Method for detection of helminthes, tick eggs and protozoan oocysts in soil samples
SUBSTANCE: method for detection of helminthes, tick eggs and protozoan oocysts in soil samples consisting in the fact that a soil sample 25 g is placed in a centrifugal test-tube 250 ml and filled with water 150 ml; the mixture is thoroughly mixed with a glass rod for 5 min or with an electrical mixer for 1 min and centrifuged for 3 min at 800-1000 rpm; water is poured off, while the test tubes are added with a three-component flotation system 150 ml containing saturated solutions of zinc chloride (2 kg of ZnCl2 or 1 l), sodium chloride (0.42 kg of NaCl per 1 l) and glycerol taken in proportions 1:1:1; the test tube is added with the same solution to form a convex meniscus, covered with a degreased glass so that it touches a fluid layer; 20-30 min. later, the glass is removed and observed under microscope; the preparation is recommended to be drawn for 2-3 times. The detectability of protozoan oocysts and tick eggs increases by 76.6 and 87.1% respectively.
EFFECT: method enables considerably increased a percentage of detected eggs of such soil-transmitted helminthes as human and swine ascarid, twice reducing time for expecting the analysis results.
4 tbl, 2 ex
This invention relates to the field of medicine, veterinary medicine, ecology. Can be used for the detection of helminth eggs, ticks and oocysts in soil samples.
The most relevant assessment of contamination of soil eggs are often found in the sand, in particular on the playgrounds and sandboxes - Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris lumbricoides. To exercise the poultry yards of the simplest often found Amerie (Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, E. acervulina), and mites Knemidocoptes mutans.
The most frequently used method of soil testing to identify helminth eggs is combined method Romanenko N. A. where the flotation fluid saturated solution of sodium nitrate (MUK 4. 2. 796 - 99. Methods of sanitary Parasitology research").
The soil selected for the study on private and public gardens, fields, irrigation, public houses, kindergartens, markets, places for children to play, farms, places of residence of owners of cattle, etc. also Explore activated sludge and sludge treatment plants, sediments at the confluence of sewage or other effluents into water bodies. After examination of the site plan designated for sampling, where one can expect the presence of helminth eggs.
Soil samples taken from the surface and at a depth of 10-20 cm, and sludge drying beds, composting on the depth of -2 m
On the same site (the"inspection point") soil collected in 5-10 different places 10-20 g, combining samples in one total mass not less than 100-200, On the territory of one object (the estate, kindergarten, etc.) select 10 samples.
The sample is placed in a tightly closed glass container or plastic bag. Inside put a label indicating the place and conditions of sampling.
Samples delivered to the laboratory, it is desirable to investigate immediately, as the eggs of a number of worms or larvae may die and disintegrate. Store samples recommended in the refrigerator (5°C) not more than one month.
For the research method Naamanka of the total samples taken 25 g of soil, placed in a centrifuge tube with a capacity of 250 ml and pour 150 ml of water. The mixture was thoroughly stirred with a glass rod for 5 min or with electromechani 1 min
Pop-up larger particles immediately removed. After centrifugation (for this purpose, suitable centrifuge brand SSC-3) for 3 min at 800-1000 rpm water is drained, as in a test tube, add 150 ml of a saturated solution of sodium nitrate. Mix with a stick and again centrifuged 3 minutes
The tubes may be installed on a tripod, topped up with the same solution before the formation of a convex meniscus, served skim glass (6×12 cm) so that it touched the liquid layer. After 15 min the tech removed, on a wet surface add a few drops of 50% aqueous solution of glycerin and mikroskopiruyut. To improve the efficiency of identifying eggs is recommended withdrawal of the drug to repeat 2-3 times. In the foci of tinidazol and echinococcosis detection eggs hampered by the fact that they have a certain stickiness and adhere to soil particles, ill see you in the flotation solution.
The main disadvantage of this method is the low specific gravity of the flotation solution. In addition, a saturated solution of sodium nitrate, as well as alternative solutions proposed in the literature (sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate), very quickly crystallize, making it difficult to view samples and reduces the detection of helminth eggs.
The aim of this work was to improve the detection of helminth eggs, ticks and oocysts of protozoa in soil samples, the implementation of a quantitative assessment of the degree of contamination of the soil.
Us using the developed method was carried out comparative analysis of methods of soil: Romanenko and developed a method of identifying helminth eggs, ticks and oocysts of protozoa.
In a sample of sand was artificially made eggs of helminths Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Ascaris lumbricoides, protozoa Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, E. acervulina, ticks Knemidocoptes mutans in the amount of 100 eggs or oocysts in g of sand. Eggs were obtained from m the TCI females of worms. The simplest received from the litter spontaneously infected chickens. Knemidocoptes mutans was obtained from scrapings from the affected limbs of patients with birds.
The efficiency of detection of eggs in the soil are statistically significantly different when evaluated using the student test at the significance level of 0.95 (district DU, Mamonov L.M., Astafiev, VA, Zhdanov, S., 2004).
The results of the comparative analysis the following results were obtained.
The developed method allows to identify for 36% of the eggs of Ascaris more, compared with the method Romanenko N.A., due to the use of flotation in multicomponent flotation system, which was the basis of this method. The components offered by us flotation system does not violate the morphology of the eggs of parasites and do not create problems with the morphological identification of the pathogen. Each of them performs a specific function: zinc chloride increases the density of the solution, glycerin reduces the time of crystallization, increasing the quality of research, zinc chloride reduces the cost of analysis. As a rule, the use of such mixtures can improve the detection of eggs, oocysts, and cysts of protozoa, but requires optimization of the composition of the mixture to each specific case (Lutfullin -, Latypov became popular, Kornishina PPM of Helminth-laproscopically research is of animals. Kazan, 2002, 24 C.). Thus, the proposed method allows to significantly increase the efficiency of detection of eggs, cysts and oocysts of protozoa in soil samples compared with the method Romanenko N.A. and can be used in practice and research.
Identification of helminth eggs, ticks, oocysts of protozoa soil samples patented method were carried out according to the following scheme: first, preparing a combined flotation mixture of three ingredients:
1) a saturated solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 kg2on 1 l of water);
2) a saturated solution of sodium chloride (0.42 kg NaCl per 1 l of water).
3) glycerin (H).
Further, these three components are mixed in a ratio of 1:1:1. Pop-up larger particles immediately removed. After centrifugation (for this purpose, suitable centrifuge brand SSC-3) for 3 min at 800-1000 rpm water is drained, and centrifuge cups, add 150 ml three-flotation system. Mix with a stick and again centrifuged 3 minutes
The tubes may be installed on a tripod, topped up with the same solution before the formation of a convex meniscus, served skim glass (6×12 cm) so that it touched the liquid layer. After 20-30 min, the glass is removed and mikroskopiruyut order to improve identification of eggs is recommended withdrawal of the drug to repeat 2-3 times.
Sravnitelnyeharakteristiki detection of eggs of Ascaris suum in soil samples are presented in Table 1.
|Comparison of efficiency of detection of eggs in soil samples from the artificial introduction of eggs of Ascaris suum method Romanenko N.A. and the patented method|
|No. soil samples||The number of eggs of Ascaris suum in the soil sample|
The table shows that the patented method was developed to identify 7.1 eggs Ascaris suum more than the method Romanenko.
Comparative efficacy of detection of Toxocara canis eggs in soil samples is presented in Table 2.
|Comparison of the efficiency determination of eggs in soil samples from the artificial introduction of eggs of Toxocara canis method Romanenko N.A. and the patented method|
|No. soil samples||The number of Toxocara canis eggs in the soil sample|
The table shows that the patented method was developed to identify 8 -, 9 Toxocara canis eggs more than the method Romanenko.
Similar results were obtained using human eggs roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (table 3).
|Comparison of the efficiency determination of eggs in soil samples from the artificial introduction of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides method Romanenko N.A. and the patented method|
|No. soil samples||The number of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in the soil sample|
|Romanenko||Patentable subject is d|
The table shows that the patented method was developed to identify 9.4 eggs Ascaris lumbricoides more than the method Romanenko.
The results of studies of the comparative effectiveness of detection in soil samples oocysts of ameri and eggs Knemidocoptes mites of the genus patent-pending method and method Romanenko N.A. presented in Table the price of 4.
|Comparison of the effectiveness of the definition of oocysts of ameri and ticks Knemidocoptes mutans in soil samples from the artificial introduction of oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, E. acervulina and mites method Romanenko N.A. and the patented method|
|No. soil samples||Romanenko||Patented method|
|ameri||K. mutans||ameri||K. mutans|
The table shows that the patented method was developed to identify 10.5 oocysts of ameri and 10.8 eggs ticks more than the method Romanenko.
Example 1 (lab room No. 8). The sample was collected in the sandbox, p is andlease kindergarten №373 Volga district, Kazan, 11.06.2010 In the yard of the kindergarten can be accessed animals. The total mass of the sample 200,
In the study method Romanenko N.A. helminth eggs was not found.
Then was applied dojinsdirty combined method of soil investigation, patent-pending us.
For the study of the total sample selected 25 g of soil was placed in a centrifuge tube with a capacity of 250 ml and was filled with 150 ml of water. The mixture was thoroughly stirred with a glass rod for 5 minutes
Pop-up larger particles immediately removed. After centrifugation (for 5 min at 1000 rpm), the water is decanted, and the tubes were added 150 ml duringevening flotation mixture. Mixed coli and again centrifuged 5 minutes
Tubes mounted in a tripod, refilled with the same mixture before formation of a convex meniscus, covered skim glass (6×12 cm) so that it touched the liquid layer. After 20-30 min, the glass is removed and mikroskopiruyut. To improve the detection of eggs withdrawal of the drug to repeat 2-3 times.
We have uncovered: eggs sp. Toxocara, Trichocepalus and free-living worm.
Example 2 (lab room No. 9). The sample was collected on the interior of the territory of the house there is free access to the birds. The total mass of the sample 200,
In the study by the method of Romanico N.A. eggs of worms, protozoa and mites, Vaulina was not.
Pat is themim tradingrelated way to study soil were detected oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, eggs Thominx collaris, eggs of Ascaridia galli eggs and mites Dermanyssus gallinae and K. mutans.
From the presented data shows that in the newly developed method of identifying eggs can significantly increase the percentage detected in soil eggs soil-transmitted helminths such as human and pig Ascaris, and Toxocara, approximately 4-5 times, compared to the recommended literature method Romanenko N.A. in Addition, in the newly developed method allows to halve the waiting time in the analysis. This makes it justified the use of patent-pending us the method in practice and for research.
Figure 1. Eggs of Ascaris, isolated from the uterus of the worm and detected in the soil sample after artificial make.
Figure 2. Free-living worm, discovered the patented method; magnification ×200.
Figure 3. Egg Trihotel detected in the soil sample patentable method; magnification ×200.
1. MUK 4. 2. 796 - 99. Methods of sanitary parasitological studies. 2. Lutfullin -, Latypov became popular, Kornishina PPM of Helminth-laproscopically research animals. Kazan, 2002, p.3 24. Savilov DU, Mamonov L.M., Astaf'ev V.A., S. Zhdanov. The application of statistical methods in epidemiological analysis. - M.: "Medpress-inform", 2004. - P.21 - 26.
Detection of helminth eggs, ticks and oocysts of protozoa in soil samples is, namely, that the soil sample weighing 25 g placed in a centrifuge tube with a capacity of 250 ml and pour 150 ml of water, the mixture was thoroughly stirred with a glass rod for 5 min or with electromechani 1 min and centrifuged for 3 min at 800-1000 rpm, the water is drained, and in a test tube, add 150 ml three-flotation system consisting of a saturated solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 kg21 l), sodium chloride (0.42 kg NaCl per 1 l) and glycerol are taken in the ratio 1:1:1, in a test tube topped up with the same solution before the formation of a convex meniscus, the tube serves skim glass so that it touched the liquid layer, after 20-30 min, the glass is removed and mikroskopiruyut, removal of the drug is recommended to repeat 2-3 times.
SUBSTANCE: method includes assessment of the area under study, data collection and processing, while taking into account the area disturbed by the influence of man-induced and natural factors within mining allotment: open-pit field, degraded sites of plant communities in areas of mining operations, construction projects, and disturbed landscapes and roads, and with a share of the said areas more than 25% of the area under study the conclusion is given that this territory belongs to the category of stressed risk and requires necessary measures to reduce environmental stress.
EFFECT: simplification of the method, improvement of accuracy of the environmental situation assessment and determining the risk.
SUBSTANCE: when realising the method, a weight is placed on the top surface of the sample; the soil sample is converted to a pseudoliquid state; the beginning of sinking of the weight is recorded; further, the cross-section and length of the sample, pressure and volume of the stream of water over a defined period of time are measured; soil permeability is calculated from the measured values.
EFFECT: possibility of determining permeability of running soil in pseudo-liquid state by placing a weight on the top surface of the soil sample and recording the beginning of the sinking of the weight.
SUBSTANCE: photographic images of the eroded soil are taken using a cord (belt) and/or graduated scale. The obtained image is then displayed on a computer screen, where the profile of the eroded part is selected on the horizontal level and contours of the surface of the eroded soil. Further, the area of the eroded part is determined and the volume of soil lost due to water erosion is then calculated.
EFFECT: method for rapid determination of soil loss after torrential rain or snow melt, where there is fast photographic capture of the profile of the eroded soil with high speed of measuring soil loss, with low cost and high accuracy compared to existing methods.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to determine parameters of pillars erected in soil by the jet grouting method including arrangement of a well for the entire length of a pillar with subsequent erosion under permanent flow rate and pressure of a working solution and speed of lifting and rotation of a hydraulic monitor until formation of a pillar and determination of pillar parameters in compliance with soil properties. In process of well arrangement a soil sample is taken with a coring device with a case, with length multiple to pillar diameter, afterwards the case with the soil sample is installed in the horizontal position and under the right angle with one end is rigidly connected to a cylindrical conductor, the cavity diameter of which complies with the well diameter, and the other end is closed with a cover equipped with a metering system. In the conductor cavity coaxially to the cartridge with a soil sample there is a hydraulic monitor installed, and sample soil is washed with a working solution under permanent pressure, afterwards using the time of soil sample washing, the speed of hydraulic monitor lift is determined, as well as the radius of the given pillar section, and afterwards values of technological parameters are set for generation of a pillar with specified parameters.
EFFECT: simplified method, reduced costs, higher accuracy to detect geometric parameters of cement soil pillars along the entire depth of pillar erection depending on soil properties.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises planting in the soil of seeds of sprouted grains, their germination at constant optimal environmental conditions and measurement of guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. In addition, the guttation intensity is measured in these seedlings at a later age, and the ratio of the guttation intensity amount is calculated measured in addition to the guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. Thereat the assessment of the level of the soil phytotoxicity is carried out in accordance with the following gradation of the relative level of phytotoxicity of oil-polluted soil: the exponent IG2/IG1> 1 there is no toxicity; IG2/IG1 = 1 - a low level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 <1, a high level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 = 0 - a very high level of toxicity, where IG1 - is guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings; IG2 - is guttation intensity measured additionally. The guttation intensity is measured additionally at the age of 3-4 days of seedlings germination.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce complexity and maintain the high sensitivity of the assessment.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for determining moisture content includes non-conducting unit, power supply and measuring instrument. At the bottom of the unit there is a recess and at the top the block is covered with a lid with a recess coaxial to the recess of the unit bottom. In the recesses there are contacts which contact with the measuring rod. The container with soil is put on the measuring rod. At that the container from above and below is closed with lids with slits greater than the thickness of the measuring rod.
EFFECT: application of this device enables to determine the soil moisture under field conditions with minimal labor and resources costs and to choose the best version of cultivation technology of field crops.
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of aggregate composition of the soil consists of water tank with a drain hole, a base frame and an electric motor, where on the base frame a platform rotated with the electric motor is mounted, on which the water tank with sections different on volume is installed. The upper section is smaller than the lower section. The bottom of the lower section is removable and is fixed with snaps. At the bottom there are circular protrusions.
EFFECT: use of this device will enable to simplify the conducting of analysis of soil aggregate composition with minimal destruction of aggregates.
SUBSTANCE: shearing stand includes a ferrule with an extractor ring for holding a soil sample, a counterweight device, a drive mechanism and the surface of a tilting table placed under the ferrule. According to the invention, the drive mechanism for moving the ferrule is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod mounted on the surface of the tilting table, connected through a strain gauge dynamometer to the ferrule; the loading mechanism is in form of a swivelling two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, whose chamber is connected by hydraulic lines through an adjustable choke; the table tilting mechanism is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, having a manometer in the head end, wherein the traction hydraulic cylinder and the tilting hydraulic cylinder of the table are connected through hydraulic distribution valves by hydraulic lines to a power supply and drainage.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating the action of intensifiers on shearing stress of materials and soil on the shearing surface while varying the angle of interaction of the soil and the shearing surface.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining bioactivity of soil, water, wastes and preparations based on humic substances. To this end, seeds are pre-soaked for a day in a solution of the analysed substance. The seeds are then let to germinate at 25°C for 3 days on a substrate mounted on a vertical transparent plastic container. The container is a base and a rectangular cover of equal size, which are placed in parallel and joined to each other on the entire perimeter by "button" type fasteners. The container allows for installation of a removable central horizontal partition wall for holding the substrate. Before germination, the substrate is moistened, a filter is placed on the substrate and seeds are placed on said filter in a single row along the line of the central horizontal partition wall at a distance of 1 cm from it. After germination, the root length of the sprouts is determined relative control. If the root length in the test samples is shorter than that of control samples by 20% or more, the analysed substance has a toxic effect, if the root length exceeds the control length, the analysed substance has a stimulating effect, in the rest of the cases, the analysed substance has no bioactivity or is weakly toxic.
EFFECT: method enables to conduct serial investigations, is characterised by simplicity and rapidness, seeds are exposed in a short period of time and there is no mechanical damage when determining root length.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring relative shear resistance of an elementary layer inside granular material moving together with a bogie under the action of a falling weight. The granular material is divided into two parts by a horizontal plate on the level of said elementary layer. The top part is put into a box which is connected by a thread to the recording device of a dynamometer, and the bottom part is moved relative the top part on a bogie. The shear resistance force is measured and continuously recorded on paper in a function of the shear path, and the weight of the empty box is considered as additional height of the granular material.
EFFECT: ensuring high accuracy of measuring shear resistance force of granular material without violating its structure and conditions in which it lies.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.