System of climate control in greenhouse
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used to control the climate in the greenhouse. The system comprises a controller unit, a control unit, subsystem of measurement sensors, and actuating mechanisms. The subsystem of measurement sensors comprises sensors of parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse and the sensors of environmental parameters. The actuating mechanisms (AM) represent the fanlight opener, a fan, a drive of the screen, a governor gear of carbon dioxide supply, and nodes of heating circuit. The outputs of the control unit are connected to the AM with the ability to manage them according to the values of the parameters measured by the sensors.
EFFECT: system of climate control provides increased efficiency of optimisation of quality of regulation.
5 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to agriculture, to the field of crop production in buildings protected ground, and can be used to regulate the climate in the greenhouse.
For growing vegetables and flowers are widely used hotbeds, greenhouses various designs. In this case, in the process of cultivation often have difficulty in maintaining the desired temperature in the building. This situation can often exacerbated by lack of maintenance personnel for a certain period of time. It is possible not only freezing plants at lower temperatures the working areas of these facilities, and wilt them in the event of overheating due to high levels of solar radiation in the greenhouse or cold frame in the daytime.
Known temperature controller for greenhouses, which contains a cylinder filled with a working fluid, a rod, kinematically pivotally associated with transom and loaded by a compression spring, and sleeve seals in the device entered radiator, two longitudinal sections with different conductivity and reflectivity, while the cylinder chamber filled with granules of a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, and when the temperature of the rod extends and opens a window, and when the temperature drops, the reverse occurs (see RF patent №2028759 class. A01G 9/24, 1995).
Known regulator is designed to control only one parameter - the temperature of the air in the greenhouse.
Closest to the present invention is a system for climate control in the greenhouse, containing sensors air temperature in the greenhouse and shell greenhouses, sensors CO2the relative humidity sensor, the microprocessor, the inputs of which are connected with these sensors, and conclusions - actuators: valve irrigation system shell greenhouses, the switch system of education mist in the greenhouse, switch the heating system, the valve system supply CO2(see European patent No. 0275712, CL A01G 9/24, 1988).
The disadvantage of this system is the low efficiency optimization control of microclimate, due to the small number of adjustable parameters and means of climate control.
The technical result, which is aimed by the invention, is increasing the efficiency optimization control of the microclimate by increasing the number of adjustment parameters when the climate control and accounting of external weather conditions.
This technical result is achieved due to the fact that the system for climate control in the greenhouse contains the block is of ontroller, control unit, engine sensors and actuators, subsystem sensors includes sensors parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse, at least one temperature sensor sheet surface and the sensors of environmental parameters that are connected to the inputs of the controller unit, the Executive unit (IU) represent at least one drive transoms, at least one fan, at least one actuator of the screen, the drive controller of the filing of carbon dioxide and nodes, at least one heating circuit, the outputs of the control unit is connected with Yiwu control them depending on the values of the measured parameter sensors, and a control unit coupled to the output unit of the controller.
In addition, the controller unit connected to the monitoring unit microclimate parameters in the greenhouse, made on the basis of a personal computer that provides input and coded job at maintaining the specified parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse.
The control unit is a power switching relays including relay keys to control Yiwu.
The system can in quality Yiwu also include pump and valve evaporative cooling subsystem and governane, and at least one air heater.
Sown the feature of the invention is illustrated in the drawing, where it is shown the scheme of the proposed system for climate control in the greenhouse.
System for climate control in the greenhouse 1 contains the unit 2 based on a personal computer Manager, coupled to the block 3 controller, the control unit 4, the subsystem sensors and actuators (PS). Unit 3 controller includes directly managing the controller, the interface part and the bodies of indication and control. In the interface part are measurement scheme for analog and digital sensors. The operation unit 3 of the controller can be carried out through block 1 monitoring using a personal computer, and with its own remote control. The input control unit 4 is connected to the output unit 3 controller. The control unit 4 is a block switching relays, which are relay switches for manual and automatic control of Yiwu.
Subsystem sensors includes sensors parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse, the sensors of environmental parameters and sensors coolant parameters:
sensor 5 temperature in a greenhouse
sensor 6 relative humidity in a greenhouse
sensor 7 temperature of the inner surface of the glazing of the greenhouse
- temperature sensor sheet plants (not until the EN, may be absent),
sensor 8 soil temperature,
sensors 9 temperature of the heat carrier in the heating circuits,
sensor 10, the temperature of the external air,
sensor 11 of the intensity of radiation of solar radiation
sensor 12 of the speed and direction of the wind,
sensor 13, the pressure of the coolant in General for all greenhouses direct and return pipes 14 and 15,
- 16 gauge carbon dioxide concentration of CO2.
The sensors are connected to the front-end part of the block 3 controller. The outputs of the control unit 4 is connected with Yiwu: at least one drive transoms 17, at least one fan 18 for air circulation in the greenhouse 1, at least one actuator of the screen (shading or heat) (not shown), the drive controller 19 of the feed carbon dioxide and nodes, at least one circuit 20 heating: pump 21, the mixing valve 22. The greenhouse may contain from 1 to 5 circuits 20 heating, each of which is connected with the forward and backward pipes 14 and 15 and includes a pump 21 and the mixing valve 22 for mixing hot and cold water to regulate the temperature of heating. The greenhouse can also contain as a PS one or more air heaters (not shown), and the evaporative cooling subsystem and doublegene (not shown), including valves and nozzles for spraying water under pressure.>
The proposed system for controlling the climate in the greenhouse is designed to
- climate control and tracking of external weather conditions,
- software jobs daily cycle changes of microclimate parameters in a greenhouse
- analysis of the data obtained,
- maintain a given microclimate in greenhouses.
The basis for the climate control in the greenhouse is the control of temperature and humidity and the concentration of carbon dioxide CO2. The system can control the microclimate in one or two independent greenhouses, each of which has up to 5 heating circuits, two groups transoms, subsystem supply CO2the subsystem management screen (screening) and other subsystems. The system can also manage the microclimate in one greenhouse, consisting of two, three or four compartments, each of which may have a configurable amount of common or separate circuits, heating, shared or private group transoms, common or separate subsystems supply CO2, screen control, control of air circulation, air heating and evaporative cooling and doublegene.
During operation of the system agronomists and engineers in tabular form the strategy for the climate control. Using the set in which Alice 1 sensors 5-8 is continuous measurement of air temperature in the greenhouse 1 at several points, humidity, carbon dioxide and other air parameters in the greenhouse.
In addition, in the system using sensors 10-12 measured external meteorological parameters: air temperature, intensity of solar radiation, the speed and direction of the wind. For each measured inside the greenhouse 1 parameter, you can define two control and two emergency boundaries that will allow you to automatically monitor the state of the climate in the greenhouse 1 and provide timely signals about the deviations from the optimum condition.
All data on the status and dynamics of the climate in the greenhouse 1 is periodically transmitted in the program, in which the current time is used by the controller unit 3 controller. Specified in the program mode microclimate can be automatically adjusted depending on the values of parameters such as the intensity of solar radiation. During operation, the controller unit 3, according to a set program with regard to external conditions (solar radiation, outside temperature, speed, and wind direction), produces consistent temperature control fluid used for heating, controls the state of the vent ventilation position transoms 17 in the greenhouse 1, the position of the protective screen, the modes of operation of the fan 18. The climate in the greenhouse 1 prog is ammirata, as a rule, on the day (and at any other time) with the help of block 2 monitoring, including a personal computer Manager (not shown).
Control of actuators in the greenhouse 1 is made through the unit 4 control unit relay switching PS.
System for climate control in the greenhouse operates as follows.
The climate in the greenhouse 1 can be supported by intensive management water heating is carried out with contours 20 heating position transoms 17, the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), zastarevanje screen subsystem evaporative cooling and governane, the implementation of the inclusion of the fans 18 and air heating. Maintenance of the set temperature of the air in the greenhouse 1 is a coordinated control of the temperature of the coolant coming from the pipe 14 water supply and passing into the pipe 15. Ventilation is carried out, usually by opening/closing transoms 17 (glass panes). The level of CO2is supported through the inclusion of special burners or by controlling the supply of concentrated CO2through the regulator 19. Zastarevanje screen allows you to reduce loss of heat in the greenhouse (thermal screen, horizontal and/or vertical) and to restrict the flow of solnechnaiad as the largest, and time (shade or blackout the screen). The presence and type of screen is determined by the design of the greenhouse and climate zone location of the greenhouse.
Using evaporative cooling subsystem and doublegene you can increase the humidity in the greenhouse 1 and perform its cooling.
The circulation fans 18 allow the alignment of the air temperature inside the greenhouse 1 and to a certain extent, to lower the humidity. Air heaters (not shown) based on the electric heaters and ventilation fans groups are located coaxially along the long sides of the greenhouse and provide, if necessary, additional quick heating of air in the greenhouse.
The controller unit 3 controls the microclimate in accordance with the daily task that is set for the air temperature inside the greenhouse 1. Also establishes the basic characteristics of the actuators (PS).
In operation for greenhouse 1 controller available adjustment of many parameters, which allow for fine tuning of control and, ultimately, determine the quality of the microclimate control.
To analyze the operation of the system controller unit 3 with the specified Manager period in the range from 20 seconds to 2 minutes sends in Persian the real computer (PC) Manager (unit 2 monitoring) information received from sensors 5-8 registration microclimate parameters in the greenhouse, as well as intermediate data, which are necessary for control of the microclimate.
Climate control in the greenhouse 1 during the day is by installing a set of parameters, hereinafter referred to as a task consisting of a set of programs, each of which acts within the prescribed time. To change programs, climate control, greenhouse 1 set another job. The controller automatically provides by linear interpolation smooth change of parameters of microclimate between the ages of steps adjacent time programs. The parameters of the task and the task itself can be adjusted at any time with the PC Manager.
Strategy control unit 3 sets the number of parameters that define selected on the basis of expert estimates for greenhouse 1 or more zones in the greenhouse 1 strategy, climate control, depending on the agronomic, economic, and thermal requirements. Strategy climate control is set in a two-dimensional table, the left column contains the defining actions of actuators) the corresponding subsystems of the control.
In the cells of the table are specified size in points in the range from 0 to 10 points based on specified additional restrictions on their range depending on the type of action reflecting the expert assessment of the impact of each action Yiwu on the defining characteristics of management strategies in relation to each other. All specified values are considered only in relation to each other.
The control circuits 20 of the heating of the greenhouse is carried out as follows. Unit 3 controller analyzes the data from the sensors and calculates the temperature on the degree of mismatch between the computed and measured data, taking into account the subsequent impact of rapidly changing factors, such as the sun, outside temperature, wind, precipitation, that allows to predict the evolution of the temperature in the greenhouse and in time to counteract these changes.
The first circuit 20 heating is generally the contour of the above-ground heating. The second circuit 20 heating is generally the contour of the upper heating greenhouses (hip) (may be absent). The third and fourth circuits 20 can be used as the contours of the subsoil or podcastmanager heating or circuits operating synchronously with the first circuit 20 and the alignment of thermal field of the greenhouse (may be missing). The fifth circuit 20 heating is a circuit podatkowego heating to ensure snowmelt (may be absent).
The operation of the circuits 20 heating is performed by controlling the mixing valve 22.
According to the backside of the Noah program with the specified Manager period in the range from 20 seconds to 2 minutes, the unit 3 controller determines the desired working temperature - direct water (water in a straight pipe 14). Coolant temperature is compared with predetermined minimum and maximum values, and if the permissible tolerance is limited. Further, it is used to control the mixing valve 22 corresponding contour 20 of the heating.
Mixing valve 22 of the heating circuit is controlled according to the desired operating temperature of the water line. For a given and measured water temperature controller unit 3 with the set period changes the position of the mixing valve 22 so that the measured temperature of the water line in the circuit 20 of heat equal to the specified value. The quality setting control circuit is based on the time of operation of the mixing valve 22 depending on the mismatch of the desired and the measured coolant temperature.
The percentage of opening of the mixing valve 22 is converted into the duration of its opening or closing using the specified times their full open/close.
To increase the stability of the regulatory mixing valves 22 and reduce the dynamic loads have the time delay between changes in the position of the mixing valve 22 for each of the contour 20 of the heating.
The ventilation control system is as follows.
Ventilation is used to remove warm Vozduha greenhouses and replaced by cooler air of the external environment, and to reduce the relative humidity inside the greenhouse. The rate of heat transfer depends on the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the greenhouse, the presence of precipitation and wind speed.
The program introduced the concept of "temperature ventilation" - the desired air temperature in the greenhouse 1, above which should be opening the vent transom 17. The program on the working transoms 17 starts to keep the air temperature in the greenhouse 1, equal to exactly the temperature ventilation. Since, as a rule, the temperature of the ventilation above the set temperature of the air, and the heating circuit 20 is activated only when the air temperature drops to this specified value, then maintaining the air temperature in the greenhouse 1, is equal to the temperature of ventilation, on a Sunny day can mainly be transoms 17 without using loops 20 heating. Thus the inevitable fluctuations of the air temperature in the greenhouse 1 when controlling only transoms 17 will not lead to periodic switching circuits of heating and, accordingly, unnecessary power consumption.
In a daily program for a different time of day can be set 3 mode vent ventilation. In mode "0" - transoms 17 is fully closed; in mode "1" - transoms 17 downwind enforced at a specified daily prog is the Amma minimum position, and on the windward side are closed; in the mode "2" transom 17 operate in automatic mode. In automatic mode, as previously mentioned, the ventilation control is performed by changing the position of the transoms 17 depending on the climate in the greenhouse and outside weather conditions.
In the system of restrictions when it is running.
For example, if set to frost protection, while lowering the external temperature transoms 17 will be closed, regardless of the calculations and the minimum provisions transoms 17.
When fully closed transoms 17 opening process always begins with a leeward side when fully open transoms closing process begins from the windward side. For simplicity, the calculations assumed that the fully opened leeward side corresponds to 100% open transoms 17, fully open the leeward and windward side correspond to 200% opening transoms 17.
Control the relative humidity of the system is as follows.
To maintain the design humidity requires consistent management of the heating system and ventilation. It should be noted that the humidity in the greenhouse will be affected tasks in the program microclimate, i.e. it should appropriately be set in the program a minimum temperature of the coolant in permaculture 20 heating and minimum position transoms 17. If in a daily program of microclimate has a nontrivial task to maintain relative humidity in the greenhouse during operation, the controller analyzes the measured values of air temperature and relative humidity and given management strategy. If the measured relative humidity of the air below the target, and the temperature in norm or lower than specified, transoms 17 is opened at a lower value and, accordingly, decreases the amount of water vapor. With a smaller opening transoms 17 is automatically reduced temperature coolant to increased air temperature in the greenhouse.
At high relative humidity transoms 17 is opened at a large angle. The intense moisture removal. With regard to the values of outside air temperature and wind speed (sensors 10, 12) automatically increases the temperature of the coolant to maintain the set temperature of the air in the greenhouse 1.
Since changing the position of the transoms 17 affects the temperature and the relative humidity is much faster than the temperature change of the coolant, the limitation of the frequency of inclusion transoms 17 to prevent self-oscillation.
Subsystem evaporative cooling and doublegene can be used when neobhodimosti additional humidification of the air in the greenhouse and for its cooling. When spraying water occur cooling air through evaporation of water and a partial increase its humidity.
The system can provide control of at least one of the following screens: 1) thermal (energy saving) horizontal screen - to reduce heat loss through the top of the glazing of the greenhouse; 2) thermal (energy saving) vertical screen - to reduce heat loss through the side glazing of the greenhouse; 3) horizontal shading screen to shade from excessive solar radiation. In the latter case, the shading screen can be used as a blackout screen to regulate photoperiod plants.
In this system screens can be controlled by time of day and weather conditions. In accordance with a given program microclimate at any time of the day, the screen can be placed in 3 positions: a) fully open; b) fully closed; and C) in automatic mode, when its position is determined by the settings. The same screen can function as shading and thermal screen.
Introduces a variable limit maximum closing of thermal screen depending on the temperature of the glass. To prevent the formation region of cold air between the glazing of the greenhouse 1, when the temperature of the glass was led by the maximum rank of the closure is reduced to the calculated value depending on the specified parameters.
Screen is also used program microclimate, where you can set the time of day during which allowed the automatic closing of the screen and set the level of illumination at which closes the screen. If the intensity of solar radiation exceeds the installation and the job climate is set to auto mode the screen will close the screen.
As for thermal screen for shading the entered threshold value of temperature of external air, when it should be closed, allowing it to be used as a thermal screen in the absence of the latter.
As for thermal screen and shade screen, you can set a gradual opening and closing of the screen.
Thermal screens (vertical) are managed taking into account the influence of external temperature and solar radiation. For vertical screens important to take into account the effects of wind. Therefore, introduces an additional intermediate threshold value of the intensity of solar radiation, allowing the opening of all parties, in addition to windward. The increase in wind speed also increases the value of the outside air temperature at which the vertical screen is closed.
Management of supply of carbon dioxide CO2the system is made after the relevant way.
Management of CO2can be implemented using the controller 19 of two types: 1) proportional valve, the degree of opening of which can vary from 0 to 100%, so - called valve; 2) closing the valve with two States - open and closed. In the latter case, the regulation of feeding CO2by regulation changing the duty cycle of alternating periods of closing and opening the valve.
With the specified period, the controller unit 3 calculates the relative position of the valve, expressed in percent, depending on the error between the reference and the measured concentration of CO2in the greenhouse.
The inclusion of the circulation fans 18 in the greenhouse 1 is used to align thermal field inside the greenhouse 1, i.e. to equalize the temperature at all points of the greenhouse 1. The mode of operation of the fan 18 is set in the daily job. In the daily job for any period during the day you can set three modes of fan operation: on, off and automatic. In the 1st mode, the fan 18 is permanently disabled. In the 2nd mode, the fans 18 are either continuously or pulsed. The switching frequency of the fan 18 is set using plants. You can specify the time of the fan 18 and the pause time. When working in 3-d mode to turn on the fan 18 think the mo, to the difference between the readings of control sensors 5 air temperature in the greenhouse 1 has exceeded a certain value, which is defined. If the inclusion is performed, the fans 18 are included in a set time, followed by a pause.
After switching on, the system operates as follows.
Unit 3 controller in continuous mode collects data from sensors 10-12 characterizing meteorological conditions. This data includes external air temperature, the intensity of radiation of solar radiation, the speed and direction of the wind. At the same time from sensors 5-8 registration microclimate parameters in the greenhouse in block 3 controller receives information about the temperature of the air in the greenhouse, the relative humidity in the greenhouse, the temperature of the inside surface of the glazing of the greenhouse, the surface temperature of the leaf of a plant, the soil temperature, the temperature of the coolant in the heating pipelines and carbon dioxide concentration in the greenhouse. In block 3, the controller at certain points in time included in the activity using PC Manager certain programs climate control in the greenhouse 1. While these programs at specific points in time may have their specific algorithms, which vary depending on environmental parameters, and t is the train from the conditions in table 1. Depending on the program, implemented by the block 3, the latter produces at its output the signals received at the input unit 4 control unit relay switching actuators. Unit 4 under the influence of arriving at its input signal enters one of its modes, which provides for the operation of the pumps 21 and the mixing valve 22 paths of the heater 20, the controller 19 of the feed carbon dioxide and/or actuators move transoms 17, screens, and/or fan 18. The block 4 generates control signals which are fed to respective Yiwu. Enabling and disabling the respective Yiwu allows you to control the climate in the greenhouse. It should be emphasized that the input into the operating unit 3 program information about the required position transoms 17, screens, valves, and necessary modes of heating circulation pumps 21 and the mixing valve 22, the fan 18, a controller 19 supply of carbon dioxide, the actuators move transoms 17, screens allows you to quickly change the climate in the greenhouse 1 and allows you to grow plants in the greenhouse.
1. System for climate control in the greenhouse that contains the controller unit, the control unit subsystem sensors and actuators (PS), the subsystem will measure the selected sensors includes sensors parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse, at least one temperature sensor sheet surface and the sensors of environmental parameters that are connected to the inputs of the controller unit, as Yiwu system includes at least one drive transoms, at least one fan, at least one actuator of the screen, a regulator of carbon dioxide and nodes, at least one heating circuit, the outputs of the control unit is connected with Yiwu with the ability to manage depending on the values of the measured parameter sensors, and a control unit coupled to the output unit of the control of the controller.
2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the controller unit is connected to the monitoring unit microclimate parameters in the greenhouse, made on the basis of a personal computer that provides input in coded form job at maintaining the specified parameters of air and soil in the greenhouse, all additional service parameters to configure the process of maintaining air parameters, strategies for climate control in the greenhouse and modes Yiwu.
3. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the control unit is a power switching relays including relay keys to control Yiwu.
4. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that as PS it also includes the pump and valves evaporative cooling subsystem and down is inania.
5. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that as Yiwu she also includes at least one air heater.
SUBSTANCE: device has at least one light emitting device such as a light emitting diode which is used to illuminate at least one part of the plant; at least one light sensor to measure the light coming from the said at least one part of the plant; communication tools, designed to facilitate communication between the said at least one light sensor, at least one light-emitting device and the processor. The processor, by means of communication tools, reads data received from the said at least one sensor, generates a control signal based on the data obtained and background information and then based on the said control signal by means of communication tools it manages at least one light-emitting device for ensure better growth and properties of plants. Light sensor is arranged to control the biochemical properties of plants by measuring the intensity of incident light, combined with the measurement of reflectance and/or light fluorescence. The processor is adapted to change and improve the biochemical properties of the plant.
EFFECT: invention enables to control the environmental conditions, to manage automatically the growth and/or properties of plants, to improve their quality, the process of growth and growth rate.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions concerns crop sector. The method including preparation of green cuttings. At the same time a freshly cut green cutting is taken with two pairs of leaves and is placed into an individual vegetation container with a soil substrate and the possibility to create conditions of a "moist chamber" by means of insulation of a separate each green cutting. Moisture of the soil substrate makes 75-80%, the average air temperature - 20-23°C, the relative moisture of air 65-70%, and timing of seedlings production makes 24-25 days. Seedlings are planted together with the lower reservoir of the vegetation container. The container comprises a lower reservoir in the form of a sleeve, an upper reservoir in the form of a sleeve, which is arranged as capable of entering into the first reservoir up to the simultaneous contact, forming a line of contact of the second reservoir with the surface of the soil substrate and the inner surface of the first reservoir. At the same time the contact increases as diametres of the first and second reservoirs match at the level of 4/5 of the first reservoir height. The bottom of the first reservoir is equipped with holes. A rooted green cutting is planed into the soil substrate. The lower reservoir of the container is made of a dissolving material of vegetable origin, which is decomposed in soil by soil microorganisms. At the same time the diametre of the lower reservoir bottom is selected as 1.5 times more than the maximum size of the root system of the green cutting when planted.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to increase reliability of stevia seedlings production and provide for a high level of establishment.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The regulating device (10) of a greenhouse (15) contains a computer control unit (20), the lighting element (30) and at least one detecting element (40) where the lighting element (30) and the detecting element (40) are connected to the computer control unit (20). The lighting element (30) comprises at least one light emitting device (31) that emits light (32), which lightens the plant (70) growing in a greenhouse (15). At that the detecting element (40) measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the greenhouse (15), and the amount of light (32) emitted by light emitting device (31) is regulated by the computer control unit (20), depending on the measured partial oxygen pressure. In the method the growth of plants (70) is controlled in the greenhouse (15) by measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (101) in the greenhouse (15). At that the indicated partial pressure of oxygen is associated with photosynthetic activity of a plant (70) in the greenhouse (15), the transfer of values of the partial pressure of oxygen to the computer control unit (20), determining the optimal amount of light (111) necessary for best plant (70) growth, depending on the measured partial oxygen pressure, and regulating of the actual amount of light emitted by the lighting elements (30) to the optimal amount.
EFFECT: invention enables to adjust effectively the parameters and the optimal growth of plants in the greenhouse.
11 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cabinet contains a glased working chamber with a glased front door to observe the plants, light sources, located on the outer side of the working chamber, an air preparation unit and a control unit. The inner surface of the door is equipped with a mirror coating with a given light-transmission factor.
EFFECT: increased lighting is provided inside the working chamber without using extra energy consumption.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: system comprises water-distribution devices, by means of which water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air, is sprayed directly into air space of greenhouse. Parametres of devices are such that their use makes it possible to spray at least 50 litres of water per m2 of greenhouse area per hour into air space of greenhouse. System additionally comprises water-collecting device to collect water sprayed into air space of greenhouse and to return it at least partially to specified devices of system. Method is characterised by the fact that air is cooled and dried directly in air space of greenhouse by supplying water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air by means of spraying or otherwise. Volume of water supplied per unit of time and temperature have such parametres that as supplied water passes through air space of greenhouse, more moisture is condensed in it from greenhouse air than amount of water, which is evaporated from it into greenhouse air. Volume of water supplied per unit of time sprayed into air space makes at least 50 litres of water per m2 of greenhouse area per hour. Some water supplied to air space of greenhouse is returned for repeated circulation in air space of greenhouse. Greenhouse comprises water-distribution devices to supply water, which is colder than dew point of greenhouse air, into air space of greenhouse. Parametres of specified devices are arranged so that quantity of specified water used for cooling is more than 50 litres per m2 of greenhouse area per hour. Greenhouse additionally comprises water-collecting devices, using which, at least one water, falling or passing through air space, is used repeatedly, and devices, using which, at least some reused water is again supplied into air space of greenhouse.
EFFECT: simplified process and reduced operational expenses to monitor moisture and temperature of air in greenhouse.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises three serially coupled layers that are tightly joined. Upper layer is arranged as non-transparent and light-absorbing, middle layer - in the form of heat accumulator, material of which has alternating heat conductive properties, and lower layer is arranged as highly heat-conducting. Device contains temperature sensor in the form of controlling thermocouple installed into protected ground and connected to heat accumulator.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to automate monitoring, control and maintenance of required temperature condition of protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: vegetation installation contains a hollow cylindrical chamber, a domed wall and a floor consisting of an outer dismountable translucent wall and an inner stationary translucent wall with sources of light mounted between them. The sources of light are of the spot-type and are separated with horizontal partitions forming rectangular sections horizontally. In the section lower, middle and upper rows spot sources of blue, green and red light are accordingly arranged. Opposite each rectangular section light-diffusing panels are arranged along the perimeter inside the hollow cylindrical chamber between racks with plants and the inner stationary translucent wall.
EFFECT: invention enables improved efficiency of plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods for intense growth of cucumbers in spring film greenhouses with application of electric heating of soil. In method greenhouse and soil are prepared, beds are formed, heating wires are installed into beds, cucumber seedlings are planted and looked after. At the same time heating wires for heating of soil layer are arranged at the depth of 10-12 cm from surface in 1-2 threads, with established capacity of heating that amounts to 4.4 - 8.8 W/m2. Cucumber seedlings are planted into beds in one row at a phase of 5-7 leaves onto sand layer with thickness of 1-2 cm arranged over heating wires. Beds are formed with width of 90-95 cm and height of 30-35 cm, and heating wires are laid in bed at the distance of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase productivity of cucumbers in greenhouses at Middle Urals with minimum costs for maintenance of greenhouses and fighting deceases.
3 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and crop sector. Method includes arrangement of trays to make vertical tiers, cultivation of plants, maintenance of required light mode in greenhouse, the latter of which is supported by displacement of light source between tiers of trays. Plant seedlings are planted into vegetation trays, required climatic mode is created, at the same time source of light in the period of radiation is moved by continuous reversible motion up and down between extreme tiers, and speed of light source motion and capacity of light source are established depending on extent of natural illumination and/or air temperature. Device comprises system of plants cultivation, including vertical multi-tier rack installation for vegetation trays with plants, systems for maintenance of required climatic and light modes, the latter of which includes at least one source of light arranged with the possibility of displacement up and down between tiers of rack installation, comprises facility that provides for continuous reversible motion of light source between tiers in the period of plants radiation. Rack comprises sections of shelves that are mounted in tiers on four stands. Sections are combined into modules, every of which includes three serial stages arranged in a row, two extreme ones and one central, joined to each other by means of a hinge with the possibility of extreme sections rotation around vertical axis to center of module to form a "П"-shaped profile.
EFFECT: usage of group of inventions makes it possible to speed up development of plants due to provision of even illumination of plants, increasing density of photosynthetic flow of photons, elimination of overheating and damages of grown plants leaf canopy and reduction of light losses.
30 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to rural and municipal services and is designed for control of heating hot houses, living spaces and premises. The essence of the invention is as follows: an output signal of a compensator is obtained by means of summing signals from outputs of two circuits of additive compensation by illumination and ratio of temperature in open air, inside the premise and of fence (glass cover), also by utilising compensation of heating graph by wind speed and degree of ventilating window opening; notably slope of the heating graph is multiplied by product of values of wind speed and ventilating windows position.
EFFECT: facilitating upgraded accuracy of control over heating in premise and improved compensation and stability.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg