Cellular-porous ceramic block to erect single-layer and multi-layer walls

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: cellular-porous ceramic block for erection of single-layer and multi-layer walls represents a rectangular parallelepiped comprising outer side stretcher and header faces and an inner structural-insulation structure made of rows of through cavities separated from each other with ceramic partitions and links and parallel to header faces of the block. Through cavities are arranged with displacement relative to each other in neighbouring rows for half of their width, besides, the block has vertical and horizontal slots, which protrude beyond the limits of the stretcher and bed faces by width of one cavity and thickness of a side face, and also a vertical mark at the centre of the stretcher side of the face.

EFFECT: improved physical and technical parameters of a block and method to lay a building wall, increased accuracy of laying in erection of a wall, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of work to shifting.

1 ex, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction hollow ceramic blocks, widely used in masonry single and multi-layer external walls of buildings with the required thermal resistance for different climatic conditions.

Known hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of homogeneous walls (patent RU 2377371 C1, 23.06.2008)containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure, and structural and heat-shielding structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and parallel bonder faces.

The disadvantage of this brick-block is the lack of horizontal and vertical grooves, which reduces the strength of masonry shear in its operation. Also a disadvantage is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This leads to a deterioration of the efficiency of the walls, made of this block, due to the presence of end-to-end suture, and increased construction time.

Closest to the claimed invention is a large-sized porous ceramic watch the sky block POROTHERM (THICK) PTH 51 (510×250×219), PTH 38 (380×250×219), PTH 25 (250×380×219) and PTH 12 (120×500×219). (Large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (GOST 5 30-2007), PTH 51 and PTH 38. [Electronic resource] / the Wienerberger group (Wienerberger) - Vienna (Austria). Mode of access: http:// www.wienerberger.ru). The ceramic block is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block. Voids in the ceramic block to the rectangular shape of 40×15 mm and parallel to the header side. Ribs are parallel as well as perpendicular to the header side. Additional cavities have the shape of a square and are located on the borders of the pair stretcher bond faces, and with two structural holes 42,5×42.5 mm, located at a distance of 50 mm from the bonder faces. Mark block strength M100-M150.

The disadvantage of this large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (THICK) is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This leads to a deterioration of the efficiency of a wall made from this unit due to the presence squozen the th seam, and increased construction time. Also, a significant disadvantage of this ceramic block is the lack of horizontal grooves that during the construction of masonry leads to a decrease in the accuracy and stability of construction. In addition, decreases the resistance of masonry shear in its operation.

The objective of the invention is to provide a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, providing a high thermal indicators in operation, convenience and easy installation, reducing labor costs, increasing accuracy of masonry and the reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes during the construction of the wall, increasing the resistance of masonry shear due to the use of the geometric parameters of the ceramic block, the vertical and horizontal grooves.

The problem is solved in that hollow-porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block, according to the invention, end-to-end STS which the notes are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their width, in addition, the block has a vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face. On the front (stretcher bond) faces of the block applied vertical risk passing through the center of the front (stretcher bond) faces to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry.

Figure 1 shows the types and risks of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall of size 250×250×250. Figure 2 shows the types of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall size 380×250×250. Figure 3 shows the types of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls the size of 510×250×250. Figure 4 shows spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall of size 250×250×250. Figure 5 shows a spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall size 380×250×250. Figure 6 depicts the spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls the size of 510×250×250.

Void-then the simple ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall contains a side stretcher bond (1) and stretcher (2) faces, internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls (3) and jumpers (4) rows of through voids (5), parallel bonder (2) faces of the block located offset relative to each other in adjacent rows by half their width. On the front (stretcher bond) face (1) unit applied vertical risk (6, 7)passing through the center of the front (1) face. Figure 1-3 risk is located in the center stretcher bond faces (1) to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry. The block has a vertical (8) and horizontal (9) the grooves are stretcher bond (1) and bed (10) face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face.

The raw material for the creation of ceramic block is a natural clay with additives. Structural thermal insulation structure is deployed perpendicular to the header (1) header (2) faces. Each rectangular void separated from each other by ceramic walls (3) and jumpers (4) the full height of the block, intersecting at an angle of 90°. All cavities (5) are oriented relative to the header (1) header (2) faces of the ceramic block so that the diagonal of a rectangular cavities placed perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer resistance from the side of stretcher bond (1), and tick the o (2) faces. The use of hollow-porous ceramic block allows you to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without filling the vertical joints with mortar during the construction of masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other (in some cases only requires a vertical sealing interface with the outside). One hollow-porous ceramic block is placed on the entire wall thickness, which is determined by thermal calculation for a specific region construction without ligation of the installed blocks and without filling the vertical joints in the construction of masonry. On the face (1) face of the block applied vertical risk (6, 7)passing through the center of the stretcher bond (front) (1) face to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry.

The invention relates to building construction, the use of which allows to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without filling the vertical grooves solution when erecting masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other.

It does not require filling of the vertical grooves of the binder material during the construction of masonry (in some cases only required sealing ver kalinago joint from the outside). Due to the location of the long vertical and horizontal grooves increases thermal efficiency of the walls. Due to the special form that allows you to evenly distribute the load on neighboring blocks, this ceramic block can be used as load bearing walls in buildings up to 10 floors.

An example of specific performance:

Hollow porous ceramic blocks for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer walls (Fig.1-3 and 4-6) have dimensions: 250×250×250 mm 380×250×250 mm, 510×250×250 mm, respectively; the average mass: 6,2 kg 9,4 kg 12.6 kg, respectively; the average density of 720-750 kg/m3. Blocks can be used for low-rise and high-rise construction as a small fill-supporting and self-supporting walls of buildings and constructions. An example of execution of hollow porous block:

1) as a self-supporting structures;

2) as load-bearing walls;

3) as an additional insulation of walls in the reconstruction of buildings and structures;

4) as the facades of the building to create a textured surface when using the unit with the possible application of finishing coats.

Hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and vnutrenneekonomicheskoe-insulating structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block, wherein the end-to-end cavities are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their width, in addition, the block has a vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face and the vertical risk center stretcher bond side faces.



 

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