Method of determining agro-resource state of soil on ameliorative scale of rice irrigation system

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes transformation of the obtained image, and calculation of the areas of marked contours. And in non-vegetation period with the navigation system the coordinates and numbers of points of soil sampling and level measurements and groundwater salinity are applied to the map of the rice field. Then a quantitative assessment of ameliorative state of the soil is carried out of rice irrigation system according to the level and salinity of groundwater, humus content, acid-base properties of the soil, provision of hydrolysable nitrogen, mobile potassium and mobile phosphorus, the percentage of soil aggregates in the ploughed horizon, the degree and type of soil salinity by assigning each ameliorative criteria from 1 to 5 points, depending on the extent of its impact on the ameliorative state of the soil. After that, according to the score of ameliorative criteria the ameliorative state of the soil is evaluated, and with a score of 8-20 the ameliorative state of the soil is considered good, 20-30 - satisfactory, 30-40 - unsatisfactory. Then, for each ameliorative state of the soil the flow process chart with optimally-adaptive complex of manufacturing operations is developed.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the agro-resource potential of the rice irrigation system and rice yield.

2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of study of the earth surface and can be used in agriculture, particularly for rice cultivation.

From the literature [1, 2, 3, 4] known methods of aerospace monitoring of ecosystems, studies of the environmental objects and examine the state of the soil in which the statistical data and analytical dependences for remote indication of the content of humus in the soil [1, P80], they distinguish five [1, p.88], [4, p.100] gradations of status humus optical densities and prove the exponential nature of the dependence of optical density of a photographic image from the content of humus in the soil.

The disadvantages of these methods are the inability of their application on rice irrigation system, high cost of aerospace monitoring, low precision of the estimate of reclamation state soil only on the content of humus in the soil.

There is a method of contouring areas vegetation cover using satellite imagery, including radar sensing from aircraft in the microwave range, a comparison of the characteristics of the reflected signal with the characteristics of the sensed object and the judgment on the comparison of the status of vegetation cover for each object vegetative cover is and determine its volume, forming the reflected signal, and the comparison of this signal is performed with the characteristics specified volume of the object (SU 1379758, G01V 9/00, 07.03.1988).

The disadvantages of this method are the inability of its application on rice irrigation system only detects the volumetric characteristics of the research object, the high cost of conducting radar sensing from aircraft in the microwave range, the high complexity and the complexity of the evaluation of the condition of vegetation.

There is a method of contouring areas of protective forest plantations based on satellite images, including space photography taking into account the phases of vegetation and the separation of abnormal according to the degree of spectral brightness areas, carrying out by him of terrestrial surveys, assessment of vegetation feature and delineation of areas on the evaluation results (EN 2211465, G01V 9/00, 27.08.2003).

The disadvantages of this method are the inability of its application on rice irrigation system, high cost of satellite imagery, the low accuracy of the results.

The known method for aerospace survey the surface of the exposed soil in early spring or late autumn, including the transformation of the received image, the evaluation fot the tone of these areas on a 256-level grayscale color the selection of paths through the levels of gray scale, the calculation of the area of the selected paths, the binding of the processed image to the soil map and its transformation. Assessment of soil degradation is carried out by the humus content in the soil cover of the contours, which is determined by the formula G=Kmaxe-0,0276fwhere G is the percentage of humus in the soil cover, Kmax- coefficient taking into account the soil type, f is the current value of the gray level in aerospace photograph (EN 2265839, G01N 33/24, G01V 9/00, 13.04.2004).

The disadvantages of this method are the inability of its application on rice irrigation system, the high cost of conducting aerial surveys, the low precision of the estimate of reclamation state soil only on the content of humus in the soil, the high complexity and the complexity of the evaluation of the condition of the soil.

The technical result of the invention is the implementation of the rice fields optimally adaptive complexes of technological operations is developed, taking into account the reclamation characteristics of each rice fields, routing, which allows specialists of agro-industrial complex more effectively and in time to perform reclamation activities in the rice fields, to increase agroresources potential of rice irrigation systems to save energy and reduce the complexity of the performed soil-conservation measures, to reduce the cost and increase the yield of rice.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of determining agroresources status of soil reclamation scale rice irrigation system, including the transformation of the received image, the calculation of the area of the selected paths according to the invention in wavegetarian period using the navigation system on the map rice fields put the coordinates and the number of points sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity, then perform a quantitative assessment of meliorative condition of soils rice irrigation system level and groundwater salinity, humus content, soil pH; security hydrolyzable nitrogen, rolling potassium and fluid phosphorus; percentage content in the arable horizon of soil aggregates; the degree and type of soil salinity by assigning each reclamation criteria from 1 to 5 points depending on the extent of his influence on the drainage condition of the soil; then the sum of points reclamation criteria evaluate the ameliorative condition of the soil, and when the amount of points 8-20 meliorative condition of the soil is good; 20-30 satisfactory, 30-40 is unsatisfactory, then for each reclamation soil conditions develop Tehnologichesky the map with the optimal-adaptive complex technological operations.

The novelty of the claimed invention is optimally adaptive implementation of complex technological operations in rice fields in the routing, which is developed with consideration of the ameliorative state soil of rice fields, which allows to improve the drainage condition of the soil of rice fields, save energy and reduce the complexity perform reclamation activities.

Binding points sampling using the navigation system enables high-precision select borders and to calculate areas and with different reclamation land, and use the binding by the route of agricultural technology to save energy and reduce labor performed soil-conservation measures.

Perform sampling on the main reclamation criteria: the level and groundwater salinity, humus content, soil pH; security hydrolyzable nitrogen, rolling potassium and fluid phosphorus; the percentage in the arable horizon of soil aggregates; the degree and type of soil salinity, makes necessary and sufficient degree of accuracy to judge the ameliorative status of soils of rice fields and to perform a quantitative assessment of meliorative condition of the soil.

Quantifying meliorativnogo soil condition on the sum of points allows you to use an integrated approach in the development of innovative complexes of technological operations to develop optimally adaptive technology cards, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system, to reduce the cost of rice cultivation and to increase the yield of rice.

The method is as follows

In wavegetarian period in the rice fields rice fields on the map using the navigation system put the coordinates and the number of points sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity. To assess the ameliorative status of soils of rice fields at each point determine the level and groundwater salinity, humus content, soil pH; security hydrolyzable nitrogen, rolling potassium and fluid phosphorus; the percentage in the arable horizon of soil aggregates; the degree and type of soil salinity. Data from soil sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity each point (according to table 1) scored. On a score of reclamation criteria at each point estimate reclamation soil condition: if the score 8-20 meliorative condition of the soil is good; 20-30 satisfactory, 30-40 is unsatisfactory. Then perform the selection of contours plots with different land-reclamation soil by joining points with the same reclamation feature. Then perform the calculation with various ameliorative condition of the soil. Gave the e for each reclamation soil conditions develop process map with optimal-adaptive complex technological operations.

An example of the method

Test method for the assessment of reclamation of soil condition and effectiveness of ongoing reclamation techniques for rice irrigation system was held in JSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic district of Krasnodar region.

In wavegetarian period of five rice fields using GPS put the coordinates and the number of points sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity. The point was apart from each other at a distance of 50 m To evaluate the ameliorative status of soils of rice fields at each point determine the level and groundwater salinity, humus content, soil pH; security hydrolyzable nitrogen, rolling potassium and fluid phosphorus; the percentage in the arable horizon of soil aggregates; the degree and type of soil salinity. Data from soil sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity at each point (table 1) scored. On a score of reclamation criteria each point estimate meliorative condition of the soil. Then the rice fields perform allocations contours plots with different land-reclamation soil by joining points with the same ameliorative response and calculate the areas of these sites. Developed process maps in wavegetarian period issue is lnewt optimal-adaptive complexes of technological operations with regard to the ameliorative condition of the soil in each field. Evaluated agroresources condition of the soil to conduct optimally adaptive complexes of technological operations showed that the ameliorative status of soils in all five fields and the control field is assessed as "satisfactory". The following year, after the optimal-adaptive complex technological operations and harvesting rice, re-evaluated the reclamation condition of the soil showed that as a result of soil-conservation measures on rice fields reclamation soil conditions have improved in all five fields (table 2) and evaluated as "good". Security hydrolyzable nitrogen increased by 3-5%, a movable potassium 5-7% and a movable phosphorus by 8-10%. Received 16% yield increase of rice. The cost of produced grain rice decreased by 9%. Saving energy and reducing the complexity perform reclamation activities decreased by 12-18%.

Development of optimal-adaptive routings for each reclamation condition of the soil allows the specialists of agro-industrial complex more effectively and in time to perform reclamation activities in the rice fields, to increase agroresources potential rice irrigation system, to improve the ecological situation in the rice fields, to save energy and reduce time-consuming is to be performed in wavegetarian period of soil-conservation measures, to reduce the cost and increase the yield of rice.

Literature

1. Vinogradov, B.V. Aerospace monitoring of ecosystems. - M.: Nauka. 1984. s.

2. Sergeev GA, Antos D.A. Statistical research methods for natural objects. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat. 1973. s.112, 119.

3. Andronicus V.L. Aerospace methods of studying soil. - M.: Kolos. 1979. p.75, 98, 113.

4. Vinogradov, B.V. Indicators of desertification and soil degradation. Soil science. 1993, No. 2. p.98-102.

td align="center"> 3/tr>
Table 1
№ p/pName of indicatorThe value of the indexUnitAssessment rate
12345
0,0-0,5m4
Level remineralizing groundwater (0-2 g/l)0,5-1,0m2
1,0-1,5 m1
1.5 to 2.5m1
>2,5m1
0,0-0,5m5
0,5-1,0m3
1The level of brackish groundwater (2-4 g/l)1,0-1,5m2
1.5 to 2.5m1
>2,5m1
0,0-0,5m5
0,5-1,0m4
The level of moderately mineralized groundwater (4-8 g/l)1,0-1,5m3
1.5 to 2.5m2
>2,5m1
0,0-0,5m5
The level of highly mineralized groundwater (8-16 or more g/l)0,5-1,0m5
1,0-1,5m4
1.5 to 2.5m3
>2,5m1 (2)
4,5-5,51
2soil pH5,5-6,5-2
6,5-7,53
7,5-8,04
>8,0is the 5
>10,01
6,0-10,02
3Humus content4,0-6,0%3
2,0-4,04
<2,05
<2,05
2,0-3,04
4Security hydrolyzable nitrogen3,0-4,0mg/100 g3
4,0-5,02
>5,01
<0,55
0,5-1,04
5Security rolling phosphorus1,0-2,0mg/100 g3
2,0-3,02
>3,01
0-55
5-104
6Security rolling potassium10-20mg/100 g3
20-30 2
>301
The content of units
0.25 to 10 mm70<%1
70-752
55-403
740-204
>205
<10; 10-205
20-304
>0.25 mm30-40 3
40-602
60-75; >751
The degree of soil salinization:
soda and mixed-soda type
salinity:
non-saline soilLess than 0.15salt content, %1
weak0,15-0,302
average0,30-0,40
strong0,40-0,604
salt marshesMore than 0.605
sulfate and chloride-sulfate type
salinity:
non-saline soilLess than 0.30content1
8weak0,30-0,50salts, %2
average0,50-1,002
strong1,00-2,003
salt marshesMore than 2.04
sulphate-chloride and chloride type
salinity:
non-saline soilLess than 0,20content1
weak0,20-0,30salts, %2
average0,30-0,703
strong0,70-1,203
salt marshesMore than 1.204
solnzevorotcontent
neolocality soilLess than 5absorbed1
weak5-10sodium,%2
average10-15capacity3
strong15-20absorption4
saltMore than 20 (25)5
Note: 1 - excellent; 2 - good; 3 - fair; 4 - poor; 5 - poor or very poor - soil degradation.

The method of determining errores the red state soil reclamation scale rice irrigation system, includes transformation of the received image, the calculation of the area of the selected paths, characterized in that wavegetarian period using the navigation system on the map rice fields put the coordinates and the number of points sampling and measurements of the level and groundwater salinity, then perform a quantitative assessment of meliorative condition of soils rice irrigation system level and groundwater salinity, humus content, acid-base properties of soil; security hydrolyzable nitrogen, rolling potassium and fluid phosphorus; percentage content in the arable horizon of soil aggregates; the degree and type of soil salinity by assigning each reclamation criteria from 1 to 5 points depending on the extent of his influence on the drainage condition of the soil; then the sum of points reclamation criteria evaluate the ameliorative condition of the soil, and when the amount of points 8-20 meliorative condition of the soil is good; 20-30 satisfactory, 30-40 is unsatisfactory, then for each reclamation soil conditions develop process map with optimal-adaptive complex technological operations.



 

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