Method of laser gas bonding and plant to this end

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: laser beam of short-wave laser 1 is directed to reflecting rotary mirror 13, reflecting mirror 14 and, therefrom, into lens 10 on focusing lens 15, and, via central conical nozzle 5, in pulse mode with amplitude equal to thickness of material being cut, into cutting zone 17. Laser annular beam of long-wave laser 2 is directed to reflecting mirror 13 and, therefrom, to focusing lens 10, wherein beam is reflected by annular mirrors 11, 12 and, besides, directed via central conical nozzle 5 into cutting zone 17. Simultaneously, process gas is fed from gas feed system 8 into annular converging-diverging supersonic nozzle 6 with skewed edge 7 at outlet to effuse therefrom onto material being cut.

EFFECT: required cutting depth and high surface quality.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of processing by a laser beam mainly metallic materials of large thickness.

The known method of cutting thick metal sheets (patent RF №2350445, IPC B23K 26/38 published 27.03.2009), in which the cutting of sheet materials is carried out by impact on the surface of the cut sheet with a stream of oxygen flowing from the supersonic nozzle, and a laser radiation. The laser light is focused so that the beam axis coincides with the axis of the nozzle, the beam spot is located inside the nozzle, and the diameter of the beam on the surface of the cut plate exceeds the output nozzle diameter. The beam heats the metal to a temperature greater than the combustion temperature, but lower than the melting point. The thickness of the cut sheets set by the condition H/Da≤(0,8-l,2)P/P∞+5, where H is the thickness of the cut sheet, mm, Da- output nozzle diameter, mm Specific selection of cutting parameters, namely the pressure in the chamber of the nozzle and the gap between the outlet section of the nozzle and cut sheet allows you to improve the quality of the cut surface.

The known method of laser cutting (Japan Patent JP No. 11104879, IPC B23K 26/00, 26/06, 26/14, published 1999), in which a focused laser beam falls on the cut sheet, coaxially with the beam is fed a stream of oxygen through a conical nozzle. To increase the efficiency of removal of RA is Plava of channel cutting and increasing the thickness of the sheets to be cut device has an additional annular nozzle, concentric to the first, through which also supplied oxygen. This decision by the best blowing channel, you can increase the thickness of the cut sheet in comparison with the case where the annular nozzle is missing. The known method does not allow you to cut materials of large thickness. In this solution, the channel cut is formed by a laser beam focused on the surface of the sheet. The size of the spot of radiation on the surface of the sheet is smaller than the diameter of the gas jet. With increasing thickness of the cut sheets it is necessary to increase the flow of oxygen through the channel cut and the oxygen pressure in the chamber nozzle. The pressure increase in the chamber leads to an excessive concentration of oxygen in the upper part of the channel. Since the channel width of the cut is less than the diameter of the jet of oxygen in the upper part of the channel occurs uncontrolled spontaneous combustion of the material being cut in the direction of the side walls of the channel, then the combustion spreads to the entire thickness of the sheet. While the roughness of the channel walls is greatly increased and the quality of cut is getting worse.

There is a method of gas-laser cutting and installation for gas-laser cutting (RF patent No. 2025244, IPC5B23K 26/00, published 30.12.1994)closest to the proposed method and adopted for the prototype, in which at the initial moment in the cut zone direct short-wave is a laser beam, and then coaxially he sent a circular beam of long wavelength laser, focus them on the treated surface, and the process gas is fed into the zone of action of laser beams through the outer annular conical nozzle. The radiation power density regulated depending on the relations of power and diameter of the focal spots of the beams. However, in the known method the velocity of gas flowing from the conical nozzle is limited and cannot be greater than the speed of sound, which does not allow to penetrate materials of large thickness and, in addition, the cutting surface is obtained is not high enough quality.

The technical result, which is aimed by the invention, is to increase the cutting depth and cutting through the thickness of the material to improve the surface quality of the cut, reducing its roughness and the absence of burrs.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of gas-laser cutting, where the cut zone consistently direct shortwave beam, focus it on the treated surface in a solid spot, and then coaxial shortwave direct long-wave beam and focus it in the form of a ring around the spot, served process gas in the form of an annular jet, what's new is that the short wavelength beam serves the imp is isno with amplitude, equal to the thickness of the cut material, and process gas serves as cuause-expanding supersonic jet with preload it into the cut zone through cuause-extending annular nozzle with an oblique cut on the output.

Installation for gas-laser cutting contains the generators of the laser radiation is shortwave with a continuous output beam and far with a circular output beam, the optical system, getoptions head with nozzle device consisting of a Central conical nozzle for supplying a two-beam laser radiation and is coaxially located him annular nozzle for supplying the process gas is made cuause-expanding with an oblique cut at the exit, turned to the symmetry axis of the nozzle.

Oblique slice annular supersonic nozzle is at an angle from 5° to 40 ° relative to the plane of its direct shear.

The method consists in the following. In the area of cutting through the Central conical nozzle directed two lasers with different wavelengths, the first focus them on the treated surface, and the active process gas is directed into the zone of cutting through the outer annular supersonic nozzle with an oblique cut. The intensification of the process of gas-laser cutting of physically going to the following mechanism: first, the short-wave beam, for example with λ=1.06 µm, Agrawal and melts the metal, that absorption ability of its more than 1.5-2 times than the wavelength of the beam, for example, with λ=10.6 µm. During heating and melting the metal intensively oxidized in the presence of an active process gas. In the next moment the oxidized zone of the metal increases and the ring far-beam effect on the oxidized zone, while its absorption capacity increases and compared with the shortwave absorption, so their joint two-beam effect on the cutting area leads to a deeper penetration of the metal. In the next moment focused shortwave beam pulse venturing with amplitude equal to the thickness of the material at the front of the cutter, oxidizes the surface and contributes to the preservation of the absorption ability of the long-wave beam. The film formed of the melt and sublimates metal removed compact fused supersonic jet process gas from the narrow and deep cut. This process is repeated several times and determines the cutting speed and performance.

Figure 1 presents the scheme of installation for gas-laser cutting.

Figure 2 - coplowe device getoptions head.

The installation includes two generators of the laser radiation is short wavelength 1 and wavelength 2 with a circular output beam, the optical system, getoptions heads of the 3 patients with nozzle device 4, consisting of a Central conical nozzle 5 and supersonic cuause-extending annular nozzle 6 with an oblique cut 7 and delivery process gas 8. The optical system of long-wave laser 2 contains an annular rotary reflecting mirror 9, a two-mirror focusing lens 10 with the annular reflecting mirrors 11 and 12. The optical system short-wavelength laser 1 has a flat turning mirror 13, the optical axis of which is directed onto the reflecting mirror 14 mounted within and along the axis of the annular rotary reflecting mirror 9. The optical axis of the mirrors 9 and 14 coincide with the axis of the conical nozzle 5. A focusing lens 15 shortwave laser 1 is installed inside the two-mirror lens 10 long-wave laser 2 in the housing 16 with the possibility of axial movement.

The device operates as follows. The laser beam wavelength laser 1 is directed to rotary reflecting mirror 13, a reflecting mirror 14 and the beam is directed into the lens 10 for focusing the lens 15 and through a Central conical nozzle 5 pulse with amplitude equal to the thickness of the cut material in the cut zone 17. Laser ring beam wavelength of laser 2 is directed to a reflecting mirror 9, and from him in the focusing lens 10, in which the ring beam is reflected by mirrors 11 and 12 and tokenprivileges through a Central conical nozzle 5 in the cut zone 17. At the same time from the system supply process gas 8 in the annular nozzle 6 under a high pressure process gas, which, dripping from supersonic annular nozzle 6 with an oblique cut 7 output tightened and high-speed supersonic jet affects the cut zone 17 of the processed material 18 forming the front Reza 19.

Gas-laser cutting of sheet materials provide impact on the area cut by two laser beams with different wavelengths through a hole in the conical nozzle 5, focus them on the surface, while the short wavelength beam serves pulse frequency (20-210) Hz and amplitude equal to the thickness of the cut material, the far-beam focus in the form of a ring around the spot shortwave. Process gas (active oxygen, air or a mixture of (O+N or passive nitrogen, argon) is fed through a ring cuause-expanding supersonic nozzle with an oblique cut, facing obtuse angle to the axis of symmetry of the laser beams. A jet of gas tightened to the axis, increasing its speed and intensity of exposure to the material to be cut. High-speed supersonic jet process gas provides the necessary depth of cut and high quality of its surface.

Thus, due to joint two-beam, d is istia short-wave and long-wave laser beams and supersonic jet process gas, aimed at the area of the cut with preload due to oblique nozzle, stimulating the process of gas-laser cutting of materials of greater thickness with a high quality cut surface.

1. The way gas-laser cutting, including a consistent direction in the cut zone first wavelength beam, focusing it on the treated surface in a solid spot, and then the direction of the far-beam short-wave coaxial beam to focus it in the form of a ring around the stain and supply of process gas in the form of an annular jet, characterized in that the short wavelength beam serves pulse with amplitude equal to the thickness of the cut material, and process gas serves as cuause-expanding supersonic jet with preload it into the cut zone through a narrowing - extending annular nozzle with an oblique cut on the output.

2. Installation for gas-laser cutting, containing short-wavelength laser radiation with a continuous output beam and the wavelength of the laser radiation with circular output beam, the optical system, getoptions head with nozzle device consisting of a Central conical nozzle for supplying a two-beam laser radiation and is coaxially located him annular nozzle for supplying process gas, distinguish what the lasting themes that an annular nozzle for supplying the process gas is made narrowing is expanding with an oblique cut at the exit, turned to the symmetry axis of the nozzle.

3. Installation according to claim 1, characterized in that the oblique slice annular supersonic nozzle is at an angle from 5° to 40 ° relative to the plane of its direct shear.



 

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