# Method of limiting automobile speed depending upon number of its passengers

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises constructing automobile amplitude-phase-frequency characteristic combining Rocard model and differential equations of automobile elastic system plane motion. Automobile critical speed is defined. Automobile actual passenger capacity is defined. Mathematical model of automobile-road dynamic system is constructed. Transfer matrix is constructed. Automobile actual speed is compared with calculated critical speed. In case automobile speed exceeds critical magnitude, fuel feed to engine is terminated.

EFFECT: higher safety.

7 dwg

The invention relates to methods for increasing active safety of vehicles and can be used in automotive vehicles.

The known method stability control of the vehicle, designed to limit the speed of movement of vehicles (see patent RU 2285626, bull. No. 29 dated 20.10.2006), based on the construction of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vehicle system (figure 1) and adopted for the prototype.

For the reason that impede the achievement of specified following technical result of applying a known way speed limits, taken as a prototype, is not taking into account the changes of dynamic characteristics of the vehicle depending on the number of passengers.

The technical result - the maximum speed limit linear movement of the vehicle by the condition of stability to reflect changes in the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle depending on the load of passengers.

The lower the critical speed of the vehicle occurs while loading its passengers, and driving on a road surface with a low rigidity, for example on a dirt road.

The peculiarity lies in the fact that the proposed method will limit the maximum speed based on the frequency stability criteria, which uses a dynamic model of the vehicle, based on its load of passengers.

The invention consists in the following: the maximum vehicle speed is controlled depending on the load of passengers.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a structural diagram of the prototype; figure 2 - proposed structural diagram; figure 3 - algorithm of the electronic device (microchip) determine the critical speed of the vehicle; figure 4 is the corresponding amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics (afch) of the vehicle; figure 5 - pulse transition function; figure 6 shows a scheme of the device determine the hardness of the road surface; 7 - atch λ_{1}loaded and not loaded passenger car.

The method is implemented as follows (figure 2): each shock absorber car is sensor 1, which is removed to change the length of the shock absorber Δx in the static condition of the vehicle, which shows the actual load of the vehicle passengers. Readings from sensors 1 and serves on the microchip 2 onboard computer. In the microchip 2 signal is converted into transfer function. In the microchip 2 data came ω sensor frequency of revolution of the crankshaft 3 of the gearbox of the vehicle on the vehicle speed V. In the microchip 2 is determined by the critical speed the car is moving, ν_{
kr}for the actual loading of vehicle with passengers. Then these values are processed and compared with the values of the actual vehicle speed and the reference values for the load of a car. Data mismatch is converted into a control signal, which is fed to the electronic control unit 4 of the fuel injection system.

The electronic control unit 4 fuel injection, receiving such a signal, completely stops the issuance of the command pulses to the fuel injector 5, the latter thereby stops the fuel supply to the cylinders of the engine 6, providing a braking process of the vehicle.

If the value of the instantaneous vehicle speed approaches the critical speed, the microchip 2 begins to produce the control pulse which is passed to the driving panel and then on the display panel 7 in the car (the warning signal for the driver).

The algorithm for calculating the critical speed based on the frequency stability criteria and are presented in figure 3 [patent RU 2285626, bull. No. 29 dated 20.10.2006]. The critical speed is calculated in the microchip 2 (figure 2).

In addition, in the computer memory are constant parameters rigidity of the tire in the lateral direction H_{T1}and H_{T2}the coefficients of their withdrawal β_{1}and β_{2}the distance from the axis to the center of gravity is*
a*_{1},*a*_{2}determined for each car individually and are placed in the source data of the program that implements the speed limit.

Theoretical information, confirming the ability of the invention to provide the above technical result are as follows.

Consider the elastic system of the vehicle as a linear system. Input system of speed limits by road profile serves a random signal, which in the first approximation we consider white noise. The car is equipped with an electronic system having four sensor.

The signal fed to the microchip 2, defining the variable component of the impulse transient function of the object and generating a control signal on the power system.

In the microchip 2 of the differential equation is transformed by Laplace with nonzero initial conditions. The resulting system of equations to solve for p=iω, where p is the parameter of the Laplace transform; ω is the frequency parameter. Build arch system (figure 4). The transition process (figure 5) is determined using an inverse Laplace transform, using numerical integration or view arch in the form of vibrational levels.

The main assumptions of the proposed method of calculation:

1. Fluctuations units, caused by a disturbance going on the t in the direction of action of the perturbation.

2. Due to the small displacements of the centres of inertia of the magnitude of the moments of inertia are assumed to be constant.

3. Not taken into account the elastic deformation of the aggregates.

4. Units of the vehicle are represented by a solid body, mounted on a rigid frame by means of elastic supports. Characteristics of the isolation pad (stiffness and damping) are linear.

5. Neglect the mutual vibrations of the vehicle, caused by operation of the engine.

Nonholonomic connection of the tyres on the road is an important characteristic describing the lateral sliding of the tires on the road surface. For example, the lateral force F applied to the wheel, causing the deviation of the projection of the center of the wheel on the road surface from the center of the site of contact with the road profile by the amount Δ (6). At a certain hardness H wheels Δ is a measure of the force F, as F=HΔ. If the wheel is rolling, the deformation Δ generates a proportional angle of lateral tilt of the wheel, which is determined by the ratio ε=βΔ, where β is a coefficient that depends only on the geometry of the deformed wheel.

Then the equations of nonholonomic constraint of the tires and the road surface is written in the form [ROKER, And Instability in mechanics. The hire. The planes. Suspension bridges. - M.: Publishing house of foreign literature, 1959. - 288]:

;

,

where X, x Θ,
θ is linear and angular displacement, respectively, of the frame and tires; a_{1}, a_{2}- the distance from the position of the center of gravity to front and rear axles; β_{1}that β_{2}is the coefficient of deformation of tyres in the front and rear axles; V - speed of movement of the car.

Combining the model rocare [Sankin, YU.N.. Non-stationary problem of the dynamics of rod systems under sudden loading and the collision with the obstacle // Vestnik of Samara state technical University. The mathematical series. Samara. No. 1(5). 2007. C-100] and differential equations of plane motion of the elastic system of the car, get the following equations of motion:

where M is the mass of the frame of the vehicle; m_{i}is the mass of the attached unit of the vehicle; J - moment of inertia of the frame of the vehicle; (J_{i}- moment of inertia of the attached unit of the vehicle; X_{i}Θ_{i}linear and angular displacement of parts of the vehicle; H_{1}H_{2}- the lateral stiffness of the tires of the front and rear axis; r is the number of elastic connections between the frame and the Assembly of the vehicle [Sankin, YU.N., Guryanov, M.V. Directional stability of the vehicle. Proceedings of the IX International Chetaevsky conference "Analytical mechanics, stability and equation of motion", dedicated to the 105th anniversary Ngeative. Irkutsk. 2007 - S. 209-223].

To research your own vehicle is in motion, moving with velocity V, we take F=0, M=0.

<> Model rocare corresponds to the first two equations of system (1) without regard to the additional degrees of freedom. They are replaced by the matrix equation:where M, B, C are respectively the matrices of mass, energy dissipation and stiffness. Matrix

,

,.

u is the vector of displacements of the car; F_{t}- vector disturbing forces in the transverse direction, is equal to the product of the kinematic perturbationsthe matrix C:

.

Transfer function of the elastic system of the car is built on arch in the form of a series of oscillating links [Sankin, YU.N.. The finite element method in dynamics of viscoelastic systems in the space of Laplace transforms // Proceedings of the middle Volga mathematical society. - 2006. - Vol.8, No. 2. - C-33], assuming the input exposure kinematic perturbation of I_{K}i.e. based on the structure model rocare:

,

where T_{n2}, T_{n1}accordingly, the inertial time constant and the time constant of the damping of the n-th vibrational level;

- the matrix gain of the n-th vibrational level

that is bonaca

,

N is the number of significantly manifested turns APCH; u_{n}- n-I own form of vibrations. Time constants of vibrational links found on characteristic points arch [Sankin, YU.N.. The finite element method in dynamics of viscoelastic systems in the space of Laplace transforms // Proceedings of the middle Volga mathematical society. - 2006. - Vol.8, No. 2. - C-33].

Second, the transfer matrix is described by equations of the nonholonomic constraintwhere

where β_{1}that β_{2}is the coefficient of deformation of tyres in the front and rear axles; a_{1}, a_{2}the distances from the front and rear axle to position the center of gravity.

The total transfer matrix H of the system is the product W(iω) and W_{2}:

H=W(iω)·W_{2}.

Harmonic impact is applied perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the vehicle at the point adopted for the pole, measure the kinematic parameters of the oscillations, the displacement of the center of mass and angular fluctuations, then applied a pair of forces acting on pole and also changing the harmonic law, and also measure the kinematic parameters of the movement of the center of mass and the angular oscillation about the center of mass [Sankin, YU.N., Guryanov, M.V. Directional stability of the vehicle. Proceedings of the IX International is Maevskii conference "Analytical mechanics, stability and equation of motion", dedicated to the 105th anniversary Ngeative. Irkutsk. 2007 - S. 209-223]. Register afch measured kinematic parameters, further arch build a matrix of transfer functions in the form:

,

where W_{11}(iω) - atch linear displacement of the center of mass, W_{22}(iω) - atch angular displacement of the center of mass, W_{12}(iω) and W_{21}(iω) - cross-arch.

Record the characteristics of the frequency - extreme point arch, corresponding to the minimum value of the imaginary part of ω_{n}the maximum value of the real part of ω_{nmax}. For fixed values of ω_{n}and ω_{nmax}determine time constants [Sankin, YU.N.. The finite element method in dynamics of viscoelastic systems in the space of Laplace transforms // Proceedings of the middle Volga mathematical society. - 2006. - Vol.8, No. 2. - C-33]:

;,

where T_{n2}, T_{n1}- inertia constant and damping constant of the n-th vibrational level.

Transfer function, which is the mathematical model of the elastic system are in accordance with previously described methods (figure 4).

Homogeneous system of equations describing the directional movement of the vehicle, has the form:

(W_{∑2}(p)-I)u_{I}=0,

where I is dinica matrix.

The condition of equality to zero of the determinant of the matrix W_{∑}(p) when p=iω is a sufficient condition for stability of the dynamic system of the vehicle in a linear setting. This means that no eigenvalue λ=λ(iω) of the transfer matrix should be equal to the unit.

Considering the dynamic stability of the system in the linear setting [Sankin, YU.N.. The finite element method in dynamics of viscoelastic systems in the space of Laplace transforms // Proceedings of the middle Volga mathematical society. - 2006. - Vol.8, No. 2. - C-33]. An instability determinant of the matrix H-I, where I is the identity matrix, must equal zero. If the movement is steady, no eigenvalue of the matrix H should not equal 1. The characteristic equation for the case in question:

.

Revealing the keys to get the quadratic equation:

according to which build arch λ_{1}and λ_{2}determine the critical speed of the vehicle by varying the value of the speed V of the transfer matrix, W_{2}where atch the corresponding value λ crosses the real axis at a point equal to 1, and then compare the value of the actual vehicle speed with the calculated value of the critical speed and if the speed of the car is obile more critical,
the fuel in the engine cylinder 6 completely stopped.

The locus for the roots of the characteristic equation (2) is shown in Fig.7. Graphically this means that the locus of the roots of the characteristic equation should not cover the unit. The rate at which the root locus crosses the value of the unit is critical. For the numerical test was used baseline data for UAZ 3160, and was adopted person's weight 80 kg figure 5 presents afch obtained by numerical integration. According to Fig.7. the critical speed of the vehicle without passengers (dashed curve) V_{kr}=44.7 m/s (120,8 km/h), and passengers (solid curve) - V_{kr}=34,9 m/s (94,3 km/h).

A method of limiting vehicle speed depending on the number of passengers, consisting in the construction of the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of the vehicle (afch) dynamic model of the vehicle, which combines the model rakara and differential equations of plane motion of the elastic system of the vehicle, with the subsequent determination of the critical speed, characterized in that it further sensors on the bumpers of the car are removed features that show the actual load of the vehicle passengers, build a mathematical model of dynamic C is theme of the car-the road taking into account the workload of the passengers,
build the transfer matrix N:

H=W(iω)·W_{2},

where

T_{n2}, T_{n1}accordingly, the inertial time constant and the time constant of the damping of the n-th vibrational level;

- the matrix gain of the n-th vibrational levellabeling

N is the number of significantly manifested turns APCH;

β_{1}that β_{2}the coefficients of deformation of tyres in the front and rear axles;

a_{1}and_{2}the distances from the front and rear axles to the position of the center of gravity;

V - vehicle speed,

and dynamic stability of the vehicle, loaded with passengers, determine the roots of the characteristic equation having the form:

where W_{Σij}, i, j=1, 2 are the components of the matrix W_{Σ}=H, according to which build arch λ_{1}and λ_{2}determine the critical speed of the vehicle by varying the value of the vehicle speed V in the transfer matrix, W_{2}where atch the corresponding value λ crosses the real axis at a point equal to 1, and then compare the value of the actual vehicle speed with the calculated value of the critical speed of the vehicle and if / min net is ü car more critical,
the fuel in the cylinder of the engine is completely stopped.

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