Undertree distributor of irrigation water
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a distributor, dead-end water supply channels. The distributor is made of sheet material having dead-end water supply channels in its thickness. The dead-end water supply channels are parallel to the generators of a cone, which are connected on the upper part with the intake chute hopper. The water outlet holes are made in the walls of the channels. The channels are turned down. Through the water outlet holes an even distribution of irrigation water is provided from the channels on the soil surface in the moisture area. The moisture area is in the plan the form of a broad ring.
EFFECT: design enables to improve reliability of the device operation and to eliminate the need for adjustment of the distributor with the growth of plants.
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for the irrigation of perennial agricultural and ornamental crops.
A known design of low-pressure drip, comprising a housing with a water outlet hole, the distribution element in the form of corrugated cone of the light-tight film or foil, mounted coaxially into the water hole and provided with a mechanism for regulating the angle of the corrugation to change of wetting zone (RF patent No. 2220561, MCP A01G 25/02, bull. No. 1, 2004).
The disadvantages of this design are localized in one point of supply of irrigation water, the moisture distribution in the soil is not adequate spatial location and growth of roots of plants in relation to the concentration of points falling drops on a closed line that does not provide uniform distribution of irrigation water in the soil root zone; the need to change the angle of the corrugation of the distribution cone as plant growth, insecurity under the effect of meteorological factors (rain, wind), and also in the care of irrigated plants and harvesting in production areas, due to the execution of the cone and sliding of a single layer of thin material.
The objective of the invention to increase the surface area of the soil, irrigated one RA is Opredelitel irrigation water, the exception is the need for adjustment of the distributor as plant growth and increase its reliability.
This object is achieved due to the fact that the valve body of conical shape made of opaque polymeric sheet material that is thicker than a dead-end water conveyance channels, parallel, forming a cone, which in the upper part are communicated with the intake funnel and the walls of the channels facing down, made the water outlet hole, which provide uniform distribution of irrigation water from canals on the surface of the soil in the area of hydration, represents in plan the form of a wide ring.
On figa, 1B schematically shows a General view of the proposed undercrown distributor of irrigation water.
Undercrown distributor of irrigation water consists of a body 1 in the shape of a truncated cone, in the working position facing a large base down, in the upper part of the body is water-intake funnel 2, associated with dead water conveyance channels 3, made in the thickness of the body material, the walls of the channels facing down, made the water outlet hole 4.
Work undercrown distributor of irrigation water as follows. Irrigation water from the irrigation of low-pressure t is unaproved (not shown) is fed by a portion (not to exceed in value the amount of rainwater) to the receiving hopper 2 and draining under gravity on a dead-end water conveyance channels 3, expires in the form of drops of water outlet openings 4, uniformly wetting the soil. After passage of the specified time interval, which is determined by the irrigation rate, the working cycle is repeated.
Undercrown distributor of irrigation water conical shape, made of opaque polymeric material, characterized in that the dispenser is made from a sheet material that is thicker than a dead-end water conveyance channels, parallel, forming a cone, which in the upper part are communicated with the intake funnel and the walls of the channels facing down, made the water outlet hole, which provide uniform distribution of irrigation water from canals on the surface of the soil in the area of hydration, represents in plan the form of a wide ring.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises carcass elements of the housing, a heat insulating shell, a tank, pressure piping, a level control, a water supply pipeline for irrigation, water-distribution pipelines, isolation valves and daily timer. The tank is hydraulically connected to the pressure piping, the level control and the water supply pipeline for irrigation. The device is made in the form of a space dismountable carcass structure made of pipes. In the upper part of the dismountable carcass structure a longitudinal collector is placed. The length of the collector is equal to the length of the planting bed. The collector is hydraulically connected to the side distribution pipelines. The lateral distribution pipelines are made in the form of equal symmetric relative to the longitudinal collector parallel semicircles. The plane of the parallel semicircles is perpendicular to the longitudinal collector axis. The semicircles diameter is chosen to be equal to the width of the bed B. The ends of distribution carcass pipelines are tightly plugged with vertical removable racks. The length of the vertical removable racks is chosen from the relation L=H-B/2+C, where H is total height of the carcass structure of the device after installation in the bed, C is the value of penetration of the vertical removable rack in the bed. Each distribution pipeline has the holes for irrigation from the concave side. The outer shell of the device is made removable. The collector is hydraulically connected to the tank through the normally closed solenoid valve of the water supply main pipeline for irrigation. The pressure piping of the tank comprises a normally closed solenoid valve. The tank is mounted at a height greater than or equal to H. The level control is made in the form of an electric float sensor.
EFFECT: structure enables to increase efficiency of use of the device.
SUBSTANCE: method includes periodic irrigation of root habitable horizon, periodic moistening plants, determination of the surface air temperature, the temperature of plant leaves and relative humidity of the surface air. The values of the coefficients A, B, C are calculated by formulas. At A≥0.9 the drip irrigation is performed with a rate of 150-200 m3/ha from 22 pm to 2 o'clock at night. At B≥1.2 with dry winds from 11 to 15 o'clock in the afternoon the surface air is irrigated with atomization of water particles with a diameter of 10-50 micron with replaceable nozzles. At C≥1.5 the leaves and stems of plants are additionally moistened with water droplets with a diameter of 100-800 micron for 3-4 hours. At A+B≥2.1 drip irrigation is carried out to reduce the soil temperature +22…26°C, and the relative air humidity is increased to 50…70%. At B+C≥2.5 the agricultural plants leaves and the surface air is moistened by atomisation of irrigation water for 0.5 h with intervals every hour. At A+C≥2.5 drip irrigation is carried out for 2-3 hours, and the agricultural plants leaves are moistened. At A+B+C≥3.5 drip irrigation is carried out for 30-45 minutes at intervals of 2 hours. The system comprises water source, a pumping station with filters and irrigation network in the form of irrigation pipelines with droppers. The system is equipped with an additional water distribution pipeline which is hydraulically connected by flexible irrigation pipelines having droppers. Each rack for periodic moisturising of low- and middle-growing plants is made in the form of rods of circular section. The upper ends of the rods are connected by the adapter. The adapter has a nipple on one side for hydraulic connection with a fitting placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation pipeline with droppers. The fitting is located in the wall of the flexible irrigation pipeline with droppers. The adapter is connected to the conical cavity of the nozzle with a conical sleeve.
EFFECT: preservation of the cultivated harvest under critical conditions is provided.
3 cl, 36 dwg, 18 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: irrigation system includes a water source, the device of pulsed water supply, distribution pipeline and irrigation pipeline with drainage outlets. The drainage outlets are made in the form of birecurvate tubules. One end of the birecurvate tubes is connected to the irrigation pipeline across its upper surface. The other end of birecurvate tubes is fixed vertically at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipeline. The second end of the birecurvate tubes is provided with branch pipe mounted to be movable in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: design enables to ensure an even distribution of water between the irrigated pipelines along their length and uniform wetting of irrigated area.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler includes a cylindrical body and a lid. The cylindrical body comprises slotted turnouts in the middle part. In the lid opening a finely divided spray is set. Annular grooves are made on the inner surface of the body, above and below the slotted turnouts. In the annular grooves O-rings are placed. The lid of the sprinkler has a ring bearing collar. The annular bearing shoulder comes up inside the body to the upper ring groove. In the lower part of the body a mechanism of switching modes of operation of the sprinkler is placed. The mechanism of switching modes of operation of a sprinkler consists of locking drum commensurate with the inner diameter of the body with O-rings coming into the grooves. At the bottom of the locking drum holes are made. In the center of the locking drum a lead-trough tube is mounted with a spring mounted on it. The spring passes through the hole in the lid to its outer surface. The finely divided spray consists of a deflector with a calibrated channel and the sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface. The deflector with a calibrated groove is fixed by screwed connection in the upper part of the tube of the locking drum at the exit of the body. The sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface has a diameter of the deflector channel, and installed with a bracket on the body lid at the exit of the deflector coaxially with it.
EFFECT: design enables to mechanise switching of working modes of sprinkler and flushing of the finely divided sprinkler.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkling apparatus contains a union nut on the inlet pipe, pivotally mounted on the rotatable housing with water-supply and flow-generating channel, and a jet drive. The flow-generating channel is made in the form of a vertical rod. The jet drive is designed as a blade pivotally freely mounted with two stages on the rod, and supplied with blades from the side of the flow-generating channel. Jet blade on the top along the entire length is made with two protrusions. On the rod a flange is rigidly fixed with the stops made to diameter with the ability to move the stops along the holes made to the radius. Above the flange at the top of the stem additional flow-generating channels are made. Above the stem in the water-supply channel a fitting and a threadably connected plug are installed. The fitting is designed as a finger with axial and transverse channels, and an annular groove. Between the fitting, the stem and the plug springs are installed.
EFFECT: design will improve the quality of irrigation of irrigated area, increase reliability of sprinkler apparatus operation.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a water-intake structure, the first pump, the first lock, controlled microhydrants, the second pump, the second lock, the third lock, an activator and a water accumulator. The first pump is connected via the first lock to the input of a transporting pipeline. Two groups of controlled microhydrants are connected to the transporting pipeline for supply of water into irrigated furrows. Film screens are installed under irrigated furrows. Film screens are laid along edges of wide stationary ridges with narrow trenches. Trenches are dug along the middle of the stationary ridges and are filled with vegetable remains and manure. Parallel to the first lock the following components are connected in series - the second lock, the activator and the water accumulator, the third lock and the second pump. Slopes of ridges used to grow plants are aligned towards the south. Slopes of ridges are covered with a layer of sand. The lower part of narrow trenches is filled with trunks of trees and wooden remains. In the irrigated furrows there are partitions installed in autumn and winder period. There are slots made at the southern slopes. Slots are perpendicular to the irrigated furrows and are filled with sand. The distance between slots reduces when approaching end of irrigated furrows, providing for even moistening of ridges along the furrows length during irrigation.
EFFECT: design will make it possible to improve quality of irrigated areas melioration.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: irrigating pipeline includes holes. The pipeline wall, at least in area of each hole, is arranged as multilayer. At least, one of the upper layer and the lower layer of the pipeline wall is made of a water-repellent material. The inner layer of the pipeline wall is made of the transparent material. The hole is defined by the cut surface in the pipeline wall. The specified surface of cut in the pipeline wall includes a tight coating, which coats at least the inner layer. The method to form a hole in the irrigating pipeline wall includes formation of a hole in the pipeline wall and a tight coating of the specified cut surface, at least, in the field of the inner layer.
EFFECT: design and technology make it possible to increase reliability of the pipeline operation by prevention of possible leaks.
20 cl, 25 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, magnetoactive material is applied in them. Magnetoactive material is represented by magnetised particles of crushed slag from ferrous metallurgy.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to reduce hardness of irrigation water.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, ameliorant is applied in them. Ameliorant is represented by particles of lignin.
EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with melioration.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, herbicide is applied in them. Herbicide is applied in the form of emulsion concentrate.
EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with suppression of weeds in rows of cultivated plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: irrigation amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has water outlet, porous casing with stopper at lower end and replaceable porous member positioned in casing and in stopper. Replaceable porous member is made in the form of parts of cylinder joined to one another with their diametrical surfaces. Channels are formed on cylindrical surface of each cylindrical part. Upon joining of cylindrical parts along cylinder, channels define vertical channels. Cylinder may have one, two or three detachment surfaces. Helical channels are formed on cylindrical parts of replaceable porous member. Helical channel pitches in parts of cylinder to be joined are not multiple one another. Water outlet is equipped with float valve arranged inside water outlet above pressure suppressing chamber. Stopper at lower end of porous casing is equipped with accumulating chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to selective dispensing of water to plant roots.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: irrigated agriculture, in particular, equipment used for watering of perennial plants.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing and cover with inlet and outlet branch pipes, respectively, throttle and elastic balancing member with openings. Throttle is made in the form of hollow biconcave lens and positioned in casing cavity above elastic balancing member. Spherical segment-shaped slot is formed in cover body below inlet branch pipe. Radius of spherical part of said slot is equal to radius of throttle lens spherical part. Similar slot is formed in bottom part of casing above inlet branch pipe. Radius of said slot is greater than radius of spherical part of throttle biconcave lens part by value equal to thickness of balancing member. Channels are formed on casing bottom part surface and on slot surface to define spiral branches. Holes are made on peripheral part of elastic balancing member.
EFFECT: simplified construction and improved watering quality.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing equipped with inlet and outlet openings, main float-type regulating members and additional regulating member, said members being located inside casing. Main float-type regulating member is made as biconcave lens formed in spherical layer of waterproof material having density below 1 t/m3. Additional regulating member is made in the form of elastic membrane with central opening. Protrusions made as parts of spherical segments are disposed in casing cavity below inlet opening and above outlet opening. Radius of upper protrusion spherical part is equal to radius of spherical part of biconcave lens. Radius of lower protrusion spherical part is less than radius of spherical part of biconcave lens by value equal to thickness of elastic membrane. Radial channels are formed in apex part of lower protrusion. Apparatus provides for normal operation in the process of drop irrigation with water without preliminary cleaning thereof.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform and high-quality irrigation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing with inlet and outlet branch pipes. Float and locking member are located in casing. Hollow float is made in the form of biconvex lens. Slot is made in casing cavity of inlet branch pipe. Slot is formed as spherical segment with radius of sphere equal to or smaller than radius of sphere of float biconvex lens. Spherical segment shaped slot is formed in casing cavity of outlet branch pipe. Radius of sphere of said slot exceeds that of float biconvex lens. Locking member is defined by elastic membrane located in casing between float and outlet branch pipe. Inlet branch pipe and slot joined with membrane surface are equipped with radial channels. Dropper of such construction operates in any spatial position and does not require strict vertical positioning.
EFFECT: simplified construction and uniform and high-quality irrigation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dozer-dropper has plastoelastic valve provided in irrigation pipeline. Plastoelastic valve adapted for supplying of water into injector has detachable casing with water supply channel formed as helical groove with conical openings at its surface, said openings being adapted for connecting helical channel with casing outer surface. Diameter of conical opening joined with said channel is smaller than that at casing outer surface.
EFFECT: increased yield of farm crops and reduced irrigation norms.
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, subsurface irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has detachable casing with water feeding channel. Casing cavity is equipped with helical groove having conical openings on casing surface. Openings are hydraulically communicated with helical groove. Diameter of each of said openings joined with helical groove is smaller than that of outer surface of casing.
EFFECT: improved uniformity in distributing of precipitation in root layer of soil during the entire irrigation season.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has cover, casing, regulating member, and water outlet. Cover with feeding connection line is mounted on irrigation pipeline. Water outlet with discharge pipeline is mounted in lower part of casing. Cover with feeding connection pipe and water outlet with discharge pipe are equipped with flares arranged in opposite relation with respect to one another. Regulating member has flexible elastic membranes equipped with dosing orifices and float positioned for loose displacement between flexible membranes. Membranes are fixed in casing by means of threaded cover and water outlet.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, utilization in irrigated agriculture for drop irrigation of soil, preferably for tree seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: injector has porous casing with inlet and outlet openings and water outlet. Float-type regulating member arranged in water outlet is equipped with water locking valve arranged in its upper part. Air discharge valves are provided in upper part of water outlet above float-type regulating member. Openings of different depth are formed in porous casing. Said openings are extending in parallel with outlet opening, in ribs of ground engaging devices. Number of ribs of ground engaging devices exceeds two. Ribs have saw-shaped form.
EFFECT: provision for differentiated distribution of precipitation in accordance with amount of sucking roots of wood plantations in soil horizons.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: irrigation equipment, in particular, fine-dispersion or drop sprinkling equipment used in mobile and stationary sprinkler units for producing of sprays with droplet sizes admissible for irrigation of wide range of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has hollow cylindrical casing with partition wall, wherein guiding rod is rigidly fixed centrally of partition wall. Conical deflector with curved grooves is fixed on guiding rod for displacement along it. Location of conical deflector in predetermined position on guiding rod is provided by means of adjustment nut which may is fixed by lock nut. In order to form uniform liquid film around perimeter of conical deflector, grooves are provided in such a manner that they do not reach edge by distance equal to width of casing outlet opening ring, when conical deflector is lifted to maximal extent. Fluoroplastic layer is built in friction surface of conical deflector.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in producing of finely dispersed uniform spray, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.