Hydroelectric power plant
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydroelectric power plants. Hydroelectric power plant includes runner 2 fully submerged into water and installed so that it can be rotated, housing with half-round groove, which encloses runner 2 on one side. The other side of runner 2 is located in water stream. Runner 2 is provided with horizontal rotation axis. Housing is arranged at the river bottom and hinged on the ends of arms the other ends of which are hinged to the piles mounted into the river bottom. External surface of the housing is concentric to the groove, equipped with radially located soil washing-out nozzles, as well as cutters. Hydroelectric power plant is provided with a drive to perform backward swinging movement of the housing relative to the arms.
EFFECT: simplifying the manufacturing technology and reducing the cost of hydroelectric power plant.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic power plants.
Known coastal river hydroelectric power plant, comprising a housing made in the form of betonirovannaa shore and having a semicircular recess, and a blade turbine with a vertical axis of rotation, one side is placed in the recess of the housing, while the other side is the water flow (RU # 2020260 C1, F03B 7/00, 1994).
The disadvantages of this analog is the complexity of manufacturing the concrete shell, because the concrete work should be done in the river. Turbine only partially submerged in water, therefore, impossible for her operation in winter when the river ice cover. In addition, the capacity of such hydropower plants depends largely on seasonal changes in water level in the river.
The closest analogue is hydroelectric, containing the dam, established under sub-genres water guiding her triangular body with lateral semicircular grooves and turbines with horizontal impellers. The impellers are fully submerged in water, with one side of the impeller is located in the flow of water and sees his energy, and the other located in the semicircular recess of the housing, protected from the action of flow (SU 1832159 A, F03B 7/00, 1993).
The disadvantage of this construction of hydroelectric power plants is high the th complexity of manufacturing dams and shells and their high cost.
The technical result of the invention is to simplify the technology and reducing the cost of hydroelectric power.
This is achieved by the fact that hydropower plants containing the impeller is fully immersed in water and mounted for rotation, the housing having a semicircular recess, covering the impeller with one hand, while the other side of the impeller is located in the flow of water, according to the invention the impeller is made with a horizontal axis of rotation, the housing is located in the river bottom and pivotally mounted on the ends of the shafts, which other ends pivotally attached to the piles, which is mounted in the bottom of the river, the outer surface of the housing concentric with the recess, equipped with nozzles for soil erosion, arranged radially, as well as cutters, while hydroelectric power plant is equipped with a drive to implement the return swinging movement of the housing relative to the shafts. The drive for effecting the movement of the body may contain at least one hydraulic cylinder mounted between the bolt and the lever mounted on the housing. This lever may be in the form of a conduit box-section, built in the end wall and connected to the line connected to the nozzles.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a guide who elektrostantsia in the manufacturing process, figure 2 - the same in working condition.
Hydroelectric has a reinforced concrete body 1 with a semicircular recess for accommodating the impeller 2 having a horizontal axis of rotation 3. The outer surface 4 of the housing is cylindrical and is concentric with the surface 5 of the recess. On the outer surface 4 posted by nozzle 6 is directed radially, and the cutters 7. Arrows 8 pivotally attached to the body axis and the piles 9, which is mounted in the bottom 10 of the river. The conduits 11, rigidly connected with the housing, are used to supply water or sand-water mixture to the nozzles 6. The drive to implement the swinging movement of the housing can contain the power cylinders 12, pivotally mounted between the shafts 8 and the conduits 11. You can use other structures of the drive to implement the swinging movement of the body.
Installation of hydroelectric power plants is carried out as follows. A reinforced concrete body 1, made on land, is lowered to the bottom 10 of the river. To the axis 3 of the housing pivotally securing the ends of the shafts 8, the other ends of which are also pivotally connected with piles 9, mounted in the bottom of the river. The conduits 11 attach the high pressure pipeline from the dredger and served them with water or sand-water mixture, which enters the nozzle 6 and blurs the bottom of the river under the body. Further by means of the power cylinders 2 or other known means of lead body swinging movement, the soil under the building is cut by the cutters, eroded by streams of water or sand-water mixture, the exhaust from the nozzle and is carried away by the current. In this case under its own weight falls, Solubles in the bottom (shown in figure 1). The process of installing the casing in the bottom of the river ends when it reaches its preset position. Thereafter, the hydraulic cylinders 12 and the top of the conduits 11 to the level of the body is removed, and the impeller 2 together with located therein generator is lowered into the recess of the housing and set (shown in figure 2). If necessary, in the bottom of the river near the enclosures can be mounted additional piles that will improve the reliability of fastening of the case.
The manufacture of the body on land may be carried out serially in the factory, which ensures high quality and low cost housing and hydroelectric power as a whole. Hydroelectric power plant, installed in the bottom of the river, to a lesser extent depends on seasonal changes in water level, can be used in winter under the ice, does not interfere with shipping, does not create barriers to fish movement.
1. Hydroelectric containing the impeller is fully immersed in water and mounted for rotation, the housing having a semicircular recess, covering the impeller with one hand, while the other side of the impeller is located in the flow of water, characterized in that the impeller is made with a horizontal axis of rotation, the housing is located in the river bottom and pivotally mounted on the ends of the shafts, which other ends pivotally attached to the piles, which is mounted in the bottom of the river, the outer surface of the housing concentric with the recess, equipped with nozzles for erosion of the soil, spaced radially and cutters, while hydroelectric power plant is equipped with a drive to implement the return swinging movement of the housing relative to the shafts.
2. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the actuator for effecting movement of the housing contains at least one hydraulic cylinder mounted between the bolt and the lever mounted on the body.
3. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 2, characterized in that the lever is made in the form of a conduit box-section, built in the end wall and connected to the line connected to the nozzles.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant is a floating facility fixed by cables 2 with supports 3 on the shore, comprising one row and more turbines 4, installed in parallel on hollow platforms 7, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a fore part. Shafts of turbines 4 are installed in bearing supports 6 as capable of vertical displacement and are kinematically connected to a power generator 8 and starting-regulating equipment 9. There are sprockets 14 installed on shafts of turbines 4 and connected by chains 15 to each other. Upstream the floating facility 1 there is a filter 19 in the form of a wedge for discharge of objects. Blades of turbines 4 are crescent-shaped and are fixed to bodies of shafts so that their edges form a sharp angle with a water mirror. Hollow platforms 7 have a trapezoidal shape in their cross section, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a rear part. Vertical stands 20 of the filter 19 installed fixedly at a distance from the floating facility 1 are equipped with rollers as capable of cranking. The power generator 8 and the starting-regulating equipment 9 are installed on the shore.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, safety of operation and maintenance of a power plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a vessel with an inlet and an outlet for water, a turbine 12 with multiple blades 22. The turbine 12 is equipped with a mechanism for blades control arranged as capable of controlling blade angles relative to a working flow so that each blade 22 rotates around the appropriate axis with a rotation speed equal to a half of turbine 12 shaft rotation speed, as a result a larger area of the blade 22 surface faces the incoming water flow, to drive the turbine 12 in the preset direction of rotation. The smaller area of the blade 22 surface faces the incoming water flow opposite to the driving direction. The plant additionally comprises a partition 49, which passes almost from a central axis to assist in directing the working flow around a part of the vessel, through which each blade 22 moves as its larger area of the surface rotates.
EFFECT: development of a plant capable of fuller usage of a tidal cycle for energy generation.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: mechanism of water flow energy conversion comprises energy receivers arranged on a rigid frame in the form of rectangular planes. These planes are covered with a water-impermeable material. Energy receivers are installed inside a body and are connected to two centres of rotation. One of rotation centres with the help of a crosspiece and a shaft is joined to ends of energy receives via axes. These axes at one side are rigidly connected to ends, and at the other end are joined with a ring. The ring centre of rotation is displaced relative to the crosspiece centre of rotation. The ring is movably joined with a body by means of rollers fixed on body walls. Whenever a ring rotates, energy receivers make circular movements, and angle of their inclination to the flow remains unchanged. Movement against the flow takes place in an air medium.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify mechanism design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: riverbed hydraulic power plant comprises an impeller installed on vertical stands 1 of a base 2 and comprising a shaft 3 with radial drivers 6 and rectangular blades 8, a multiplier with a shaft and a generator. The upper part of rectangular blades 8 is installed hingedly on fluoroplastic bushings at the ends of drives 6. In the side ends of the lower part of the blades 8 there are rollers 9 that roll in guides of -shaped form of fixed sides 10 that are bean-shaped. Guides in the front part have a break or are made as closed with a transition section from the horizontal position of the blades 8 into the vertical one. Blades 8 are made of polymer material. The multiplier's shaft is made vertical.
EFFECT: simplified design of the riverbed hydraulic power plant with higher reliability of operation and increased capacity due to serial connection of hydraulic power units.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: store of energy created with wind force includes sufficient amount of energy to meet the demands of the whole mankind. The invention represents effective device supplying this energy store for practical use. On rotating drive shaft 3 there installed is a pair of shaped parts 1, 2 of convex and concave profile, open V-shaped profile with rounded top, which reverses its orientation through 180 degrees, i.e. it is rotated from convex state to concave state. Drive shaft is rotated through 180 degrees. Circular movement of water, which takes place in the wave, effectively brings into operation such turbine, while the wave dies away. Pair of concave and convex shaped parts 1, 2 is spirally spread about drive shaft 3, by means of which the streams in all directions, which come into contact with pair of shaped parts, create the torque moment.
EFFECT: improving the use efficiency of streams and multidirectional oscillatory movements occurring in waves.
25 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: underwater river-run hydroelectric power plant includes housing 1 with convergent supply and divergent discharge water passages, working chamber 4 with impeller placed in it. Working chamber 4 is toroidal-shaped. Impeller is made in the form of circular screw 5. The latter is kinematically connected in series to carrier 7, multiplying gear 8 and electric generator 9, which are arranged in air dome 6 located in central part of working chamber 4.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency due to increased torque moment of impeller shaft when obtaining electric power as a result of conversion of kinetic energy of water flow passing through river-run power plant irrespective of seasonal state and economic belonging of water reservoir.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: floating power plant includes two pontoons with parts tapering at the front connected between themselves by axis 14, at which there is a stabilising plate 15 and impeller 6 that has concave blades 32, connected to electric generators through horizontal shaft 7. After the axis 14 at longitudinal shaft 22 and support-thrust bearing 23 there fixed is a screw-propeller connected to electric generator 12 mounted at horizontal platform 13 connecting both pontoons through reducer 24 and vertical shaft 11. Vertical supports 26 attached to pontoons have piezoelectric film 29 with photoelectric converters 30 attached to it from above.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to use wind energy by power station, sheltering electric equipment from weather conditions and water flow control at impeller.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: action hydraulic turbine consists of rotor 1 with horizontal shaft 2 and with blades 3 telescoped by means of springs. Blades are arranged around the rotor. Also, the turbine consists of device pulling the blades into after coming out of a working zone. The turbine is equipped with electro-magnetic catches 26 and piezo-elements 8 installed in blades 3 and with a device for transmitting current generated with the blades. The device pulling blades 3 in after telescoping from a working zone consists of electro-magnetic element 25 stationary mounted on shaft 2. Upon telescoping from the working zone this element 25 interacts with spring-loaded electro-magnetic catches 26, springs of which are installed in rotor 1. The springs interact with blades 3. Rotor 1 is freely mounted on stationary shaft 2 and rotates around it.
EFFECT: raised efficiency and expanded functionality.
2 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydraulic power engineering and is intended to produce electric energy by converting kinetic energy of sea waves to electric energy. Wave plant includes impeller, generator and wave receiver located after impeller in wave direction. One end of wave receiver is hinged to support on the shore, and the other end by means of holders is rigidly fixed on pontoon. Impeller is rigidly fixed on pontoon by means of holders.
EFFECT: providing the possibility of maximum use of kinetic energy of sea wave.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine consists of horizontally positioned rotor with assembled blades 4. The rotor corresponds to two half-axles with disks and is equipped with two side profiled disks. Blades 4 are made in form of V-shaped plates arranged along circumference from the disk of the rotor half-axle and are equipped with metal sheets rigidly fixed to sides of V-shaped plates, with angles and leak-proof spacers. At least each second metal sheet of blade 4 is fixed with angles on side profiled disks of the rotor. The circular leak proof spacers are positioned from the half-axle of the rotor to a point of V-shaped plate fixture to the metal sheet. The spacers are of a rectangular form and are installed under the angles between the V-shaped plates and the metal sheet.
EFFECT: simplification of structure fabrication and operation, increased efficiency of hydraulic turbine, efficient utilisation of river hydro-resources, reduced expenditures for power production, improved ecology and increased service life.
SUBSTANCE: intake works fish-protection structure is related to the field of hydroengineering facilities and is used to prevent ingress of roe, larvae, young fish and full-grown fish into the intake works. The structure comprises a water-intake pipe 15, an inlet flow-forming head wall 12, a fish-receiving pod 5, a fish-diverting nozzle 9, an output head wall 11 of the fish-diverting nozzle 9, a curvilinear U-shaped water-receiving chamber 1, chambers-shelters for fish 7. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber 1 there are coarse garbage-retaining grates 2 installed. Between the curvilinear convex 3 and concave 4 walls of the water-receiving chamber 1 there is the fish-receiving pod 5 installed. The fish-receiving pod 5 is arranged in the form of a vertical curvilinear wall with holes for passage of a part of a fish flow 6 with fish into the chamber-shelter 7. In the centre of the curvilinear concave wall 4 of the water-receiving chamber 1 there is a receiving window arranged with guide blades 8 of the fish-diverting nozzle 9. The fish-diverting nozzle 9 is arranged in the form of a box with water discharge with fish along a pipe 10 towards the outlet head wall 11. The outlet head wall 11 is arranged outside the limits of the water intake action area. The inlet flow-forming head wall 12 is inserted into the curvilinear convex wall 3 of the water-receiving chamber 1. The inlet flow-forming head wall 12 is arranged in the form of radial vertical blades 13. In the space between vertical blades 13 there are inclined guide partitions 14. Partitions 14 forward the flow without fish into a vertical riser of a water intake pipe 15. The pitch 16 between guide partitions 14 reduces top down. At the ends of radial vertical blades 13 there are flexible canopies 17 fixed to divert fish to the fish-receiving pod 5.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of fish diversion back into an intake works.
SUBSTANCE: corrugate tubing for load-carrying structures of underground channels comprises a corrugate metal sheet of a rectangular shape in plan, made with perforated holes on a part of the surface and having side and end stiffening ribs. At the same time stiffening ribs along the perimetre of the specified sheet are arranged in the form of metal plates arranged perpendicularly to the sheet and welded to its edges with adjacency of corrugation ends to the side surface of two oppositely arranged plates. Besides, in the specified plates there are holes for fastening bolts, and perforated holes are arranged to inject a mortar to fill cavities between corrugate metal sheets and the surface of the underground channel or the defect load-carrying barrier structure.
EFFECT: reduced weight and dimension of a tubing, lower labour intensiveness and timing of construction.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power unit comprises a water intake, a discharge water conduit, a turbine and a drive of its generators. The hydraulic power unit water intake is made in the form of an artificial reservoir, which is built near a river. A water intake part of the discharge water conduit is connected to the artificial reservoir, and its upper edge is arranged at the level of or below the deepest natural point of the river bottom in a site of the artificial reservoir. The artificial reservoir is connected to the river by a canal or a water conduit, the bottom of which is made in the same manner at the level of or below the deepest natural point of the river bottom.
EFFECT: invention excludes impact of hydraulic power units and their construction at ecology of rivers and streams, where they are built.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric power station at water flow in cut-off basin with natural or artificial water head contains eddies in cylindrical basin and central neck of discharge outlet. With forced water flow along horizontal plane cylindrical basin 1 contains along the axis accelerator 2 with blasting chamber 3 on the one side and spreader 6 on the other side. Spread flow is directed between two side oval abutments 4 at turbine blade 5 with horizontal axis of rotation, which is installed at edge of spreader 6. Rotation of turbine 5 is transferred to gearbox 7 and generator 8. Gearbox 7 and generator 8 are located outside basin 1. Spreader 6 spreads flow into two sleeves and directs them to two lateral sides of basin 1. Then flow turns around oval abutments 4 and then directed to jet of accelerator 2.
EFFECT: device allows creation of completely independent power generation plant that does not require dam or derivational water heads and location in direct vicinity to rivers; it allows use of pressure derivation of natural water flow.
SUBSTANCE: turbine water conduit comprises an internal metal shell and an external reinforced concrete lining covered with a network of cracks of various sizes. The water conduit is located in a bottom face of a concrete dam and is rigidly fixed to the dam. The water conduit is equipped with a protective coating, which is made by application of a heat-insulating paint layer (liquid heat-insulation material) on the external surface of the reinforced concrete lining, which ensures, due to heat-insulation of reinforced concrete lining against atmospheric air, improved stressed-deformed condition of the turbine water conduit, and due to hydraulic insulation - protection of reinforced concrete lining against damaging exposure of atmospheric water. The heat-insulation paint is applied with the turbine water conduit filled with discharge water, which ensures opening of cracks on the surface of the reinforced concrete lining with its pressure.
EFFECT: high efficiency of increasing reliability of an operated steel reinforced concrete turbine water conduit.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant includes a water reservoir, for instance, a river, a water intake, by means of which it is communicated in its upper course with the upper end of a supplying tunnel discharge water conduit, the lower part of which is connected with a hydraulic unit, the outlet of which is communicated with a discharge water conduit, or with a discharge tunnel water conduit, the lower end of which - with the drainage zone, for instance, with the river in its lower course. The hydraulic unit comprises a hydraulic machine, for instance, a hydraulic turbine, installed in the water conduit and kinematically connected with an electric generator. The outlet of the electric generator is connected with an electric converter, to which an electric load is connected. The supplying tunnel discharge water conduit is a directionally drilled well, and the discharge water conduit is either a directionally drilled well, or a canal.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand the conditions of the hydraulic power plant application up to practically everywhere in mountain environment and to obtain all advantages of renewable energy sources during its operation.
SUBSTANCE: building design includes the lower part of the building in the form of wells with circular contour, arranged along the longitudinal axis of the building and connected to the massif of the upper part of the building. The second and subsequent wells of circular contour are made with incomplete contour and are connected with their ends to a previous well above and below the longitudinal axis of the building at the distance from the longitudinal axis. The method is carried out by means of making circular contour wells from the pit surface by the method of slurry wall, soil extraction from the well cavities and concreting structural elements in their cavity. The first well is made, then the second and subsequent wells with incomplete contour, connecting them with the ends of the first (previous) well. The soil is extracted from the cavity of the first and subsequent wells, and structures are concreted in the cavity of the first well and subsequent wells. After the lower part of the building is completed in the form of wells connected to each other and with concreting of structures in their cavity, the upper part of the building is concreted to make a single structure of the building.
EFFECT: improved stress-deformed condition of the building and reduced filtration in the building foundation by development of a solid anti-filtration curtain.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric power includes dam, partitioning part of wave-shaping water area with head wall which has inclined slope on the side of water area, with ridge located above its average level, and hydraulic unit consisting of hydraulic turbine and hydraulic generator. Hydroelectric power plant is also equipped with additional dam forming the second reservoir in which hydraulic unit is installed. Water lifting device supplying the water to the second reservoir from the first reservoir is installed in the first reservoir. Head wall is arranged on the side which is opposite to connection of dam to shore of wave-shaping water area.
EFFECT: higher reliability and stability of operation of hydraulic unit owing to creation of productive head irrespective of parameters of wind waves.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to operation of water treatment facilities and underground premises (antechambers) of coastal pump houses (CPH), nuclear (NPP), thermal (TPP) and hydraulic (HPP) power plants. The proposed method to create a watertight coupling of a pipeline 1 with a barrier concrete or reinforced concrete wall 2 includes serial application of protective mix layers onto cleaned dry surfaces of the pipeline 1 and a cartridge 3, and closing of coupling unit ends. For this purpose an adhesive layer is applied onto an outer surface of the pipeline 1 and an inner surface of the cartridge 3 in the coupling area. Then insulation is provided at the side of the ends with a cement-sand mortar 5, as well as simultaneous closing of a control 4 and an injection 6 tubes. After hardening of the cement-sand layer, a hydraulic insulation mortar is injected into an insulated area 7 of coupling via an injection tube 6 bottom-up, with thixotropic properties, as a result of which cracks and cavities are mudded in process of filling and operation of a pipeline.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of a coupling unit operation for water impermeability, to increase operation time and to simplify technology in production of works, when creating and repairing water-impermeable couplings of pipelines with concrete or reinforced concrete walls.
SUBSTANCE: sealing of a movement joint of steel reinforced concrete (reinforced concrete) pipeline sections is arranged in a cavity at the inner side of the pipeline and comprises a metal bearing element and a flexible sealing element attached to a metal lining of sections that adjoin the joint. The bearing element is arranged in the form of separate rods located at the distance from each other with compensators in their middle part, installed in an expanded part of the joint and directed towards the outer side of the pipeline. Ends of rods are connected to each other by means of circular elements fixed to the metal lining of pipeline sections adjacent to the joint. At the same time the flexible sealing element is arranged according to the shape of the bearing element rods.
EFFECT: high tightness of a sealing and increased reliability of its operation.
8 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg