Adaptive control of milling machine drive

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: adaptive system for movement of a construction machine measures counteracting forces applied by soil surface to a milling drum, and in response to measured changes of these counteracting forces it controls a moving force fed to a moving drive of the machine, or moderates speed of lowering of a rotary milling drum.

EFFECT: early and quick detection of such changes in counteracting forces makes it possible for a control system to assist in prevention of forward or backward list phenomena accordingly in a construction machine.

21 cl, 9 dwg

 

The present invention, in General, relates to systems control drive for construction machines, including milling drum, such as milling machines, tunneling machines for public works or machinery for soil stabilization/recycling of pavement. Adaptive control system driving the actuator for such machines helps prevent phenomena roll forward when the machine operates in the mode of climb milling.

During normal operation of the construction machine having a milling drum, it is necessary that the driver was able to maintain control while moving the machine forward and backward independently of the operation of the milling drum. If the opposing forces applied by the ground surface to the milling drum, exceed the control force applied to the milling drum by mass, the driving force and braking force of the construction machine, it may occur the phenomenon of roll forward or backward construction machinery. If the construction machine is in mode associated milling, counter rotating milling drum forces can cause roll construction machine forward, or if the rotating milling drum mode counter milling, counter rotating milling drum, the force can cause roll construction machines ago. And if the construction machine is in the process too rapid lowering of the treated area, counter rotating milling drum power can cause roll construction machine forward or backward depending on the mode of milling, i.e. climb milling mode or counter mode milling.

Systems of the prior art typically have similar adverse events, identifying the phenomenon after it happened, and then shutting down the operating system of the machine. Examples can be seen in U.S. patent 4,929,121 in the name of Lent and others; US patent 5,318 .378 in the name of Lent; and U.S. patent 5,879,056 name Breidenbach.

The objective of the invention is to improve the system to maintain control of construction machines with milling drums, and in particular to reduce or completely eliminate the occurrence of phenomena roll (roll forward or back).

This task is achieved by using the methods in paragraph 1 or 2 of the claims or devices by paragraphs 9 or 10 of the claims.

In the first embodiment, a method for regulation of the construction machine having a frame, a milling drum supported by the frame for milling a ground surface, a multitude of interacting with the earth supports interacting with the surface is part of the ground and the support frame, and driving the actuator associated with at least one of interacting with the earth poles to ensure the driving force of at least one interacting with the earth pole. The method includes the following steps, which are:

Milling drum trigger mode climb milling (step a). The driving force serves for driving the actuator construction and move the car forward with the speed of advance (step b). Measured parameter corresponding to the opposing force acting on the milling drum (stage C). Determine the change of the parameter, corresponding to the increase in the opposing force (stage d). In response to determining the change, and with continued actuation of the milling drum in climb milling mode, reduce the driving force transmitted to the motivational drive to reduce the speed of the stroke and thereby reduce resistance to prevent the phenomenon of roll forward (step e).

In the second embodiment, a method for regulation of the construction machine having a frame and a milling drum supported by the frame for milling a ground surface. The milling drum is rotating (step a). The rotating milling drum is lowered relative to the ground surface (step b). Measured parameter corresponding to the opposing force of the action is tried on the milling drum (stage C). Determine the change of the parameter, corresponding to the increase in the opposing force (stage d). In response to determining the change and during the continued rotation of the milling drum slow down the speed of lowering of the milling drum, thereby preventing the phenomenon of roll forward or backward (step e).

Step (e) of the first or second variant implementation may additionally include applying braking force to to at least one of interacting with the earth supports. Preferably, this is carried out in step (e).

Step (e) of the first variant implementation may optionally include prevention of exceeding the speed of advance of the construction machine on the selected operating speed. Construction machine preferably includes a housing milling drum, milling supporting the drum on the frame, at step (C) of the first variant implementation of the measured parameter is an output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame or on the housing of the milling drum.

At the stage (C) at least one strain gauge may be oriented so that the measured value corresponds to a component of the counter force, oriented essentially perpendicular to the surface of the soil.

On ENISA least one strain gauge may also be oriented essentially perpendicular to the surface of the soil.

The measured parameter may represent the output signals from at least two strain sensors located on opposite sides of the frame or housing of the milling drum.

Alternatively, the measured parameter may be an output signal from a torque sensor functionally associated with the frame and/or milling drum.

In any of the above alternative embodiments can be measured the pressure in the hydraulic power cylinder connecting one of interacting with the earth supports to the frame; and if the measured pressure in the hydraulic power cylinder falls below a preset value, the operation of the milling drum is stopped.

In an additional alternative embodiment, the measured parameter at the step (C) may be an output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame, which measures the bending of the frame.

The measured parameter at the step (C) may also be a load in at least one bearing support for rotation of the milling drum on the frame.

Step (d) of the first and second embodiments may additionally include determining whether there is countervailing power within the operating range of the it, established as a range of percentages of the weight of the construction machine, and the range is limited to a lower bound greater than 0%, and the top border, less than 100%; and step (e) may additionally include a reduction in the rate of promotion or slow lowering of the milling drum only, if the opposing force is within or above the operating range.

Step (e) of the first variant implementation may additionally include a reduction in the rate of progress in a linear ratio to the opposing force over the entire operating range. Step (e) of the first and second embodiments alternatively may additionally include a reduction in the driving force for driving the actuator to zero or stop lowering the rotating milling drum in the ground surface, if the opposing force is equal to or larger than the upper limit of the working range.

As an example, at the step (d) the lower bound is at least 50%, and the upper limit is not more than 95%.

At the stage (C) of the first and second embodiments, the measured parameter may be an output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame or on the housing of the milling drum, or output signals from at least two t izometricheskikh sensors, located on opposite sides of the frame or housing of the milling drum, the output signal from a torque sensor functionally associated with the frame or milling drum, the output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame and measuring the bending of the frame, the load in at least one bearing support for rotation of the milling drum on the frame.

The objective is also achieved by means of signs of paragraph 9 or 10 of the claims.

In the first embodiment, the construction machine includes a frame and a milling drum supported by the frame for milling a ground surface. The milling drum is arranged to actuate the mode associated milling. From the ground surface frame supports multiple interacting with the earth supports. At least one of interacting with the earth supports associated driving the actuator for providing a driving force to promote the construction of the machine over the ground surface. A sensor configured to determine a parameter corresponding counteracting force from the ground surface, acting on the milling drum. The actuator functionally associated with the driving of the actuator to regulate the output of the driving force posledstvijami drive. A controller connected to the sensor for receiving the input signal from the sensor and connected to the actuating mechanism for sending a control signal to the actuator. The controller includes a working program that determines the change of the measured parameter, the corresponding increase in the opposing forces, and in response to the change reduces the driving force transmitted to the driving of the actuator, to help prevent the phenomenon of roll forward of the construction machine.

In the second embodiment, the construction machine includes a frame and a milling drum supported by the frame for milling a ground surface. Many of interacting with the earth supports supports the frame from the ground surface. At least one sensor configured to determine a parameter corresponding counteracting force from the ground surface, acting on the milling drum. Executive means functionally connected with the milling drum or frame for regulating the speed at which the milling drum is lowered into the ground surface. A controller connected to the sensor for receiving the input signal from the sensor and connected to the actuating mechanism for sending a control signal to the actuator. The controller includes a working program, the cat heaven determines the change of the measured parameter, corresponding to the increase in the opposing force, and in response to the change reduces the speed with which the milling drum is lowered to facilitate the prevention of the phenomenon of roll forward or backward construction machinery.

The actuating means may be an actuator associated with the driving of the actuator, or lifting actuators associated with the frame for raising or lowering of the milling drum together with the frame.

Construction machine according to both versions of the implementation may further comprise a braking system connected to one or more interacting with the earth supports; with brake system is also connected to the controller, and the working program additionally directs the brake system for the application of braking effort to help prevent the phenomenon of roll forward.

The sensor according to both versions of the construction machine may include at least one strain gauge.

At least one strain gauge may have an axis of the sensor is oriented so that at least a large part of the effort, the measured strain sensor, oriented perpendicularly to the ground surface.

At least one strain gauge may be located on the frame.

May be that is motrino at least two strain gauge on opposite sides of the frame.

Construction machine may further comprise: a housing milling drum, milling supporting the drum on the frame, the housing milling drum is at least one strain gauge.

Alternatively, on the opposite side of the housing milling drum can be provided with at least two strain gauge.

In an additional embodiment, the sensor may include at least one torque sensor.

The sensor can include at least one strain gauge attached to the frame and oriented to determine the bending of the frame.

In an alternative embodiment, the sensor may include at least one sensor on the bearing load.

The working program of the controller can determine whether there is countervailing power within the operating range that extends from the lower boundary to the upper boundary, while working program decreases in the first embodiment, the driving force for driving the actuator or decreases in the second embodiment, the speed of lowering of the milling drum in the ground surface, if the opposing force is within the operating range.

The work program can reduce the driving force to zero, if the reaction is the real power equal to or above the upper limit of the working range.

Numerous objectives, characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become clear to experts in the art when reading the following description, considered in conjunction with the attached drawings.

Figure 1 is a vertical side view of the construction machine.

Figure 2 is a schematic vertical side view showing the milling drum mode associated milling.

Figure 3 is a vertical side view of the housing of the milling drum construction of the machine of figure 1 and illustrates the position of the sensor element strain gauge on the housing milling drum above the axis of rotation of the milling drum.

Figure 4 is an enlarged image of the strain gauge installed in the housing of the milling drum in figure 3.

Figure 5 is a schematic illustration of the control system.

6 is a graphical illustration showing one example of the way in which the control system can reduce the speed of advance of the construction machine on the basis of the measured reaction forces acting on the milling drum. As shown by the dashed line, the speed of the stroke decreases linearly within the operating range, while FR is modeystviya the milling drum power increases from approximately 70% of the vehicle weight to about 90% by weight of the machine. The solid line represents the set value of the required rate of advance of the machine.

7 is a graphical representation of data taken during actual operation of the control system. The upper part of the graph shows the actual measured speed of advancement, in contrast to the setpoint speed of promotion. The lower part of the diagram shows in dotted lines the opposing force measured by strain gauge, and is different from the opposing forces in the form of a dashed line, dot-dash", which is the measurement of pressure changes inside one of the hydraulic actuators, supports one of the driving actuators.

Fig is a block diagram showing the basic principles of working of the program used by the control system in figure 5.

Fig.9 is a schematic vertical projection of a milling drum with a sensor on the bearing load.

Figure 1 shows a vertical side view of the construction of the machine is indicated in General position 10. Construction machine 10, is illustrated in figure 1, is a milling machine. Construction machine 10 may also be a machine for soil stabilization/recycling of pavement or other construction machine comprising a cutter is hydrated drum 12. Milling drum 12 is schematically illustrated in figure 2 in the interaction with the surface 14 of the ground.

Construction machine 10 of figure 1 includes a frame 16 and the housing 18 of the milling drum, attached to the frame 16. Milling drum 12 is supported rotatably inside the housing 18 of the milling drum.

Milling drum 12 of figure 2 schematically illustrates the operating mode associated milling. In climb milling mode of the construction machine 10 moves forward from left to right in the direction indicated by the arrow 20 in figure 1 and 2.

Milling drum 12 rotates clockwise, as shown by the arrow 22. Milling drum 12 has many cutters 24 are installed on it. Each of the cutters 24 in turn interacts with the surface 14 of the ground and cuts in the ground surface downward arcuate passage, such as 26. In the schematic illustration of figure 2, the cutter 24A just finished cutting arcuate passage 26A. The following cutter 24V close to the interaction with the ground surface and will be cut following the arcuate passage 26C, which is shown by dashed lines. Figure 2 is merely schematic and, as will be clear to experts in the art, the drum 12 actually has a huge number of cutters attached thereto throughout its width, and in any poper is cnom section of the drum in the direction of movement will actually be present one or two cutter. However, across the entire width of the drum 12 at any point in time with the earth can interact thirty incisors.

It should be noted that the force applied to the surface 14 of the ground blade drum 12, driven by the construction machine 10 forward in the same direction, which moves the drum construction machinery.

With reference to figure 1 of the construction machine 10 includes a multitude of interacting with the earth supports, such as 28 and 30. Interacting with the earth supports 28 and 30 are sometimes referred to as driving mechanisms, and can be either endless caterpillars, as shown, or they may represent a wheels and tires. Construction machine 10 may include one or more front interacting with the earth supports 28 and one or more rear interacting with the earth supports 30. As will be clear to experts in the field of engineering, construction machine 10 typically has three or four similar interacting with the ground support. Each interacts with the ground support, such as 28 or 30, is attached to the lower end of the hydraulic power cylinder, such as 32 or 34, to support the frame 16 from the side of the earth 14 adjustable manner. The power cylinders 32 and 34 are enclosed in a removable housing 36 and 38, which provide lift frame 16 with adjustable relative to the surface the displacement is 14 soil.

One or more interacting with the earth supports 28 and 30 will be driving the actuator, such as 40 or 42 associated with them, to provide the driving force to promote the construction of the machine 10 along the surface 14 of the ground. Driving the actuators 40 and 42 can be a hydraulic actuator or an electric actuator or any other suitable mechanism for driving the actuator. Construction machine 10 includes a cab 44 or remote control operator, in which a human operator can sit in the operator seat 46 or stand to control the operation of the construction machine 10 from 48 remote control.

In most cases, construction machines, including milling drum can operate in either mode associated milling, which is schematically illustrated in figure 2, or in the counter-milling, in which the milling drum rotates in the opposite direction. Of course, when working in the mode of counter-milling, the inclination of the cutting teeth 24 must be reversed. It should be noted that the concept of mode climb milling mode or counter milling refers to the direction of rotation of interacting with the earth supports. If the drum rotates in the same direction, in which the spin interacts with the ground support wheels or caterpillars), the machine used in the mode is knowledgeable milling. If the drum rotates in the opposite direction from the direction of interacting with the earth poles, the machine involved in the mode of the counter milling. Machine, such as shown in figure 1, which operates in the mode of climb milling when moving in the forward direction, will operate in the mode counter milling when moving in the opposite direction. The operation of the counter milling sometimes in the industry is referred to as the "counter milling, and mode of climb milling is sometimes referred to as "associated milling".

Various construction machines can be used for different working situations, the mode counter milling or climb milling. In one type of construction machines, known as machine for soil stabilization/recycling of pavement, the ground surface is milled and crushed material immediately distribute, and then re-pressed. In such machines for soil stabilization/recycling pavement is preferred mode associated milling, because he has a tendency to results in smaller particles of the ground material of the road surface than is obtained when the mode counter milling.

To begin milling cycle construction mash the Noah 10, working in climb milling mode, which is illustrated in figure 2, the construction machine moves in the desired initial position, the milling drum 12 is held in the raised position above the surface 14 of the ground. For climb milling machine milling drum 12 relative to the ground surface, usually govern by extending and retracting hydraulic actuators, such as 32 and 34. For machines for soil stabilization/recycling pavement climb milling drum 12 relative to the ground surface, usually govern by hydraulic actuators, which omit the drum relative to the frame of the machine. Milling drum 12 rotates in the direction 22, as illustrated in figure 2. The speed of rotation of the milling drum 12, as a rule, is a constant speed of approximately 100 rpm, which is determined by the operating speed of the primary power source of the machine 10, typically a diesel engine, and the kinematic chain connecting the power source through the coupling with the milling drum 12, typically, the device V-belt and pulley drive the gear reducer, enclosed within the milling drum 12. Then the rotating milling drum is lowered relative to the surface 14 of the ground until, while R is sci 24 starts cutting surface 14 of the ground. Rotary drum continue to slowly lower to the desired milling depth. Then the construction machine 10 moves forward in the direction 20 by application of the driving force to the actuator stroke, such as 40 and 42.

The depth of the cut performed by the milling drum 12, as a rule, regulate by means of a regulation system profile, which tracks the reference line, such as a guide wire or a guide groove on the earth and which maintains the necessary lifting of the cutting drum 12. The speed of advance of the machine 10 can be adjusted by a human operator located in the cab 44, and may include the set value required rate of advance in the control system. One problem sometimes encountered when using the construction machine 10 is operating in the mode associated milling, which is illustrated in figure 2, is the phenomenon of uncontrolled roll forward, in which the power applied to the milling drum 12, may cause chezjane milling drum 12 outside of the cut surface 14 of the ground, so that the milling drum actually leads the machine 10 forward. This phenomenon roll forward can occur due to the fact that the speed of the surface of the milling drum several times the speed of the wheels or HUS is SIC, causing the machine.

The work of the milling drum 12 can be described as a function of the counter force applied by the surface 14 of the ground to the milling drum 12. We can assume that the opposing force has a vertical component and a horizontal component. The vertical component of the counter force occurs mainly due to the portion of the total mass of the construction machine 10, which is supported by the interaction of the milling drum 12 with a surface 14 of the ground. The horizontal component of the counter force occurs mainly due to the driving of the actuator, promoting the drum forward into the ground. Some embodiments of the invention described in this application, considering mainly the vertical component of the counter force, but the invention is not limited only to the vertical component. Before engagement of the milling drum 12 with a surface 14 of the ground, when the milling drum 12 is held above the surface 14 of the ground, opposing force equal to zero. The whole mass of the construction machine 10 based on the various interacting with ground supports, such as 28 and 30. As lowering of the milling drum 12 into engagement with the surface 14 of the ground some part of this mass Builder is th machine 10 actually goes to the milling drum 12, and, thus, the vertical load is attributable to various interacting with ground supports, such as 28 and 30, is reduced due to the magnitude of this load, turning on the milling drum 12. If the hydraulic power cylinders 32 and 34 to be drawn into the situation, when interacting with the earth supports 28 and 30 have been completely raised above the ground, and the whole machine was based on the milling drum 12, then the vertical component of the counter force would be equal to 100% of the weight of the construction machine. Thus, during operation of the machine 10 with the milling drum 12, which interact with the surface 14 of the ground, the vertical component of the reaction forces will be somewhere between zero and 100% mass building machine. This opposing force contributed by many factors. Among other things, the data contributing factors include:

1. The condition of the cutters 24, i.e. whether they are new or worn;

2. The hardness of the material of the surface 14 of the ground, subject to milling;

3. The speed with which the machine 10 moves forward in the direction 20; and

4. Depth 50 milling, in which the milling drum is cut into the surface 14 of the ground.

Another factor that comes into action when the milling drum 12 is first lowered into engagement with the top of the spine 14 of the ground, is lowering speed, with which the rotating milling drum 12 is dipped into the surface 14 of the ground. These various factors have an impact on resistance, and below are chances of unexpected phenomena "roll forward or roll back."

With regard to the status of cutters 24, if the cutters are new and sharp, countervailing power is low, and as the wear of the incisor teeth opposing force increases.

As for the hardness of the material, the surface 14 of the ground, the harder the material, the higher opposing the milling drum 12 power. If the machine 10 is suddenly faced with the material of the road surface of high strength, the machine may lurch forward.

As for the speed of advancement, the higher the rate of advance of the cause of higher opposing the milling drum 12 forces. In addition, the closer speed to the peripheral speed at the periphery of the cutters 24, the higher the risk of the phenomenon of roll forward.

As for the milling depth, the consequence of a large milling depths are higher reaction forces. But the contribution of the milling depth in opposing force is actually the opposite impact on the probability of phenomena roll forward. Although against the forces increase at larger depths milling, for increased depth of milling, so that was a phenomenon of roll forward, milling drum must be from the depth of the cut. For deep cut milling drum more difficult to get out of the cut, and thus, the effect of a deeper cut is less likely phenomena roll forward.

Machine 10 includes an adaptive system 52 control the driving of the actuator, schematically illustrated in figure 5, which traces this opposing force acting on the milling drum 12, and assists in preventing phenomena roll forward through the regulation of one or more factors that contribute to the opposing force.

During normal operation of the construction machine 10 is most easily adjustable factor, described above, is the pace of progress, and, thus, in one embodiment, the adaptive system 52 control the driving of the actuator, in response to the measured opposing the milling drum 12 power, regulate the driving force transmitted to the driving actuator 40 and 42.

In yet another embodiment, when the rotating milling drum 12 is first lowered into engagement with the surface 14 of the ground resistance can be adjusted by regulating the speed of lowering of the blades is REGO drum 12 into the ground surface.

System 52 regulation includes at least one sensor 54, and preferably a pair of sensors 54 and 56, arranged to determine a parameter corresponding counteracting force from the side surface 14 of the ground acting on the milling drum 12. In the embodiment illustrated in figure 3 and 4, the sensors 54 and 56 are strain gauges mounted on opposite side walls of the housing 18 of the milling drum. Figure 3 and 4, the first strain gauge 54 is shown mounted in a groove 58 formed in the side wall of the housing 18 of the milling drum. The electric wires 60 connected strain gauge 54 to the controller 62. The closing plate (not shown) normally closes the groove 58 to protect the strain gauge 54 and associated wiring 60 in the process.

As best seen in figure 3 and 4, the load sensor 54 preferably has a longitudinal axis 64, which is oriented essentially vertically, so that it is essentially perpendicular to the surface 14 of the ground, and preferably is located directly above and substantially intersects the axis 66 of rotation of the milling drum 12.

It should be noted that there is no need for orientation of the strain gauge 54 vertically, and is missing neobhodimosti at the location of the strain gauge 54 directly above the axis 66 of rotation and the presence of its axis 64, crossing it. Generally speaking, the strain gauge 54 must be oriented so that at least the main part of the force measured by the strain sensor was oriented essentially perpendicular to the surface 14 of the ground.

Due to the fact that the load opposing forces working on the drum 12 may be non-uniform across its width, it is preferable to have two strain gauge 54 and 56 mounted on opposite sides of the housing 18 of the milling drum near the opposite ends of the milling drum 12, so that the combined measurement of strain gages 54 and 56 represented the opposing force acting on the milling drum 12. With regard to figure 2, it should be understood that in fact there are a large number of cutting teeth 24, in any moment of time interacting with the surface 14 of the ground. The sensors resistance force according to the present invention preferably responsive to the vertical component of the sum of all opposing forces acting on all the teeth that interact with the surface of the ground at any time. One suitable strain gauge sensor, which can be used for sensors 54 and 56, is Model DA 120 shipped ME-Meβsysteme GmbH, Hennigsdorf, Germany.

The controller 62 adopts the signals from the sensors 54 and 56 through electrical wires, such as 60. The controller 62 includes a computer or other programmable device with suitable input devices and output devices and related software, including operating software, which determines the change in the measured parameter corresponding to the increase in the opposing force, and in response to this change sends control signals through lines 68 and 70 to one or more of the actuators 72 and 74 for regulating the driving force provided by the driving of the actuator, such as 40 and 42. Actuators 72 and 74 may, for example, be an electronically-controlled valves that regulate the flow of hydraulic fluid to the hydraulic actuators 40 and 42 to control the rate of advance of the machine 10.

If the controller 62 adjusts the speed with which the milling drum 12 is lowered into the ground, actuators 72 and 74 may be an electronically-controlled valves that regulate the flow of hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic power cylinders 32, 34, which raise and lower the frame and the drum relative to the earth.

6 is a graphical depiction of the relationship between speed and counter-power, which is implemented by a variant implementation of the working program is Amma controller 62. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig.6 measured countervailing power in the form of a percentage of the total mass of the machine 10 is displayed on the horizontal axis and goes from 0% to 100%. Countervailing power 0%, shows the situation when the milling drum 12 is fully raised above the surface 14 of the ground. Opposing force equal to 100%, represents the situation when the full weight of machine 10 based on the milling drum 12 and no part of this mass is not necessary for interacting with the earth supports, for example, 28 and 30. The vertical scale on the left side of figure 6 displays the speed of advancement of the machine 10 in yards per minute. The dashed line 71 shows the adjustable speed machine 10, when the regulation using a variant of the implementation of the work program of the control system 62. The solid line 73 displays the set value of the speed of progress selected by the operator. In the example shown, the specified value is of 20.0 m/min

Figure 6 operating range 75 is limited between the bottom edge 77 and the top edge 79 on the horizontal axis. In the illustrated embodiment, the lower boundary 77 is approximately 70%, while the upper end 79 is approximately 90% of the total mass of the machine. When the opposing force is less than the lower limit of the working range is it, the speed of advance of the machine 10, which is shown by the horizontal part 71, A dotted line, is approximately equal to a given value of the speed of the stroke, selected by the machine operator. The specified value is very similar to automated speed control like device to automatically maintain the speed of the vehicle, with which the operator can select and maintain the desired constant speed by the control system.

However, the working of the program shown in Fig.6, is arranged to reduce the speed of advance, as soon as the opposing force exceeds the lower boundary of 77 operating range.

Sloping plot V the dotted line displays the required reduction rate of advance of the machine 10, which regulates the operating program of the control system 62. Line V represents a linear decrease. In other embodiments, the implementation can be used nonlinear reduction. As a continuation of the increase in measured resistance force throughout the operating range 75 from about 70% to about 90% the speed of advancement of linearly decreases from a given value of the velocity represented by the area 71, A horizontal line, to zero. Thus, for example, if the measured prativadi the corresponding power is 80%, as indicated on the horizontal axis, the rate of progress is reduced to approximately half of the setpoint speed. When measured countervailing power of approximately 90%, the rate of progress is reduced to zero. When opposing forces above the upper limit, constituting approximately 90%, the rate of progress is maintained at zero.

In some cases, when the opposing force is increased to excessive levels near or above the upper limit of 79 operating range 75, as seen in Fig.6, it can happen that even when required for movement of the power applied to the driving of the actuators 40 and 42, is reduced to zero, the force of the forward movement applied to the surface 14 of the ground rotating milling drum 12 can still continue to push the car forward. In such cases, the controller 62 may send additional control Segal on line 76 control in the brake system 78 associated with one or more interacting with the earth supports 28 and 30. The controller 62 will direct the brake system 78 for application of braking force to interacting with the ground support for additional assistance to slow the rate of advance of the machine 10.

In the embodiment, at 6 operating range 75 is illustrated, for example, in the form of continue from the bottom 7, component of approximately 70%, to the upper limit of 79 constituting approximately 90%. It should be noted that the range of 70% to 90%, is just one example of a suitable operating range, and should not be considered limiting. Generally speaking, the preferred operating range can be described as having a lower bound component of at least 50% of the weight of the construction machine, and the upper limit, which is less than 95% of the mass building machine.

It should be understood that the dashed line 71 figure 6 displays the operation mode of the control system 62 and a target speed of advancement that it tries to tell the machine 10. Dashed line in Fig.6 does not reflect the actual speed of advance of the machine 10, which will be much more volatile.

The control system 52 and the working program of the controller 62 is preferably made so that during normal operation of the machine 10 opposing force acting on the milling drum 12 will be maintained approximately at the lower end 77 of the operating range 75, such as a range, is illustrated in Fig.6. This means that the machine 10 operates with a relatively high power output, near its maximum power output, but still under control. If the machine 10 is evenly worked below the lower limit of 77 working what about the range 75, so the speed of the stroke remained constantly below its set value, the machine 10 will do less work than she can do. On the other hand, if the machine 10 is advanced so quickly that countervailing power is often exceeded the lower boundary of 77 operating range 75, will be the increased likelihood of phenomena roll forward.

It should also be noted that, as with any control system, the setpoint cannot be maintained accurately and shall be maintained within an acceptable range (which may be referred to as the deadband around the setpoint. For example, in the embodiment, where the control system tries to keep the opposing force approximately at the lower end 77 of the range, and if the deadband set plus or minus 2%spent on movement power will not decrease as long as the speed reaches 72%, and then spent on movement power will not increase as long as the speed does not fall below 68%. Ideally, the opposing force will be maintained within this dead zone required around 70% of the operating mode. Higher values of the reaction forces beyond the dead zone can be achieved only if the surface properties Grun is and will change towards a more solid surface, what can be the reason for the continuing increase of opposing forces, despite a decrease in the driving force for driving the actuator. Purpose of option implementation of the control system is to a higher boundary 79 of the control range was never reached.

It should also be noted that the linear relationship between speed and counter-power set by the controller 62, as shown by line V figure 6 is only one example of the control program. Can also be used a non-linear relationship management progressive type.

Fig is a block diagram showing the basic principles of logic used in the basic operating program executed by the controller 62. Opposing force acting on the drum 12 will be monitored on an ongoing basis, as indicated in block 110. To have the necessary speed control, which is shown by the dashed line 71 figure 6, the program will ask whether this power is below the lower limit of 77 range in block 112, or above the upper limit of 79 range in block 114. If the opposing force is within the range 75, adjustable spent on the movement of power to the supports 28 and 30 to control the speed of advancement through linear soothes the tion between opposing force and speed of promotion, shown slant line V figure 6, as indicated in block 116. If the opposing force is below the lower limit of 77, the rate of progress is maintained at or near the setpoint speed, as indicated in block 118. If the opposing force is above the upper limit of 79, to further reduce the rate of advance can be applied brake, as indicated in block 120.

7 shows graphical data representing the actual test machine 10, and the speed of the machine is advancing so installed countervailing power was constantly within the operating range 75. The horizontal axis represents the chronological time during the test, which is shown along the bottom of figure 7. The solid line 80 in the upper part of Fig.7 represents the setpoint speed of promotion, which in this example is approximately 17 m/min (Dashed line 82 represents the measured speed of advancement of the machine during the time interval represented on the horizontal axis in the lower part 7.

In the lower part of Fig.7. the dashed line 84 represents the measured resistance, defined due to the resultant action of the two strain sensors 54 and 56. It should be noted that the scale for the reaction forces shown on the left V. the Rhone lower part 7, inverted, so the downward sloping line from left to right actually shows an increase in the measured reaction forces and aimed upward sloping dashed line from left to right actually shows a decrease in the measured resistance force. As can be understood by comparing the General form of the dotted line 84 representing the measured resistance with a dashed line 82 representing the measured speed of promotion, increasing the measured reaction forces measured speed decreases. This is because the system 62 control works in accordance with the work program presented on Fig.6, in order to give a reduction in the rate of advance of the machine 10, when determined by elevated levels of opposing forces.

As can be seen from the dotted line 84, over the time interval of the test measured countervailing power remained within the operating range of 70 to 90% and, thus, throughout the test, illustrated in Fig.7, the system 62 management was involved with the possibility of using different reductions of the driving force, aimed at driving the actuators 40 and 42, providing the opportunity to work machine 10 with high efficiency, at the same time e is e and preventing the phenomenon of roll forward.

One approach of the prior art with the aim of deregulation, which is presented in U.S. patent No. 4,929,121 in the name of Lent, etc. and 5,318,378 in the name of Lent, works by measuring the pressure in one or more hydraulic struts that support the frame from interacting with the earth supports.

During the test, presented in Fig.7, two rear hydraulic reference power cylinder 34 of the testing machine was set apart as acting power cylinder, and the supporting pressure within the power cylinder measured and jointly represented by line 86 of dots-dash 7. The scale for measuring the pressure in bars line 86 is shown on the lower right side of figure 7. When comparing the measured reaction forces with the use of this system, which is represented by the dashed line 84, with the measured hydraulic pressure in the power cylinders 34, represented by the line 86 from the dot-dash, easy to understand two things.

First, measurement of the hydraulic pressure are significantly lower rate of short-term changes of opposing forces. Measurement of pressure tend to smooth out measurement of load changes, and they just don't show a rapid short-term changes. For example, following from the moment remineralization 16:36:10-16:37:40 you can see, that dotted line 84 in a generally downward numerous cases up and down movements of very short duration over the time interval. On the other hand, the line 86 from the dot-dash also has a trend downward, but short-lived phenomena completely destroyed. For example, the peak, like the one shown at point 88 on line 84, of relatively short duration, which constitutes approximately 5 seconds, no apparent action on the line 86 from the dot-dash. Thus, it is seen that the system 62 according to the present invention can respond much more quickly and with symptoms of significantly shorter duration than the system operating on the basis of the measured pressure in the hydraulic struts.

Secondly, the response when measuring the hydraulic pressure, represented by a line 86 from the dot-dash shifted in time. Thus, even changes of opposing forces, which have a sufficiently long duration to be reflected in the indicators measured pressure line 86 are not registered for a significant time after the event actually happened. For example, looking at the right side of Fig.7, there is likely to be relatively rapid increase in the opposing force, shows the price is 84, between time 16:39:40 and 16:40:00, which is the peak 90, which is reached approximately at time 16:39:55. In addition, measurement of pressure, represented by the line 86 from the dot-dash, do not reach the same level until approximately 16:40:10, as shown at point 92. Thus, there is a temporary delay of 10 to 15 seconds between the peak resistance force, which is measured with the help of this system, shown on line 84, and a later peak resistance force, which is measured as changes in hydraulic pressure in the hydraulic power cylinders, as shown by line 86.

A similar time delay can be seen when comparing plot the dotted line 84 between time 16:38:15 beginning approximately at point 94 and 16:38:55 ending approximately at point 96. Looking at line 86 of dots-dash at the same time interval, it is seen that it also has a trend in the same direction, but it is not reaching its lowest point 98 to a point in time approximately 16:39:10, which again shows approximately 15 second delay response time.

Thus, it is clear that the system according to the present invention is much more sensitive to measuring short-term changes of opposing forces than with the system, based on measuring the hydraulic pressure in the reference power cylinders. Also, the system according to the present invention reacts more quickly to any changes in the resistance force. This enables the system according to the present invention more to react quickly and effectively prevent the phenomenon of roll forward, while systems like the systems of the prior art can detect phenomena only after they have already occurred.

There is reason to believe that there are several reasons why the system according to the present invention reacts more quickly to changes in the opposing forces, than a system based on measuring the pressure in the hydraulic power cylinders, a supporting frame.

The first reason is the mechanical inertia. For a system that measures changes in hydraulic pressure in the power cylinders, a supporting frame, essentially all of the construction machine 10 must move in order to influence the pressure in the power cylinders. In contrast, sensors, such as sensors 54 and 56, measure change efforts milling drum 12 directly on the housing 18 of the milling drum, and thus, there is no need to pass through the frame for the actual lifting of the machine 10. Therefore clicks the zoom, there is a need in the reaction, only the milling drum inside the machine and not in the reaction of the machine 10 as a whole, which provides a significantly lower mechanical inertia for physical movement required to cause the reaction of the sensors.

Secondly, due to the friction of the power cylinders 32 and 34 and retractable housings 36 and 38, there is a significant damping factor. In relation to this damping factor must also consider the concept of intermittent friction against smooth friction. As you know, takes more effort initially to overcome the friction in the power cylinders 32 and 34 and the cylindrical housings 36 and 38 than is required to continue the motion required to reflect the increase of pressure changes. Thus, relatively small changes in the reaction force may be insufficient to overcome the intermittent friction provided power cylinders and cylindrical shells, and thus, these relatively small changes will never be seen when measuring the pressure in the power cylinders.

The third factor is the physical deformation of the power cylinders 32 and 34 and their cylindrical housings 36 and 38, which occurs when the machine 10 make heavy workloads. It must be remembered that the present system has a capability of functioning with the opposing force of a relatively high level in the range such as, for example, from 70 to 90% of the total mass of the machine 10. This happens when the machine 10 moves forward approximately its maximum potential. Due to the configuration of the machine 10 and vertical support of the power cylinders 32 and 34, it is necessary to consider that, when the machine 10 moves forward under heavy load, there will be physical bending of cylindrical shells 36 and 38, which will significantly increase the friction present in the composite data elements, and further reduce their ability to accurately and quickly reflect changes in the opposing forces in the form of changing pressure in the power cylinders, and free play between the power cylinders and their cases.

Another difficulty with the use of pressure measurements in hydraulic power cylinders for determining changes in the opposing forces, the loading of the milling drum, is that such pressure measurement can be reliably produced only from the current separate hydraulic power cylinder. However, with the construction machine, the construction machine 10, as a rule, it is necessary that at least the front and rear power cylinders was a pair acting power cylinders to ensure proper regulation of the position of the machine 10 on the surface 14 of the ground. So about what atom, these pressure from the hydraulic power cylinder will tend to come only from the front and rear actuators. Due to the fact that changes of opposing forces cannot equally be reflected in the front and rear parts of the machine, the system, based on the measurement of pressure changes in the reference power cylinders only the front or rear, will be less accurate than a system that measures the resistance in the position next to the milling drum 12. Thus, the system according to the present invention having sensors 54 and 56 generally directly above and on opposite sides of the milling drum 12 may respond to a change in the entire load on the milling drum, whereas a system based on measurement of pressure changes either in front or in rear of the supporting cylinder may not see all the change that occurs in the milling drum.

Although in the embodiment described above, each of the sensors 54 and 56 is a strain gauge, such as illustrated in figure 3 and 4, each of the sensors 54 or 56 can alternatively be represented as a torque sensor.

A torque sensor is an electronic device, i.e. the Converter is used to convert the violence into an electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and occurs in two stages. For the mechanical configuration of the measured force, usually deforms the one or more strain sensors. Strain gauge transforms deformation, i.e. strain into electrical signals. A torque sensor usually includes four strain gauge, such as, for example, in the configuration of the Wheatstone bridge. Also suitable torque sensors from one or two strain sensors. The output electrical signal is typically of the order of a few millivolts and often requires strengthening by means of the measuring amplifier before it can be used. The output signal of the transducer is inserted into the algorithm to calculate the effort required for a torque sensor.

Although torque sensors, strain gauge type are the most common, there are also other types of torque sensors that can be used. In some industrial use cases are used for hydraulic or hydrostatic torque sensors, and they can be used to eliminate some of the problems that the available torque sensors based on strain gauges. As an example, water is practical torque sensor is immune to transient voltages, such as lightning, and may be more effective in some environments.

Some other types of torque sensors include piezoelectric torque sensors and string torque sensors.

In yet another alternative embodiment, the sensors, types of sensors 54 and 56 may be located on the frame 16, and not on the housing 18 of the milling drum. The provision of such a sensor 54A is schematically shown in figure 1. Such sensors should preferably be performed in the same manner as the sensors 54 and 56 described above, and preferably should be located directly above the milling drum 12 and is oriented in a manner analogous to that described above for sensors 54 and 56.

In the second alternative sensors strain gauge type, such as W' and/or 54B can be located on the frame 16 and can be oriented in such a way as to measure the bending of the frame 16. Thus, in figure 1, the first sensor W' is shown with a location on the frame 16 in position between the cutter drum and the front pillar 28 and the second sensor V is shown with a location on the frame 16 between the milling drum and the rear pillar 30. Sensors W' and W” can be a sensor of type string strain sensors similar to the sensors described above for sensors 54 and 56. In this example the e sensors can be oriented in the longitudinal direction essentially parallel to the surface 14 of the ground, in order to have a greater opportunity to respond to bending stresses existing in the frame 16. In addition, it should be understood that the sensors V' and V” can be oriented in any desired way and there is no need for parallelism surface 14 of the ground. In addition, the sensors V' and 54B may contain a lot of strain gages, such as in the measuring bridge, or any other desired configuration. In addition, preference will be given to one or more additional sensors on the opposite side of the frame 16, so that the sensors were located preferably with similar layouts on opposite sides of the machine 10 in order to fully reflect the change in load over the entire width of the milling drum 12.

One additional alternative method of determining changes of opposing forces is to use the sensors 54 and 56, representing the sensors on the bearing load. For example, as schematically illustrated in Fig.9, the milling drum 12 in the usual manner is installed inside the housing 18 of the milling drum inside the first and second bearings 150 and 152 located near opposite ends of the milling drum 12.

Bearings 150 and 152 may include integrated sensors of the total load, such as 54D and 56D schematically prolost the new figure 9. For sensors of the total load in the bearings there are several designs, such as, for example, shown in U.S. patent 6,170,341; U.S. patent 6,338,281; U.S. patent 6,407,475; and the application for U.S. patent 2008/0199117.

In addition, despite the fact that the warning system is designed to prevent phenomena roll forward, it is necessary to consider that in some extreme situations, the control system may not be completely successful in preventing such phenomena, and in fact, the phenomenon of roll forward can occur. Thus, it may be useful to provide a backup system such as a pressure sensor for measuring hydraulic pressure within one or more of the reference power cylinders 32 and 34, which were made with the possibility of operation in a separate action, so that the reference pressure is an indication of a load borne by this reference the power cylinder.

Thus, the sensor 100 pressure which is schematically illustrated in figure 5, may be located on the power cylinder, such as the power cylinder 34, for measuring pressure within the power cylinder. For example, you might expect that the pressure within the power cylinder 34 will appear as an inverted line 86 of dots-dash 7. Thus, if it is determined that the reduction of pressure within the power cylinder 34, which is measured by the sensor 100, is below a certain preset level, the system 62 management can ensure that the additional security software to completely shut off flow of energy to the milling drum 12, for example, by actuation of the clutch 102 in the drive system of the milling drum 12.

1. The method of controlling the construction machine (10)having a frame (16),
milling drum (12)supported by the frame (16), for milling the surface (14) of soil,
many of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30)interacting with the surface (14) of the ground and the support frame (16), and
driving the actuator (40, 42)associated with at least one of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30) for providing a driving force of at least one interacting with the ground support surface (28, 30), the method includes the following steps, which are:
(a) actuate the milling drum (12) using climb milling;
(b) serves a driving force for driving the actuator (40, 42) and move the construction machine (10) forward with the speed of advancement;
(c) measuring a parameter corresponding to the opposing force acting on the milling drum (12);
(d) determine the change of the measured parameter, the corresponding increase in resistance force; and
(e) in response to determining the change in phase (d) and if you continue bringing in loads is via milling drum (12) using climb milling, reduce the driving force transmitted to the driving actuator (40, 42), to reduce the speed of advancement and, thereby, reduce resistance and prevent the phenomenon of roll forward.

2. The method of controlling the construction machine, having a frame (16),
milling drum (12)supported by the frame (16), for milling the surface (14) of the ground and
many of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30)interacting with the surface (14) of the ground and the support frame (16),
the method includes the following steps, which are:
(a) rotating milling drum (12);
(b) omit the rotating milling drum (12) in the surface (14) of the substrate;
(c) measuring a parameter corresponding to the opposing force acting on the milling drum (12);
(d) determine the change of the measured parameter, the corresponding increase in resistance force; and
(e) in response to determining the change in phase (d) and during the continued rotation of the milling drum, slowing the speed of the lowering phase (b) and, thereby, prevent the phenomenon of roll-forward or roll back.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which step (e) further includes the application of a braking force to at least one of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30).

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the construction machine (10)includes a housing (18) of the milling drum that supports the safety drum (12) to the frame (16), moreover, at the stage (s) of the measured parameter includes
the output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame (16) or on the housing (18) of the milling drum, or output signals from at least two strain sensors located on opposite sides of the frame or housing of the milling drum, or
the output signal from a torque sensor functionally associated with the frame (16) and a milling drum (12), or
the output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame (16) and measuring the bending of the frame (16), or
load in at least one bearing support for rotation of the milling drum on the frame (16).

5. The method according to claim 2, in which the construction machine (10)includes a housing (18) of the milling drum, which supports the milling drum (12) to the frame (16), and:
at the stage (s) of the measured parameter includes
the output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame (16) or on the housing (18) of the milling drum, or output signals from at least two strain sensors located on opposite sides of the frame or housing of the milling drum, or
the output signal from a torque sensor functionally associated with the frame (16) and milling. the nom (12), or
the output signal from at least one strain gauge located on the frame (16) and measuring the bending of the frame (16), or
load in at least one bearing support for rotation of the milling drum on the frame (16).

6. The method according to claim 4, in which step (C) at least one strain gauge oriented so that the measured parameter corresponded to the part of the opposing forces, oriented essentially perpendicular to the surface (14) of the soil.

7. The method according to claim 5, in which step (C) at least one strain gauge oriented so that the measured parameter corresponded to the part of the opposing forces, oriented essentially perpendicular to the surface (14) of the soil.

8. The method according to claim 1, further including:
measurement of pressure in the hydraulic power cylinder connecting one of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30) to the frame (16); and
the termination of the milling drum (12), if the measured pressure in the hydraulic power cylinder (32, 34) falls below the specified values.

9. The method according to claim 1, in which step (d) further includes determining whether there is countervailing power within the operating range (75), established as a range of percentages of the weight of the construction machine when the volume range is limited to a lower bound of (77) greater than 0%, and the upper bound (79)less than 100%, preferably lower bound (77) is at least 50%, and the upper bound (79) is not more than 95%, and step (e) further includes reducing the rate of advance or slow lowering only if the opposing force is within or above the operating range (75).

10. The method according to claim 9, in which:
step (e) further includes reducing the driving force for driving the actuator to zero or stop lowering the rotating milling drum (12) in the surface (14) of the soil, if the opposing force is equal to or larger than the upper bound (79) operating range (75).

11. Construction machine (10), containing
the frame (16),
milling drum (12)supported by the frame (16), for milling the surface (14) of soil, with the milling drum (12) is arranged to actuate the mode associated milling;
many of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30)supporting frame (16) from the surface (14) of the substrate;
driving the actuator (40, 42)associated with at least one of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30) for providing a driving force to promote the construction machine (10) on a surface (14) of the substrate;
at least one sensor (54, 56), is configured to determine the parameter corresponding counteracting force from the side surface (14) of the soil, acting on the milling drum (12);
the actuator (72, 74), functionally associated with the driving of the actuator (40, 42), to regulate the output of the driving force by the driving of the actuator; and
the controller (62)connected with the sensor (54, 56)for receiving the input signal from the sensor (54, 56), and coupled with the actuator (72, 74), for sending a control signal to the actuator (72, 74), the controller (62) includes a working program that determines the change of the measured parameter, the corresponding increase in the opposing forces, and in response to the change reduces the driving force transmitted to the driving of the actuator (40, 42), to help prevent the phenomenon of roll-forward construction machinery (10).

12. Construction machine (10), containing
the frame (16),
milling drum (12)supported by the frame (16), for milling the surface (14) of the substrate;
many of interacting with the earth supports (28, 30)supporting frame (16) from the surface (14) of the substrate;
at least one sensor (54, 56), is configured to determine the parameter corresponding counteracting force from the side surface (14) of the soil acting on the milling drum (12);
Executive tool(32, 34, 72, 74), functionally associated with the milling drum (12) or by frame (16) for regulating the RMS of the spine, with which the milling drum (12) is lowered into the surface (14) of the substrate; and
the controller (62)associated with the sensor (54, 56)for receiving the input signal from the sensor (54, 56), and is associated with the actuating means (32, 34, 72, 74) to send a control signal to the Executive tool(32, 34, 72, 74), the controller (62) includes a working program that determines the change of the measured parameter, the corresponding increase in the opposing forces, and in response to the change reduces the speed with which the milling drum (12) is lowered into the surface (14) soil to help prevent the phenomenon of roll-forward or roll back the construction machine (10).

13. The machine (10) according to claim 11, further comprising:
brake system (78)connected to one or more interacting with the earth supports (28, 30);
the controller (62) is also connected with the brake system (78), and the working program additionally directs braking system (78) for the application of braking effort to help prevent the phenomenon of roll forward.

14. The machine (10) according to claim 11, in which the sensor (54, 56) contains:
at least one strain gauge, or
at least one torque sensor, or
at least one strain gauge attached to the frame (16) and oriented to determine the bending frame (16), or
at the ore one sensor on the bearing load.

15. The machine (10) according to item 12, in which the sensor (54, 56) contains:
at least one strain gauge, or
at least one torque sensor, or
at least one strain gauge attached to the frame (16) and oriented to determine the bending frame (16), or
at least one sensor on the bearing load.

16. The machine (10) 14 where:
at least one strain gauge has the axis of the sensor is oriented so that at least a large part of the effort, the measured strain sensor is oriented perpendicular to the surface (14) of the soil.

17. The machine (10) according to § 15, in which:
at least one strain gauge has the axis of the sensor is oriented so that at least a large part of the effort, the measured strain sensor is oriented perpendicular to the surface (14) of the soil.

18. The machine (10) for 14 or 16,
in which at least one strain gauge is located on the frame (16), or
in which at least one strain sensor further comprises at least two strain gauge on opposite sides of the frame (16), or
additionally comprising a housing (18) of the milling drum, which supports the milling drum (12) to the frame (16), at least one strain gauge located the Yong on the housing (18) of the milling drum, or
additionally comprising a housing (18) of the milling drum, which supports the milling drum (12) to the frame (16), and at least one strain sensor further comprises at least two strain gauge on the opposite side of the housing (18) of the milling drum.

19. The machine (10) according to § 15 or 17,
in which at least one strain gauge is located on the frame (16), or
in which at least one strain sensor further comprises at least two strain gauge on opposite sides of the frame (16), or
additionally comprising a housing (18) of the milling drum, which supports the milling drum (12) to the frame (16), at least one strain gauge is located on the housing (18) of the milling drum, or
additionally comprising a housing (18) of the milling drum, which supports the milling drum (12) to the frame (16), and at least one strain sensor further comprises at least two strain gauge on the opposite side of the housing (18) of the milling drum.

20. The machine (10) according to claim 11 or 13, in which:
the working program of the controller (62) determines whether there is countervailing power within the operating range (75), continuing from the bottom (77) to upper bound (79), when it is working, the program reduces the driving force for driving the actuator or decreases the speed of lowering of the rotating milling drum (12) in the surface (14) of the soil, if the opposing force is within the operating range (75),
moreover, the operating range (75) is limited to a lower bound (77), greater than 0%, and the upper bound (79)less than 100%, the lower bound (77) the operating range is preferably at least 50% of the weight of the construction machine (10)and the upper bound (79) operating range (75) is preferably less than 95% of the mass of the construction machine (10).

21. The machine (10) according to claim 20, in which:
the working program reduces the driving force to zero and stops the lowering of the rotating milling drum (12) in the surface (14) of the soil, if the opposing force is equal to or higher than the upper bound (79) operating range (75).



 

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in method of motor road construction and repair with hard rut-protected coating, rut-protected slabs, solid or with holes, are laid onto the road bed partially filled to a design elevation in an addressed manner, as well as additional slabs made of inert material with reinforcement or without it, which are then filled with the road bed material to the design elevation of the road bed top, onto which the hard coating is laid, and during motor road repair, the road hard surface lane with formed ruts and adjacent sections is cut together with a part of the road bed to the depth of the addressed installation of the rut-protected and additional slabs, after installation of which onto the cut bottom it is filled with the road bed material, on which the hard coating is laid, besides, the rut-protected slabs are made of inert material with reinforcement or without. Design of the motor road with hard rut-protected coating, the rut-protected slabs have fixed width and are laid into the road bed body in an addressed manner at a certain depth from the road surface, at side edges the rut-protected slabs have ledges, and instead of the rut-protected slabs ledges it is possible to use additional slabs, which have dimensions of ledges laid next to the rut-protected slabs and in a staggered order between each other at the distance from 0.1 to 0.3 m.

EFFECT: reduced chances for ruts formation.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: as rut is formed in areas of vehicle wheels movement, rigid stamp is used to press some road surfacing in area of rut towards ground base. Produced trench is filled with material having rigidity higher than rigidity of ground base. Then coating is restored. Rigid material may be represented by finished solid rabbet. The same rabbet may be used as rigid stamp.

EFFECT: removal of wheel tracking on roads with various surfaces.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: road construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: method refers to road construction industry and can be used for strengthening and repair of road pavement of various types: from gravel to asphalt-concrete ones. Essence of the proposed method consists in the fact that wells are bored and binding components are introduced to road pavement. According to proposed invention, cone-shaped flattened strengthening elements are pre-introduced to wells, and wells are filled with binding component to subsurface layer of road pavement; after that, they are filled with low-compressible material and rammed. Such combination of new features with known ones allows strengthening road pavement without creating internal stresses in road pavement, deformation and destruction of top layer, eliminating use of hazardous explosive materials, using standard and simple equipment and facilities.

EFFECT: strengthening and repair of road pavement, reducing labour input owing to simple equipment and facilities being used, safety of performed works.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Tool holder. // 2347907

FIELD: mining..

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and building, particularly to machines with pulvimixer. A tool holder for a machine with the pulvimixer or such like has base (10) which bears holding added piece (30), also added piece (30) has receiving seat (31) of the cutting tool; and lug (15) is attached to base (10) before holding added piece (30) in the direction of tool holder feeding. Base (10) has connecting section (20) made in form of a chip breaker; the connecting section is formed on base (10) and passes at least partially through lug (15) starting from holding added piece (30). End section (34) of holding added piece (30) has intake seat (31) of the cutting tool made in form of an aperture. Also end section (34) has circular contact surface (33) passing around medium lengthwise axis of intake seat (31) of the cutting tool. Contact surface (33) which is located radially outside passes up to dimension boundaries of a cylinder region of end section (34). Connecting section (20) returning in the direction of the axis relative to contact surface (33) is connected with holding added piece (30).

EFFECT: improved operation of cutting of disk pulvimixer.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: prior to cutting tool approaching to high-density sections, density of covering and base materials is preliminary defined. Then density is analyzed and tool is selected for damaging and working speed defining for the proper section. According to the invention machine is assumed in case inclusion into road dressing is impossible to damage.

EFFECT: increased life time of road construction machine, operating unit and cutting tools; increased productivity.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular the construction equipment for processing surfaces of the ground with a milling drum. The construction equipment for processing a surface of the ground by a milling drum, on whose surface is located a large number of blade holders, and in the jack for holding the blades of the blade holders placed with the possibility of replacing the blades, in particular a blade with a round shank, and moreover by means of the device for tool replacement is carried out or blades from blade holders and/or mounts it. The milling drum is supplied with the device for tool replacement, the adjusting device is intended for positioning the milling drum or the blade in relation to at least one adaptation for tool replacement and/or the actuating unit provides the positioning, at least one adaptation for tool replacement relative to the milling device, the actuating unit and/or the adjusting device has a measuring system for determining the position, and moreover the actuating unit and/or the adjusting device are supplied with a digital control device.

EFFECT: simplification in the replacement of blades.

30 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: building materials industry; production of the road-building materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the road-building materials applied predominantly for preparation of the cold warehoused asphalt-concrete mixtures used for roads repairs in conditions of the autumn and the early spring, when the road covers are intensely deformed, and the repair with application of the hot asphalt-concrete mixtures is ineffective. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the list of the surface-active substance (SAS) used for preparation of the cold asphalt-concrete mixtures applied for repairs of the roads with the wet cover, simplification of the process of preparation of the binding material, the increase of its adhesion to the mineral materials of the carbonate rocks and reduction of its toxicity. The binding material applied for repairs of the roads with the wet cover containing cutback bitumen and SAS contains as anionic SAS - " carboxySAS" containing (in mass %): carboxymethylated alkylphenols - 70 - 80, oxyethylized alkylphenols - 9-18, sodium chloride - no more than 7.5, water - no more than 5.5, at the following ratio of the components in the binding material,(in mass %):" carboxySAS"- 1.0-1.5, cutback bitumen - the rest.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the list of the surface-active substance (SAS) used for preparation of the cold asphalt-concrete mixtures for repairs of the roads, simplified preparation process of the binding material, improved its adhesion and reduced toxicity.

1 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: building, particularly devices or arrangements for constructing or repairing asphalt concrete road or aerodrome pavement.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving vertical bearing members and forming cement concrete layer. Metal rods are used as vertical bearing members. Connected to bearing member ends extending above pavement surface are metal strips. Rods and strips define concreting form having closed contour so that cells are formed on pavement surface. Cement concrete mix is poured in cells up to upper form end and cement concrete is then vibratory compacted. Cells are closed with metal sheets pressed in not-hardened cement concrete mix and connected thereto by metal staples secured to lower surfaces of metal sheets, for instance by welding. Metal sheets are welded to metal strips in several points. Cement concrete layer is then vibratory compacted through metal sheets up to full hardening thereof. After cement concrete mix hardening metal sheets are hermetically secured to metal strips and one to another by welding.

EFFECT: increased pavement strength and service life.

7 dwg

The invention relates to the repair and maintenance of roads

FIELD: building, particularly devices or arrangements for constructing or repairing asphalt concrete road or aerodrome pavement.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving vertical bearing members and forming cement concrete layer. Metal rods are used as vertical bearing members. Connected to bearing member ends extending above pavement surface are metal strips. Rods and strips define concreting form having closed contour so that cells are formed on pavement surface. Cement concrete mix is poured in cells up to upper form end and cement concrete is then vibratory compacted. Cells are closed with metal sheets pressed in not-hardened cement concrete mix and connected thereto by metal staples secured to lower surfaces of metal sheets, for instance by welding. Metal sheets are welded to metal strips in several points. Cement concrete layer is then vibratory compacted through metal sheets up to full hardening thereof. After cement concrete mix hardening metal sheets are hermetically secured to metal strips and one to another by welding.

EFFECT: increased pavement strength and service life.

7 dwg

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