of the wheel to read the first degree of slip of the wheel, the first division unit, to determine the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the first force on the wheel defined by a module reading the first force on the wheel, to the first degree of slip of the wheel defined by the module read the first degree of slip of the wheel, the module reads the second force nabolese, to read a second force on the wheel, the module reads the second degree of slip of the wheel to read the second degree of slip of the wheel, and the second division unit, to determine the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel by dividing the second force on the wheel defined by a module reading the second force on the wheel, on the second degree of slip of the wheel defined by the module reads the second degree of slip of the wheel.

29. The device according to claim 1, additionally containing the module reads the wheel load to determine the load on the wheel for vehicle wheels, and a modification module to modify the relationship between inputs and output in accordance with the load on the wheel defined by a module read loads on the wheel.

30. The device according to clause 29, which contains the module modifications for correcting the variation of the load on the wheel, which computes the coefficient modification in accordance with the load on the wheel, and

a modification module configured to modify each of the first and second inputs by dividing each entry by a factor modification and modification of output determined from the first and second inlets, modified thus, by multiplying the output of the factor modification.

31. The device according to item 30, in which the coefficient modification increases as the load increases on the wheel.

32. The device according to p, in which the rate of increase of the coefficient modification decreases as the load increases on the wheel.

33. The device according to claim 1, additionally containing a control module to perform control to restore the clutch to increase the setting of the clutch characteristic is greater than the specified critical value of the parameter in the critical region, in which the parameter of the clutch characteristic is less than or equal to the critical value of the parameter, and management to prevent reduction of the clutch to prevent the decrease of the parameter adhesion characteristics to a critical value of the parameter when the parameter of the clutch characteristic is in the critical region, in which the parameter characteristics of the clutch exceeds a critical value, but less than the specified threshold parameter that exceeds a critical value of the parameter.

34. The device according to p, in which the control module configured to control the state of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic exceeds the threshold value.

35. The device according to p, optionally containing module OC the NCI stability, to determine the parameter stability of the vehicle, representing the stability of the vehicle, from the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

36. The device according to p, in which the input module is configured to determine the ratio of the first force on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip for the second wheel of the vehicle and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel of the vehicle,

an output module configured to determine the adhesion characteristics of the first wheel from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel and the second ratio of the forces on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the first wheel and the setting of the clutch characteristic of the second wheel from the ratio of the first forces on the wheel and the first degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel and the ratio of the second force on the wheel and the second degree of slip of the wheel to the second wheel, and

the assessment module stability made with the possibility of estimation of parameter stability Proc. of Sportage means of the parameter characteristics of the first clutch wheel and the parameter characteristics of the second clutch wheel.

37. The device according to p, in which the first wheel and the second wheel of the vehicle are the front and rear wheels or left and right wheels of the vehicle.

38. The device according to p, optionally containing module stability control to control the vehicle in accordance with the parameter stability of the vehicle.

39. The device according to claim 1, additionally containing a module to assess the behaviour of the vehicle in order to evaluate the behaviour of the vehicle in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

40. The device according to § 39, in which the module estimates the behavior of the vehicle includes a module decomposition to decompose the parameter characteristics of the coupling on the transverse component in the transverse direction and a longitudinal component in the longitudinal direction, and the assessment module of the behavior of the vehicle includes at least one assessment module longitudinal behavior to assess the longitudinal behavior of the vehicle in the longitudinal direction in accordance with the longitudinal component of the option characteristics of adhesion, spread through the module decomposition, and assessment module transverse behavior to evaluate the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse directed and in accordance with the transverse component parameter of the clutch characteristic spread via the module decomposition.

41. The device according to p in which the assessment module transverse behavior assesses the transverse behaviour of the vehicle in the transverse direction in accordance with the transverse component of the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the first wheel of the vehicle and the transverse component of the parameter of the clutch characteristic of the second wheel of the vehicle.

42. The device according to § 39, optionally containing module control the behavior of the vehicle to control the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the behaviour of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

43. The device according to § 42, optionally containing actuator control the behavior of the vehicle, and the control behavior of the vehicle is arranged to control the behavior of the vehicle by controlling the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle in accordance with the behaviour of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

44. The device according to item 43, in which the actuation control the behavior of the vehicle includes, Melsheimer, one of the actuator aid in the effort on the steering wheel to help in the effort on the steering wheel for the driver of the vehicle, the actuator longitudinal control force to control the longitudinal forces of the left and right wheels of the vehicle, and the actuator control angle of rotation of the wheels to control the angle of rotation of the wheels of the vehicle.

45. The device according to item 43, in which the module control the behavior of the vehicle is arranged to control the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle in such a way as to increase the parameter characteristics of the clutch, when the clutch characteristic is reduced.

46. The device according to item 43, in which the module control the behavior of the vehicle is arranged to control the actuator to control the behavior of the vehicle in such a way as to reduce the slip angle of the vehicle wheels, when the clutch characteristic is reduced.

47. The device according to § 42, in which the module estimates the behavior of the vehicle is made with the possibility of evaluating the performance of the turnability of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the clutch, and the control module transport behavior among the STV is arranged to control the behavior when turning the vehicle in accordance with the characteristics of the turnability of the vehicle, assessed through module evaluation behavior of the vehicle.

48. The device according to p in which the module estimates the behavior of the vehicle is configured to estimate at least one of the trends of the demolition of the vehicle and trends of skidding of the vehicle from the parameter characteristics of the clutch, and the control behavior of the vehicle is arranged to control the behavior when turning the vehicle in such a way as to reduce the tendency of which is, at least, one of the trends of the demolition of the vehicle and trends of skidding of the vehicle, estimated by evaluator behavior of the vehicle.

49. The device according to p, optionally containing a control module torque wheels to control at least one of the braking torque and the torque of the wheel in accordance with the setting of the clutch characteristic.

50. The device according to § 49, in which the control module torque wheel configured to control at least one of the braking torque and the torque of the wheel in accordance with the longitudinal component of the parameter characteristics of the clutch.

51. The device according to § 49, optionally containing an Executive control mechanism is rutsim moment of the wheel, to control the torque of the wheel, and the control module torque wheels are made with the ability to control actuator torque control wheel.

52. The device according to § 49, in which the control module torque wheel configured to control at least one of the braking torque and the torque of the wheel in such a way as to reduce the torque of the wheel up until the parameter characteristics of the clutch becomes higher than a specified critical value of the parameter when the parameter of the clutch characteristic becomes lower than a specified critical value of the parameter.

53. The device according to § 49, in which the control module torque wheel configured to control at least one of the braking torque and the torque of the wheels so as to limit the increase in torque to the wheels when the clutch characteristic is found in the region, exceeding a certain critical value and a lower threshold.

54. The device according to § 49, in which the control module torque wheel configured to control at least one of the braking torque and the torque of the wheel thereby to increase the torque of the wheel d is as long while the setting of the clutch characteristic becomes smaller the threshold, when receiving a request of a driver of the vehicle to increase the longitudinal force when the clutch characteristic exceeds a critical value of the parameter.

55. The device according to paragraph 52, in which the preset critical value of the parameter is zero.

56. Method of assessment friction contact surface of the earth and the vehicle for evaluating the performance of the clutch wheels of the vehicle on the surface of contact with the ground, including:

the phase of the first input, to set the first input, which is the ratio of the first force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the first direction, and first-degree glide wheels for vehicle wheels;

the second input to set the second entry, which is the ratio of the second force on the wheel acting on a wheel of the vehicle on the surface of the ground contact in the second direction, different from the first direction, and second-degree glide wheels for vehicle wheels; and

the output stage to determine from the inputs given by the phases of the first and second input, the output, which is a parameter characteristic of the scene the population,
indicates the characteristic of the clutch wheels of the vehicle.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to support of parking process. Proposed control device 10 for parking device display 14 comprises interface 19 for connection with first measuring device 11 to measure parking space 41 on moving by and round said space 41. Interface 17, 18 serves for connection with second measuring device 3, 5 to register front and/or rear boundary of parking space on entering said parking space. Interface 50 serves for connection with display 14 intended for displaying the sizes of parking space 41. Image of front boundary 42 and/or rear boundary 44 of parking space 41' produced by first measuring device 11 differs from that of front boundary. 42' and/or rear boundary 44' of parking space 41 produced by second measuring device 3, 5.

EFFECT: accurate and reliable data on parking space boundaries.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises constructing automobile amplitude-phase-frequency characteristic combining Rocard model and differential equations of automobile elastic system plane motion. Automobile critical speed is defined. Automobile actual passenger capacity is defined. Mathematical model of automobile-road dynamic system is constructed. Transfer matrix is constructed. Automobile actual speed is compared with calculated critical speed. In case automobile speed exceeds critical magnitude, fuel feed to engine is terminated.

EFFECT: higher safety.

7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to automatic gear-shifting and to motorised transport facility. Proposed system comprises defining actuation of foot brake pedal, defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, and defining road slope. Neutral is automatically thrown in when brake pedal is actuated. Engine rpm is increased in idling in changing into neutral. Accelerator is locked unless gear is thrown in. Proposed system comprises means for defining actuation of foot brake pedal, means for defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, means for defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, road slope transducer, means for automatically throwing in of neutral, and accelerator lock. Motorised vehicle includes aforesaid system.

EFFECT: safe control over automatic transmission.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to automatic gear-shifting and to motorised transport facility. Proposed system comprises defining actuation of foot brake pedal, defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, and defining road slope. Neutral is automatically thrown in when brake pedal is actuated. Engine rpm is increased in idling in changing into neutral. Accelerator is locked unless gear is thrown in. Proposed system comprises means for defining actuation of foot brake pedal, means for defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, means for defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, road slope transducer, means for automatically throwing in of neutral, and accelerator lock. Motorised vehicle includes aforesaid system.

EFFECT: safe control over automatic transmission.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to automatic gear-shifting and to motorised transport facility. Proposed system comprises defining actuation of foot brake pedal, defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, and defining road slope. Neutral is automatically thrown in when brake pedal is actuated. Engine rpm is increased in idling in changing into neutral. Accelerator is locked unless gear is thrown in. Proposed system comprises means for defining actuation of foot brake pedal, means for defining the possibility of keeping vehicle in safe position for throwing neutral in, means for defining stationary position of vehicle with neutral in, road slope transducer, means for automatically throwing in of neutral, and accelerator lock. Motorised vehicle includes aforesaid system.

EFFECT: safe control over automatic transmission.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to power supply system for electric vehicle and to vehicle. Proposed system first means of reading out relative arrangement of power transmitter and power receiver, first vehicle guidance control means, second means of reading out the distance between power transmitter and power receiver, and second vehicle guidance control means. Power transmitter is located on ground. Power receiver is mounted on vehicle body bottom. Proposed vehicle comprises power receiver, first power transmitter position readout unit, first vehicle guidance control unit, second unit to read out the distance between power transmitter and power receiver, and second vehicle guidance control unit. First readout unit comprises frame grabber to fix images outside the vehicle. Frame grabber to identify position of power transmitter.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of parking.

15 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electromechanical transmission used, particularly, in hybrid power plants. Stepless electromechanical transmission comprises engaging one shaft of two-way electrical machine with primary engine and second shaft with engine drive. Winding terminals of both shafts are connected via reversible transducer to take off or to output electric power from DC power accumulator. Two-way machine first and second shafts may revolve relative to each other and have multiphase windings with brushes to allow connection between windings and frequency inverter.

EFFECT: simplified design.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hybrid drive of hybrid vehicle. Hybrid drive comprises internal-combustion engine, electric machines, electric energy accumulator. Current converters are matched with electric energy accumulator and with each electric machine. Current converters matched with electric machines are integrated and form modular unit. Current converter unit has the main module. The main module has current converters and connections for current converter module cooling, fixtures to attach current converter module to body structure, connection to create electric contact with current converter, connection create electric contact with the first electric machine. Current converter unit has the additional module. Additional module is made capable to be connected with the main module. Additional module has current converter and connection to create electric contact with the second electric machine. Additional module can be cooled by means of the main module, be attached to body structure by means of the main module and electrically connected to electric accumulator current converter by means of the main module.

EFFECT: providing possibility to create packaged design of hybrid drive components.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method to increase power coefficient of a device comprising a diode or a thyristor rectifier and a collector electric motor consists in the fact that at the moment of 0-2 ms after transition of grid voltage via zero, field suppression is started, and at the moment of 2-7 ms after transition of voltage via zero field suppression is stopped. To shunt an excitation winding, a switch may be used in a mode of width-pulse modulation. The device to realise the method comprises a transformer, a diode or a thyristor rectifying bridge, a collector electric motor comprising an anchor and an excitation winding, one or more resistors of field suppression, one or more switches. A field suppression resistor may be arranged with an intermediate lead, or as comprising two resistors, and a switch may be connected in parallel to one of the resistor parts. Switches may be IGBT transistors (modules). The device may be installed onto an AC electric locomotive.

EFFECT: higher power coefficient.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in the power conversion device the second control unit (100) includes the current control command shaping unit (10) shaping the electric motor (6) current control command based on the torque control command T*, the voltage amplitude index calculation unit (150) that calculates the voltage amplitude index (PMF-modulation factor) based on the current control command, the current control commands adjustment unit (80) shaping the value of current control commands adjustment dV based on the PMF-modulation factor and the electric motor (6) frequency FINV and the unit (50) for shaping pulse duration modulation signals/voltage control commands including the ripple suppression signal shaping unit shaping the ripple suppression signal based on DC voltage EFC to suppress the ripple component of the power source 2f-component for shaping a gate signal ( pulse duration modulation signal) into the inverter.

EFFECT: ensuring suppression of the power source 2f-component combined with simultaneous suppression of current overload shaping or excessive torque ripple in an AC electric motor wherein a single-pulse mode is used.

20 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in automotive brake systems. Proposed brake controls pressure control valve in response to brake pedal depress force to adjust hydraulic pressure and its feed into braking cylinders. Main shut-off valve opens and closes first high-pressure pipe that feeds hydraulic pressure from main cylinder to working braking cylinders. External pressure feed pipe feeding control pressure to pressure control valve communicates with aforesaid first high-pressure tube on the side of main shut-off valve, nearby working braking cylinders.

EFFECT: higher reliability and safety, simplified design, decreased weight.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brakes at railroad rolling stock. Proposed brake comprises electromagnet, wheel or wheel center with poles made of magnetic material arranged thereon. Poles of wheel or wheel center are located between electromagnet poles. Transducers of position of wheel or wheel center poles are arranged along the circle nearby electromagnet plunger poles. Outputs of said pickups are connected to control device inputs. Control device output is connected to input of switch connecting electromagnet winding to power supply. Another input of control device is connected to output braking instruction source.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

12 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electromechanical disc brake includes brake disc and electromagnet. Poles made from magnetic material are provided on brake disc. Electromagnet is fixed on trolley. Brake disc is arranged between electromagnet poles. Brake disc pole position sensors are arranged in circumferential direction near core poles. Sensor outputs are connected to inputs of control device. Output of control device is connected to input of switching device connecting the electromagnet winding to electric power supply. Output of braking mode activation command source is connected to the other input of control device.

EFFECT: improving reliability of brakes.

14 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brakes at railroad rolling stock. Axial electromechanical brake comprises poles of mounted axle and electromagnet. Electromagnet comprises winding and core with poles made on its ends. Poles are arranged with minimum air gap above poles of mounted axle. Pickups of mounted axle pole position are arranged along the circle on both sides of electromagnet core poles. Outputs of said pickups are connected to control device inputs. Control device output is connected to input of switch connecting electromagnet winding to power supply. Another input of control device is connected to output braking instruction source.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

9 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brake control systems of wheeled vehicles. Braking path determination device is used to measure vehicle speed and to determine sign of acceleration. Negative acceleration is used to generate and memorise ''Braking start'' signal. Vehicle braking mode is selected by depressing brake pedal to output signals to full braking path indicator. Distance to ahead vehicle is determined to define safe approach distance. Safe distance variation dynamics and dangerous approach moment are determined to generate dangerous approach signal to indicator of dangerous approach and intensive braking signal to intensive braking indicator. Braking path determination device comprises speed transducer, computer, full braking path indicator, distance determination unit, dangerous approach determination unit, dangerous approach indicator and intensive braking indicator.

EFFECT: higher safety.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to transport facility control appliances and to method of control thereof. Proposed device comprises computing means to compute required wheel driving moments and means to set first said and second said moments. First moment values consists of braking moment caused by friction brought about be wheel by friction control means. Second moment consists of drive moment and regenerative braking moment generated by wheel via one drive motors. Proposed method consists in computing required wheel driving moments and setting first and second moments.

EFFECT: improved control due to use of motors of every wheel.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates method for distributing braking pressure among axles of vehicle with hydraulic brakes. Proposed method consist in that braking pressure is distributed among axles depending upon difference in wheel rotational speed or that in wheels slippage on axles. To adjust distribution of braking pressure, overrun of preset limit value due to difference in wheels rotational speed or that in wheels slippage on axles. Proceeding from braking pressure on rear axle and vehicle deceleration vehicle after previous braking critical value of deceleration is defined. At critical values of deceleration, braking pressure on rear axle is lower than preset braking pressure limit.

EFFECT: higher vehicle stability at maximum braking force.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine-building industry, and namely to control methods of traction wheel slip of transport vehicles. Method consists in subsequent modes of slowdown of traction wheel with higher wheel slip coefficient and motor power control mode at available mismatch of kinematic parameters of traction and a driven wheels of the specified threshold value. When traction wheels reach the specified threshold mismatch value, the independent mode of traction wheel slowdown is selected with higher slip coefficient till those parameters are equal. When slip value of non-slowdown traction wheel exceeds the slip value of slowdown traction wheel, break release of the latter is performed till the specified threshold mismatch value. When mismatch of kinematic parameters of traction and driven wheels exceeds the threshold value and at equality of slips of traction wheels there selected is independent control mode of motor power.

EFFECT: higher operating efficiency of anti-skid systems wheeled vehicles.

4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for determining the ability of the driver of a vehicle to choose a brake system. The vehicle comprises at least a first and a second brake system, and during braking, the driver can influence the choice of the brake system. The device comprises apparatus for obtaining, during braking, for each brake system, at least one parameter value representing the usage of the brake system during braking, and apparatus for receiving a parameter representing the total usage of a plurality of brake systems during braking. This parameter represents energy dissipated during braking, and the device comprises apparatus for comparing, at least for the first brake system, usage of the brake system with the total usage of the brake systems of the vehicle during braking to assess the ability of the driver to use the brake system.

EFFECT: invention enables assessment of the ability of the driver to properly control brake systems of a vehicle.

12 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive and railway safe braking systems. Proposed system comprises setter 8, control processor 3, actuator 7 and accelerometre 6. Processor allows measuring time interval between braking instruction generator by setter and relevant response at accelerometer output. Accelerometre is connected to second output of control processor. Said response is compared with preset time interval for generation of fault signal from results of comparison and/or changes in braking system operating conditions.

EFFECT: higher-safety braking systems.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in automotive brake systems. Proposed brake controls pressure control valve in response to brake pedal depress force to adjust hydraulic pressure and its feed into braking cylinders. Main shut-off valve opens and closes first high-pressure pipe that feeds hydraulic pressure from main cylinder to working braking cylinders. External pressure feed pipe feeding control pressure to pressure control valve communicates with aforesaid first high-pressure tube on the side of main shut-off valve, nearby working braking cylinders.

EFFECT: higher reliability and safety, simplified design, decreased weight.

6 cl, 5 dwg