Structured head piece for reactor

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: structured head piece is made of metal sheet for facilitation to transfer of heat and mass near reactor wall. Structured head piece induces side flow of fluid running through the head piece in such a way that one jet hits one wall of reactor. Head piece may be used in cylinder, ring-type of plate-type reactor, catalytic reactor or heat-exchanger.

EFFECT: increasing coefficient of heat-exchangers heat transmission without any significant increase of pressure differential in them.

12 cl, 6 dwg

 

Cross-reference to related application

This application claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. under serial number 61/207,170, filed February 9, 2009. The disclosure of the aforementioned application is incorporated here by reference in its entirety.

The scope of the invention

The invention relates to a structured nozzle to the reactor. The nozzle can be used in a cylindrical, annular or plate reactor, for example a catalytic reactor or heat exchanger.

Prerequisites to the creation of inventions

Reactors, such as chemical reactors and heat exchangers are widely used to facilitate heat transfer, mass transfer and/or speed chemical reactions. In the case of reactors, such as chemical reactors, often there is a need to transfer heat to the reactor (for example, for endothermic reactions) or in the transfer of heat from the reactor (for example, for exothermic reactions). In commercial practice, to achieve economies of scale, it is desirable to use a reactor having a large diameter. To facilitate the transfer of heat between the contents of the reactor and the environment desirable high coefficient of heat transfer in the reactor. High coefficient of heat transfer in the reactor is particularly desirable near the outer diameter of the reactor,where the ratio of the surface area for heat radiation to the internal volume is lowest and where the amount of heat subject to radial migration is proportional to the volume inside source reactor. Friction between the fluid and the wall of the reactor often entails a relatively low speed and, consequently, lower values of coefficient of heat transfer near the wall of the reactor, where the presence of a higher heat-transfer coefficients is the most desirable.

In the case of heterogeneous catalytic reactors fixed bed heat transfer in the wall of the reactor may limit the rate of reaction for endothermic reactions, or the transfer of heat from the reactor may restrict or safe operation for exothermic reactions. In General, it is desirable to limit the number of internal walls in the reactor, in order appropriately to minimize the number of boundary layers in low speed and low heat-transfer coefficient through which the heat must pass in the radial direction. The increase in surface area in catalytic reactors improves the ability to accelerate reactions by creating more sites for effective placement of the catalyst. In particular, high geometric surface area near the wall of catalytic reactors increases the number of available heat for carrying out exothermic reactions and heat transfer to endothermic the x reactions at short distances, passable warm on the way from reactors or reactors, respectively.

The level of technology

It is known that constructed nozzle consisting of a metal substrate, can be designed in such a way that it contains thinner walls than those that may be possible in layers with disordered seal for catalysis, and, thus, has a large geometric surface area at a pressure drop of comparable or smaller relative to that which can be achieved in the layer with disordered seal. It is also known that constructed the nozzle can be designed in such a way as to ensure we wish high coefficients of heat transfer near the wall of the reactor.

U.S. patents 4,882,130, 4,719,090 and 4,340,501 refer to different structures constructed nozzles to ensure uniform improvement of the geometric surface area and heat transfer throughout the volume of the reactor, preferably low differential pressures, no significant improvement in heat transfer or geometric surface area near the wall of the reactor.

In U.S. patent 4,985,230 revealed the design of the nozzle, suitable for use in the annular space between the two walls, which includes alternating columns of channels that respectively guide the fluid to p is pout wall and the second wall to promote turbulence of the liquid, passing through the reactor. This nozzle creates a desirable values of heat transfer and geometric surface area near the walls of the reactor at a desirable low pressure drop, but has the disadvantage of complexity of its manufacture.

Published patent application US 2004/0013580 refers to the body of the filter for removing soot particles from diesel engine exhaust. Disclosed construction, which is designed to encourage the fluid to flow through the adjacent plate of the filter is not suitable for this purpose, to cause collision of the liquid with the wall and its reflection from the wall to provide the desired heat transfer.

In the PCT application (PCT/US 2005/42425) revealed beshlawy reactor, providing for the construction of the active zone near the axis of the reactor and the construction of the casing of the reactor between the active area and the wall of the reactor.

The purpose of the invention

The aim of the invention is the creation of a structured nozzles of the reactor, which will increase the geometric surface area and/or the coefficient of heat transfer (especially near the walls of the reactor) reactors, such as heterogeneous catalytic reactors with a fixed layer, without significantly increasing the pressure drop across them.

Another aim of the invention is to provide a structured nozzles for heat exchanger, which is isit heat transfer coefficient of heat exchangers without significantly increasing the pressure drop across them.

The above objectives and other objectives of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the invention.

Summary of the invention

Structured packings of the present invention is easily manufactured sharp sheet and the subsequent bending of the sheet into the design, which includes alternating columns containing the blades are oriented oppositely inclined to the axis of the reactor to cause successive collision of the liquid with the wall of the reactor and returning it from the wall of the reactor. Columns are separated from each other generally in a straight dividing walls. The blades are composed of a single sheet, attached to the separation wall lintels made from the same sheet. In the preferred case, the sheet is a metal foil, and the design is preferably molded successive dies for cutting and bending.

Structured packings of the present invention may be located near the inner diameter of the tube or cylindrical shell of the reactor, in the annular space of the annular reactor or between the two walls of the reactor in another shape, for example, between two flat walls in a plate heat exchanger. In all cases, structured packings for this is th invention causes a collision of the liquid with the wall of the reactor, which increases the heat transfer through the wall.

Brief description of drawings

Figa) is a cross-section of the structured nozzle of the present invention.

Figb) is a longitudinal radial section of the structured nozzle according to the present invention (corresponding to section b-b In Figa) with the image of the centrifugal blades.

Figv) is a longitudinal radial section of the structured nozzle according to the present invention (corresponding to section a-a in Figa) with the image of the centripetal blades.

FIGURE 2 is a horizontal projection of the sheet from which molded structured packings of the present invention.

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragment of the sheet from which molded structured packings of the present invention.

FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of the structured nozzle of the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

Structured packings of the present invention is used in a reactor having input, output and at least one wall, and includes:

(a) a sheet folded back and forth, thus forming a series of alternating first and second columns, separated from each other by a dividing wall;

(b) first and second n the sending of the blade, located in respective first and second columns such that at least some of the first blades inclined at an indirect angle to the wall of the reactor, and at least some of the second blades inclined at opposite indirect angle to the wall of the reactor;

(c) the links connecting at least some of the first and second blades with dividing walls along at least one side of at least some of the first and second blades; and

(d) many of the spaces between the dividing walls and the wall of the reactor extending from input to output.

In the preferred case of structured packings of the present invention formed from a single sheet, which may be a metal sheet or foil. Other indirect angles referred to in paragraph (b) above, may have the same or different size. The periods referred to in paragraph (d) above are preferably staggered.

Typically, the reactor containing structured nozzle according to the invention will have a cylindrical form and may include inner and outer concentric walls and located between the annular space. Structured packings of the present invention in the preferred case includes a number of cerebus the first and second columns with their respective first and second blades, where the number is located in the annular space. In addition, it is preferable that in the annular space located plate, and the nozzle preferably includes a series of alternating first and second columns with their respective first and second blades, where the number is located in the annular space.

As mentioned above, the reactor may be a chemical reactor, for example a catalytic reactor, or it may be a heat exchanger. In the case of catalytic reactors, preferably, at least some of the surfaces of the sheet were the catalyst.

Detailed description of drawings

On Figa) reactor 1 has a cylindrical wall 2, and structured packings 3, shown as a hatched area, is located inside the wall 1. Outer diameter 4 nozzles 3 corresponds to the inner diameter of the wall 1. The nozzle 3 has an internal diameter of 5 and divided into longitudinal columns 6 (depicted by plots hatched by dots) and longitudinal columns 7 (depicted by plots hatched by oblique lines). Columns 6 and 7 are interleaved and separated from each other by radial dividing walls 8. The reactor 1 has an irregular intervals (not shown)located between the radial dividing walls 8 and the wall 2 of the reactor golosovoy length of the reactor. Fluid flowing along the length of the reactor 1, is sent to the centrifugal direction through the column 6 and in the centripetal direction, flowing through the column 7.

On Figb) (which represents a longitudinal section of the reactor 1 through the section b-b Figa) column 6 extends from its outer diameter is 4 to the inner diameter of 5. Column 6 is limited in its outer diameter is 4 wall 2 of the reactor. The height of the column 6 contains the blades 9. The blade 9 is formed channels 10, which guide the centrifugal liquid as the liquid passes from the top to the bottom of the reactor 1.

On Figv) (which represents a longitudinal section of the reactor 1 through the section a-FIGA) centripetal column 7 extends from its outer diameter is 4 to the inner diameter of 5. Column 7 is limited in its outer diameter is 4 wall 2 of the reactor. The height of column 7 contains the blades 11. The blades 11 to form channels 12, which guide the fluid centripetal, as the fluid passes from the top to the bottom of the reactor 1.

In figure 2, the sheet 20 is formed into a structured nozzle according to the present invention by cutting and bending the columns 21, consisting of repeating forms 30 forming the centripetal blades, and columns 22, consisting of repeating forms 40, forming a centrifugal Lopes is I. The sheet 20 is a hard plastic material, preferably a metal foil.

Figure 3 shows in an enlarged form form 30 from the column 21 FIGURE 2 and form 40 from the column 22 FIGURE 2. The form 30 is formed from sheet 20 in the blade and two side jumpers that connect the blade with the sheet from which it is formed. Solid lines correspond to the lines of the cut sheet. Lines marked points correspond to the bending of the sheet at an angle of about 90°. Lines marked streaks correspond to the bending of the sheet at an angle of about 180°.

The sheet 20 is cut by the lines 31, 32 and 33, and a horizontal line 33 corresponds to the horizontal line 32 to the adjacent form (not shown), which is similar to the form shown at 30 and is under it. The sheet is folded at an angle of about 90° in the direction from the reader along lines 34 and is folded at an angle of about 180° in the direction to the reader along lines 35. The resulting blade 9 consists of flat, mostly surface bounded by lines 32, 33 and 34. The blade 9 is attached to the rest of the sheet jumpers 37 along the two sides of the blade. Jumper 37 is limited by the lines 31, 34 and 35. For circular or cylindrical nozzle top of the blade 9, in the preferred case, is wider than its bottom, as shown in the figure. The blade 9 is a blade that creates centripetal channels on the I liquid, the current from the top to the bottom of the reactor 1. For the nozzle between two flat parallel walls of the blade 9, in the preferred case, has the same width at the top and bottom.

The sheet 20 is cut by the lines 41, 42 and 43, and a horizontal line 43 corresponds to the horizontal line 42 to the adjacent form (not shown), which is similar to the form shown 40 and is under it. The sheet 20 is folded at an angle of about 90° towards the readers along the lines 44 and is folded at an angle of about 180° in the direction from the reader along the line 45. The resulting blade 11 consists of a flat, mostly surface bounded by lines 42, 43 and 44. The blade 11 is attached to the rest of the sheet jumpers 47 along the two sides of the blade. Jumper 47 is limited by the lines 41, 44 and 45. For circular or cylindrical nozzle, the upper blade 11, in the preferred case, is narrower than its bottom, as shown in the figure, and the blade 11 creates centrifugal channels for fluid flowing from the top to the bottom of the reactor 1. For nozzles located between two parallel plates, the blade 47, in the preferred case, has the same width at the top and bottom.

As can be seen from FIGURE 2 and 3, the bottom of the form 30 in columns 21 is only partially above the bottom edge 23 of the sheet 20. Cut edges 31 and 32 to the bottom mold 30 of the column 21 can lead to the formation of voids and the and the lack of nozzles for such lower forms. Similarly it is seen that the upper form 40 in the columns 22 is only partially below the top edge 24 of the sheet 20. Accordingly, the top mold 40 is truncated upper edge 24.

The sheet formed in the manner described above, is cut into a side parting and bend into a ring or annular shape, or otherwise come along one or between two walls of the reactor. The ends of the rings can be connected by welding, adhesive or mutual coupling ends.

Figure 4. presented in a breakdown perspective view of the structured nozzle according to the invention for a cylindrical or annular reactor, in which all the elements of figure 4, corresponding to the above figures have the same numerical designation, as in the figures described above.

The walls of the reactor is not shown in FIGURE 4. The nozzle 3 extends to the outer diameter at the point 4 and the inner diameter at the point 5. Centrifugal blades 9, fastened to the dividing walls of the ridges 37, occupied by centrifugal columns of nozzles. Centripetal blades 11 attached to the dividing walls of the ridges 37, take centripetal columns of nozzles. Centrifugal and centripetal columns alternate with each other around the casing and extend along the entire length of the reactor 1, preferably from reactor inlet to the reactor outlet.

In the alternative is ariante implementation multiple structured packings of the present invention may be placed sequentially in the same reactor between the heat source and sink of heat transfer. For example, two or more block structured nozzles can be placed concentrically and adjacent to each other in the annular or cylindrical reactor. Two or more blocks of the structured nozzles can be placed near and parallel to each other between the two walls of the plate reactor or between the two walls of the reactor other geometric shape.

Described above illustrate embodiments of the invention. However, it should be understood that other means known in the art or disclosed in this application can be used without deviation from the spirit of the invention and scope of the claims of the claims below.

1. Structured packings for reactor having input, output and at least one wall that includes
(a) a sheet folded back and forth, thus forming a series of alternating first and second columns, separated from each other by a dividing wall;
(b) first and second guide vanes, located in respective first and second columns such that at least some of the first inclined blades on the indirect angle to the wall of the reactor, and at least some of the second blades inclined at opposite indirect angle to the wall of the reactor;
(c) the links connecting at least some of the first and second blades with dividing walls along at least one side of at least some of the first and second blades; and
(d) many of the spaces between the dividing walls and the wall of the reactor extending from input to output.

2. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that the nozzle is formed from a single sheet.

3. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that the sheet is a metal sheet or foil.

4. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that all the other indirect angles have the same value.

5. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that all the other indirect angles have different values.

6. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that extending from input to output gaps between the dividing walls and the reactor wall are staggered.

7. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that the reactor is cylindrical and includes inner and outer concentric walls and located between the annular space.

8. Structured asado according to claim 7, wherein the nozzle includes a series of alternating first and second columns with their respective first and second blades, where the number is located in the annular space.

9. Structured packings according to claim 7, characterized in that the annular space is located the plate, and the nozzle includes a series of alternating first and second columns with their respective first and second blades, where the number is located in the annular space.

10. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that at least on some of the surfaces of the sheet has a catalyst.

11. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that the reactor is a catalytic reactor.

12. Structured packings according to claim 1, characterized in that the reactor is a heat exchanger.



 

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11 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: natural gas industry; oil-refining industry; chemical industry; devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas(vapor)-liquid systems.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices for realization of the mass-exchange processes in the gas (vapor)-liquid systems, in particular, to the absorption and to the rectifying columns and may be used in the natural gas industry, il-refining industry, chemical industry. The regular overflow head contains the packed solids made out of the punching-drawn perforated sheets. The punching-drawn perforated sheets are made rectangular and bent along the longitudinal axis of the symmetry in the form of the small corners with the apex angle making from 110° up to 130°. The small corners are arranged with their peaks upward and laid in the staggered order one over another in the horizontal rows in the framework with formation of the packed-column block module. The small corners shelves edges of the above located row are connected with the apexes of the corners of the below row. In the shelves of the small corners and along the corners shelves edges there are the perforated section-shaped holes arranged uniformly in the staggered order along the whole area of the corners shelves. Above the holes there are the salient cone-shaped visors and their peaks on each of the corners shelves are facing the same direction in parallel to the corner shelf bent line. The mass-exchange column contains the packing block modules mounted one above another in the central part of the body. In the body the horizontal segment-shaped baffle plate are mounted. At that the baffle plates are arranged along the corners of packing modules on the opposite sides of the framework with formation of the zigzag-shaped channel of the multipath crisscross stream of the vapor. As the result of it the invention allows to increase effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid, to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; petroleum industry; natural gas industry; other industries; production of the nozzles used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to designs of the regular nozzles, which are used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration and also as the mixers of the liquid and gaseous streams as the separators of the phases in the separation devices, as the contact elements in the condensers of mixing, as the sprinklers of the water cooling towers and may find usage practically in all production processes in petroleum, gaseous, chemical and other allied industries. The regular nozzle consists of the corrugated plates gathered in packages installed vertically and in parallel with the inclination of the flutes of the adjacent sheets to the horizon in the opposite sides, contacting by the protruding flutes to each other and forming among themselves the free channels of the complicated geometrical form. The nozzle is supplied with the spacers made in the form of the block of the horizontally laid in the rows in parallel to each another volumetric components. At that the symmetry axes of the components laying in the adjacent in height rows are mutually perpendicular. The ratio of the height of the package consisting of the corrugated sheets to the height of the spacer block lays within the limits of 2-5. The total height of the block of the spacers lays within the limits of 1.0-4.0 equivalent diametersof one component. The equivalent diameter of channels of the corrugated sheets package and the equivalent diameter of the component of the block of the spacer are in the ratio of 0.4-0.8. The components of the block of the spacer represent the solids of revolution, which are made in the form of the multiple-thread helicoids, at that the number of the threads makes 2-4. The components of the spacer block are laid in the rows with the clearance to each other, at that the interval, which separates the symmetry axes of the adjacent components makes 1.7-2.5 diameters of one component. The invention allows to raise intensity of the processes of the heat- and mass-exchange due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased intensity of the heat-exchange and mass-exchange processes due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: separation of materials.

SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises stacks made of vertical sheets provided with projections that define the sloping passages between the sheets for flowing the phases. The sheets of at least one pair of the stacks are coated with porous belts made of polymeric materials. The porous belts are connected with a source of positive charges.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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