Method of sublevel working of steep seams with sandstowing
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to sublevel working with sandstowing. Proposed method comprises working the block by odd and even sublevels in ascending order by counter short mining faces vented by all-mine drawdown. First, subdrifts and drops are worked. Seam is worked by counter short mining faces from flank slopes to central slope with direct-flow venting in advance preparation and working of odd sublevels. Mined-out area is filled with solid stowing while even sublevels between odd mined-out sublevels are filled with common stowing. In working, former vent heading is used as a belt heading.
EFFECT: higher safety and efficiency.
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of steep seams mined-out space.
There is a method of testing a steep seams inclined layers with the notch of the layers in ascending order strips along strike with hydraulic mined-out space (Appcracks. The technology of mining. M.: Nedra, 1985, with 259-363). Excavation of coal is produced by drilling and blasting operations. Cleaning the face is a lava (strip) with a length of 10-15 m, located on the decline. The lava from the usual bottom lining, then in the mined-out area is served hydraulic tab.
The main disadvantages of this technology include the fact that the pair stope with ventilation drift created dangerous working conditions (a large concentration of methane and the formation of wood thrown coal).
These disadvantages are eliminated in the other closest to the claimed method (Patent for invention №2283431; application 28.04.05; publ. 10.09.06 BEEP No. 25). Excavation of coal here is mechanical and hydraulic methods with gravity and cast hardening mined-out space.
The disadvantages of the technology are the following:
complex ventilation faces; a large amount of preparatory work; low concentration mountain R the bot on the prepared excavation site; low quality mineral due to the hydraulic conditions of the coal.
The objective of the invention is to provide such a method of designing cool layer, which improves the working conditions of miners, can improve safety and productivity, reduce the complexity and cost of coal.
In the way sublevel development of steep seams mined-out space, including the development of the mining of the area even and odd podatkami in ascending order counter short treatment faces ventilated through mine depression, as well as a preliminary sublevel drifts and slopes, the refinement of the reservoir are opposing short treatment faces from the flank slopes to the Central ventilation on the RAM scheme and advanced training and development of odd podathey, mined-out space which is filled hardening bookmark and leave even potatah between exhaust odd, stope fill a normal tab, and when they are practicing the former airway is odd substage used as the conveyor.
The method is illustrated in the drawings, in which figure 1 is a diagram of the preparation and of the mining area with longwall mining and preparation the openings; figure 2 - a section I-I in figure 1; figure 3 is a section II-II in figure 1.
Figure 1-3 shows the flow chart of extraction of coal reciprocal treatment faces with separate ventilation and mined-out space.
Excavation of land for ventilation and haulage horizons opened crosscut 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Then spend the flanking slopes 7, 8 and the Central ramp 9. Then hold the vent 10 and opening 11 drifts.
For testing the first odd substage 12 hold the vent passage 13. For testing the second odd substage 14 spend conveyor 15 and the vent 16 drifts. For testing the third odd substage 17 also perform the conveyor 18 and the vent 19 drifts.
When developing the first even-numbered substage 20 is used as a conveyor drift former ventilation passage 13, and when developing the second even-numbered substage 21 uses the former airway is 16 and when developing the third even substage 22 uses the roadway 19.
Goaf odd podathey laid hardening bookmark, and even normal. To save Central Stingray leave the pillar 23.
When a failover even podathey ventilation passage 24 is constructed and is maintained until full testing substage 20, and then is filled with hardening bookmark. Flanking the kata 7, 8 are filled with a tab as testing even podathey 20, 21, 22, and the Central 9 after full testing of the site.
The method of designing cool layer is as follows.
Before treatment works from crosscut 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are flanking rays 7, 8 and the Central ramp 9. Then there is the main passage 11 and the ventilation passage 13 for testing of odd substage 12. Practicing odd substage is from the flank rays 7, 8 Central 9, leaving the vent passage 13. At the same time training and practicing the following odd podathey 14, 17. As their testing begins practicing even podathey 20, 21, 22.
When a failover even podathey as belt entries used by the former ventilation drifts odd podathey 13, 16, 19, and ventilation drifts 24, 25 are constructed in filling the array.
All treatment faces ventilated through mine depression on the RAM scheme, and an odd poletai additionally use podsobirayu a stream of air.
Fresh air when working out even podathey supplied from main aquifer in the Central SKAT 9, and then on the conveyor drifts and, washing the face, goes to provisionally reserve in the developed space ventilation drifts 24, 25. Ventilation drifts outgoing stream of air f is angulum slopes 7, 8 goes to the vent horizon.
Ventilation drifts 24, 25 even podathey 20, 21 are filled hardening bookmark after a failover substage and here are filled with tab flanking rays 7, 8.
To save the Central slope 9 leave pillars of coal 23. Possible beztselikovuju scheme testing strips, known on existing technology, where opesuse scat built in filling the array.
The way sublevel development of steep seams mined-out space, including the development of the mining of the area even and odd podatkami in ascending order counter short treatment faces, ventilated at the expense of mine depression, as well as a preliminary sublevel drifts and rays, characterized in that the refinement of the reservoir are opposing short treatment faces from the flank slopes to the Central ventilation on the RAM scheme and advanced training, and working odd podathey, mined-out space which is filled hardening bookmark and leave even potatah between exhaust odd, stope fill a normal tab, and when they are practicing the former airway is odd substage used as a conveyor.
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of cavity in rock mass, burial of fixed rigid bar in it, supply of consolidating stowing mixture to the worked-out area, and measurement of open bar end length; at destruction of rock mass with some part of contact layer of consolidating stowing mass there determined is value of undermining of consolidating stowing as per difference of length of open bar end and length of bar burial in cavity of rock mass.
EFFECT: determination of consolidating stowing mass undermining value.
SUBSTANCE: method includes self-flow supply of a hydraulic stowing pump to filled chambers, its stepwise pumping by pumps without jet break on a mine section of a pulp line, in emergency conditions pulp is released from self-flow and pump sections of the filling pipeline via rupture disks installed at the end of each section of the pulp line, apart from the latter.
EFFECT: lower probability of pipeline clogging in emergency situations, higher reliability of filling pipelines operation and efficiency of a filling plant.
SUBSTANCE: flushing pulp is delivered in stages forming several layers between which drain pipes are installed using leakproof hose parallel to longitudinal axis of flushed space. Drain pipes are attached by one end to leakproof hose. Each drain pipe is extended till it reaches opposite dam, then the housing is detached from drain pipe through the opening in filter dam and is removed for further use. When installation of project quantity of drain pipes is completed, process of flushing pulp delivery is resumed.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of flushing works due to reduction of flushing pulp runoff period.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: water 28.57-44.44 and ashes TPP 4.32-14.32, slag TPP 22.55-42.58, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 18.92-29.29 or water 28.57-44.44 ground together to maximum grain size 0.16 mm and ashes TPP 5.99-16.13, slag TPP 28.30-47.04, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 12.99-23.67 ground together to maximum grain size 0.08 mm.
EFFECT: reducing labour and material expenses, improving ecological situation in the area of abandon mine by means of creation of water-proof and shrink-proof massif.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of slurry backfilling includes preparation of filling mixture from slurry that is generated at production of potassium muriate. Then construction of filling retaining walls, supply of filling mixture into worked out chambers and their filling. Dewatered potassium muriate is added into the slurry as binding agent, the mass of which is defined by the expression: CaCl2-0.57VW, where Vw - water mass in slurry, t. Invention allows leaving solid and liquid part of slurry in solid condition in the filled chamber, the mixture can be transported at large distances that allows performing more complete filling of all slurry in the mine generated at dressing.
EFFECT: possibility to leave solid and liquid part of slurry in solid condition in the filled chamber.
SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture, which contains ground granulated blast-furnace slag, inert filler and water, contains the above aged acid slag, and as inert filler there used is washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, and in addition, the aged ground dolomite powder and superplasticising agent SP-1, at the following component, wt %: the above slag - 11.5; the above refuse - 56.4; the above powder - 9.4; superplasticising agent SP-1 - 0.135; water is the rest.
EFFECT: it is not required to use Portland cement, and aged ground slag of lower grade and aged dolomite powder is used instead of it; therefore, standard strength of stowing mass and movability of stowing mixture is provided; volumes of utilised technogenic wastes are increased in order to sufficiently improve the environmental conditions of the region.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture contains the following in wt %: ground granular blast-furnace slag 10.20-12.70, sodium hydroxide 1.10-1.35, nickel sludge 0.1-0.5, burnt rock 72.91-75.01, water - the balance.
EFFECT: high strength, low labour input, low cost owing to use of secondary resources.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition of a fill mixture comprising a ground acid domain pelletised slag, a superplasticiser SP-1, water and wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation of ferruginous quartzites, contained the following mixture as a binder - a mixture of jointly ground stale acid domain pelletised slag, current wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation and a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 49.8; specified wastes - 49.8; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.4, and an inert filler - stale wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites at the following ratio of components, wt %: binder -22.65; filler - 55.35; water - balance.
EFFECT: recycling of stale wastes of dressing and stale acid domain pelletised slag, reduced consumption of slag as a binding component, reduced water amount as mixture spread increases with preservation of required strength, increased recycling of dressing wastes to improve condition of environment in KMA region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: development is performed during winter period. First, vertical through wells with diameter of 0.5-0.6 m are drilled from surface above developed mine field, through which ice-water mixture is supplied; ratio of solid phase to liquid phase is 1:3 by volume. Filling mass is erected layer by layer; at that, each layer is frozen with forced blowing using cold atmospheric air from blowdown fan. Thickness of a single layer |Nlayer| is determined from the following ratio: Nlayer=1.5|tamb.|-20, cm, where: 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients; |tamb| - absolute monthly average ambient air temperature of months during winter period, °C.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing the time required for stowing operations and improving the stowing quality.
SUBSTANCE: method includes supplying pulp under excessive pressure via a safety device. The safety device is arranged as a tee, one end of which is connected to a bottomhole pulp line, the second one - to a sealer, and a safety membrane is installed on the third one. At the same time the output of wells in the backfilled chamber is arranged near its roof.
EFFECT: higher extent of chambers filling with a backfilling material with reduction of labour costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mechanised longwall set of equipment for mining comprises sections of a powered support, a hydraulic cutting cleanout machine with actuators and hydraulic cutting heads, joined via metal tubes with a water-supply manifold, a hydraulic booster, a plane with two drives and a plate conveyor with load-carrying plates on rollers, and also comprises a transshipment platform with a mechanised sliding bottom. At the same time the set of equipment additionally comprises a scraper conveyor and a hydraulic support "Sputnik" structurally connected to each other by advancing rams. At both sides of the plate conveyor there are channel guides installed to move coalcutters along them with cable handlers. Besides, the coalcutter installed at the face side of the plate conveyor has a vertical upward direction of a cutting jib in parallel to the face line, and the coalcutter installed at the goaf side of the plate conveyor has a direction of a cutting jib in the bed plane along its border with the roof. The hydraulic machine of the set of equipment is fixed in the end part of the longwall face at the side of the transport mine, and hydraulic abrasive jets work in the transverse plane perpendicular to the direction of cut coal body displacement.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a mining face due to reduction of duration of a process mining cycle.
4 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: extracted core of expendable wells helps to define the outline of bed pinching-out at the area, inside the outline the limits of its standard power are registered and on the base of their average position of seam strike the contoured workings are passed. First cuts are located perpendicular to contoured workings upslope or down-dip and till the outline of bed pinching-out and separate the area to paired blocks. Beginning from the end of each paired block and by moving the front line of extraction by reverse movement there are adjacent extraction workings going from the first cuts to both sides with axes shift and parallel to contoured workings; adjacent extraction workings help to extract the bed selectively and are performed with ground and roof breaking, between the paired blocks there remained are solid blocks with width not more than 10% of abutment pressure zone. Each paired block has formed groups of under-goaf and one support solid block. During seam extraction there drilled are prognostic holes and control the degree of rock-bump hazard is performed, if it is revealed the support solid blocks are unloaded.
EFFECT: increase of safety of developing the area of flat and slope seam liable to rock-bumps and reduction of mineral product losses due to involvement of bed pinching-out areas into actual mining.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mining method by large blocks includes advanced formation of bed underbreaking by plough machine with movement of conveyor into it for output of rectangular blocks of mineral cut from long face above it by cutting longitudinal and lateral slots with the use of supports. The output of alluvial mineral from plough operation is done by separate chain-and-flight conveyor. Plough operation in ripping lip is done simultaneously with cutting mineral blocks from the bed upper part by cutting longitudinal and lateral slots by cutting machines and loading of mineral blocks extracted from long face by transfer platform as well as their locomotive haulage from long face to the point of their discharge into grinding chamber.
EFFECT: invention provides multiple increase of mining face productivity in comparison to the existing level, creation of safe by gas factor and ecologically pure by dust production.
6 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving of development-temporary workings, working off of primordial chambers of tapered section, their filling with curing mixture forming artificial pillars, formation of massive ore pillar between artificial pillars. Rock pressure is reallocated on artificial pillars. Touchdown working is driven along ore pillar symmetry axis by contact with ore deposits in overlying roof rocks. Blasting wells are drilled from it radially within outlines of natural arches so that ends of these wells most accurately form sizes and surface of line of natural arches in compliance with estimated ultimate strength of overlying rock massif. Complete discharge of massive ore pillar is performed by induced caving of roof rock between artificial pillars on chambers expanding upwards, support of artificial pillars by caved rock is provided. Massive ore pillar stocks are developed with support of overlying roof rock by natural arches resting upon artificial pillars and retaining slopes formed near side surfaces of artificial pillars during loading of broken ore.
EFFECT: increasing reliability of rock pressure control and labour safety.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used in ore dressing. Proposed complex comprises receiving hopper, crushing and screening unit, assembly to feed ore to separation, ore control station, ore lump separators, concentrate and reject discharge conveyors arranged in underground openings. Assemblies feeding ore to separation and X-ray-type separators are arranged on two levels in long openings communicated by box holes to accumulate and feed ore to separators by gates arranged at their outlets. Said box holes are located at 5-7 mm from each other to feature diameter of 1.0-1.5 mm. Assembly feeding ore to separation represents combination of openings, each being 120-40 0m-long and having 2.5-3 m-diameter, and connected with crushing and screening assembly to allow every opening to feed ore of particular size grade to box hole. Every separator comprises, at least, one additional channel for cleaning rejects after separation of concentrate in main channel. Conveyor belts of said main and additional channels are located one above the other. Openings accommodating said assembly feeding ore to separation and separators are spaced apart for 15-20 m along vertical. X-ray-type separator channel comprises, at least, one x-ray useful component content analyser connected with separation device made up of, at least, one pneumatic blowout nozzle. Every aforesaid assembly is equipped with conveyor provided with unloading device driven along openings length. Crushing and screening unit allows producing four flows of ore sized to (-300+120), (-120+50), (-50+15), (-15+0) mm, with (-15+0) mm-ore directed to concentrate discharge conveyor, the remaining flows being used for filling box holes.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation and quality of concentrate, reduced costs.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.
EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.
SUBSTANCE: extraction sections or blocks are mined with vertical cuts including two vertical layers of various thickness, the internal one of which is mined by means of drilling method of large-diameter scavenger wells and external one is not mined. In order to ensure safe labour conditions at upper drilling level and uniform output of mineral deposit extracted during large-diameter well drilling, drilling of those wells is performed by shrinking of broken mine rock in them. If the deposit is represented with a bench of conformable beds, the cutting height is accepted equal to total thickness of all beds of that bench, including intermediate rocks. Drilling of scavenger wells is performed throughout the cutting height with shrinkage of broken mine rock in them, and separation of mineral deposit and hollow rock is performed at the stage of general release of racks by means of selective bed-by-bed supply.
EFFECT: creation of safe conditions from the point of view of hydrogeology for high-efficiency development of reserves of extraction sections or blocks outlined with natural or artificial barrier or inter-block pillars.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: weakening a spring of natural balance at both sides of the block and damaging a key stone is done simultaneously by exploding rows of parallel wells drilled at the borders with interchamber sight pillars and along the axial line of the stope, in sections length of which is equal to the thickness of the damaged layer. Weakening of the spring at both sides of the block and damaging of the key stone is done by sectional explosion of clusters of parallel adjacent wells: linear ones at borders with interchamber sight pillars and bulk ones along the axial line of the block. The spring at both sides of the block is weakened ahead of erection of artificial interchamber sight pillars.
EFFECT: improved efficiency and safety of production works.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when developing mineral deposits in the form of ore bodies, ore zones are divided along the depth into stories and levels and are mined top-down with sloughing of the above rock massif or filling of the mined space with foreign ground material with lower strength and resistance of rock massif. Ore bodies are mined bottom-up with a layer method with the limited minable width of the layer using the bore hole method from drilling crosscuts with application of drilling mechanisms and conveyor transportation of ore material. Parameters of the broken layer comply with receiving capacity of conveyors that supply the material into the ore chute, and from there into the transport lifting vessel. Mining is carried out starting from the hanging wall of the deposit, and gradually, layer by layer is mined towards the underwall of the deposit. To collect the material sliding off the conveyor flight and during mining of intermediate layers between the extraction ones along the height and ground later, trenches are developed at the bottom. From the trenches the material is sent to a common conveyor via chutes.
EFFECT: complete mining of the deposit, prevention of weakening in the surrounding massif of the mined space.
SUBSTANCE: air supplying gate and the main air gate pass along opposite boundaries of mine field so that they run ahead of extraction front through the length equal to distance between axes of the rooms. At that, rooms have the length equal to width of mine field and are located between air supplying gate and ventilation air gate. Fresh air is supplied through the tunnel located in front of extraction front. At that, return ventilation air is removed along auxiliary air gate.
EFFECT: improving concentration of mining operations, reducing volumes of preparatory mine work, and decreasing air leaks through the worked-out area.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg