Cellular-porous ceramic block to erect single-layer and multi-layer walls
SUBSTANCE: cellular-porous ceramic block for erection of single-layer and multi-layer walls represents a rectangular parallelepiped comprising outer side stretcher and header faces and an inner structural-insulation structure made of rows of through cavities separated from each other with ceramic partitions and links and parallel to header faces of the block. Through cavities are arranged with displacement relative to each other in neighbouring rows for half of their width, besides, the block has vertical and horizontal slots, which protrude beyond the limits of the stretcher and bed faces by width of one cavity and thickness of a side face, and also a vertical mark at the centre of the stretcher side of the face.
EFFECT: improved physical and technical parameters of a block and method to lay a building wall, increased accuracy of laying in erection of a wall, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of work to shifting.
1 ex, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction hollow ceramic blocks, widely used in masonry single and multi-layer external walls of buildings with the required thermal resistance for different climatic conditions.
Known hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of homogeneous walls (patent RU 2377371 C1, 23.06.2008)containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure, and structural and heat-shielding structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and parallel bonder faces.
The disadvantage of this brick-block is the lack of horizontal and vertical grooves, which reduces the strength of masonry shear in its operation. Also a disadvantage is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This leads to a deterioration of the efficiency of the walls, made of this block, due to the presence of end-to-end suture, and increased construction time.
Closest to the claimed invention is a large-sized porous ceramic watch the sky block POROTHERM (THICK) PTH 51 (510×250×219), PTH 38 (380×250×219), PTH 25 (250×380×219) and PTH 12 (120×500×219). (Large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (GOST 5 30-2007), PTH 51 and PTH 38. [Electronic resource] / the Wienerberger group (Wienerberger) - Vienna (Austria). Mode of access: http:// www.wienerberger.ru). The ceramic block is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block. Voids in the ceramic block to the rectangular shape of 40×15 mm and parallel to the header side. Ribs are parallel as well as perpendicular to the header side. Additional cavities have the shape of a square and are located on the borders of the pair stretcher bond faces, and with two structural holes 42,5×42.5 mm, located at a distance of 50 mm from the bonder faces. Mark block strength M100-M150.
The disadvantage of this large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (THICK) is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This leads to a deterioration of the efficiency of a wall made from this unit due to the presence squozen the th seam, and increased construction time. Also, a significant disadvantage of this ceramic block is the lack of horizontal grooves that during the construction of masonry leads to a decrease in the accuracy and stability of construction. In addition, decreases the resistance of masonry shear in its operation.
The objective of the invention is to provide a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, providing a high thermal indicators in operation, convenience and easy installation, reducing labor costs, increasing accuracy of masonry and the reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes during the construction of the wall, increasing the resistance of masonry shear due to the use of the geometric parameters of the ceramic block, the vertical and horizontal grooves.
The problem is solved in that hollow-porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block, according to the invention, end-to-end STS which the notes are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their width, in addition, the block has a vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face. On the front (stretcher bond) faces of the block applied vertical risk passing through the center of the front (stretcher bond) faces to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry.
Figure 1 shows the types and risks of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall of size 250×250×250. Figure 2 shows the types of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall size 380×250×250. Figure 3 shows the types of hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls the size of 510×250×250. Figure 4 shows spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall of size 250×250×250. Figure 5 shows a spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall size 380×250×250. Figure 6 depicts the spatial image and top view of a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls the size of 510×250×250.
Void-then the simple ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall contains a side stretcher bond (1) and stretcher (2) faces, internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls (3) and jumpers (4) rows of through voids (5), parallel bonder (2) faces of the block located offset relative to each other in adjacent rows by half their width. On the front (stretcher bond) face (1) unit applied vertical risk (6, 7)passing through the center of the front (1) face. Figure 1-3 risk is located in the center stretcher bond faces (1) to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry. The block has a vertical (8) and horizontal (9) the grooves are stretcher bond (1) and bed (10) face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face.
The raw material for the creation of ceramic block is a natural clay with additives. Structural thermal insulation structure is deployed perpendicular to the header (1) header (2) faces. Each rectangular void separated from each other by ceramic walls (3) and jumpers (4) the full height of the block, intersecting at an angle of 90°. All cavities (5) are oriented relative to the header (1) header (2) faces of the ceramic block so that the diagonal of a rectangular cavities placed perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer resistance from the side of stretcher bond (1), and tick the o (2) faces. The use of hollow-porous ceramic block allows you to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without filling the vertical joints with mortar during the construction of masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other (in some cases only requires a vertical sealing interface with the outside). One hollow-porous ceramic block is placed on the entire wall thickness, which is determined by thermal calculation for a specific region construction without ligation of the installed blocks and without filling the vertical joints in the construction of masonry. On the face (1) face of the block applied vertical risk (6, 7)passing through the center of the stretcher bond (front) (1) face to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry.
The invention relates to building construction, the use of which allows to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without filling the vertical grooves solution when erecting masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other.
It does not require filling of the vertical grooves of the binder material during the construction of masonry (in some cases only required sealing ver kalinago joint from the outside). Due to the location of the long vertical and horizontal grooves increases thermal efficiency of the walls. Due to the special form that allows you to evenly distribute the load on neighboring blocks, this ceramic block can be used as load bearing walls in buildings up to 10 floors.
An example of specific performance:
Hollow porous ceramic blocks for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer walls (Fig.1-3 and 4-6) have dimensions: 250×250×250 mm 380×250×250 mm, 510×250×250 mm, respectively; the average mass: 6,2 kg 9,4 kg 12.6 kg, respectively; the average density of 720-750 kg/m3. Blocks can be used for low-rise and high-rise construction as a small fill-supporting and self-supporting walls of buildings and constructions. An example of execution of hollow porous block:
1) as a self-supporting structures;
2) as load-bearing walls;
3) as an additional insulation of walls in the reconstruction of buildings and structures;
4) as the facades of the building to create a textured surface when using the unit with the possible application of finishing coats.
Hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multilayer walls, representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and vnutrenneekonomicheskoe-insulating structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block, wherein the end-to-end cavities are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their width, in addition, the block has a vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face and the vertical risk center stretcher bond side faces.
SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.
EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.
41 cl, 61 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of a leave-in-place form comprises a main wall block, an universal clip to fix wall blocks to each other, an above-opening link and a cover roof block. Blocks of a leave-in-place form are made of a hard polyurethane foam having high heat insulation and noise-absorbing properties with higher chemical resistance to exposure to salts available in concretes (aerated concretes), and also have a fabricated decorative finish of an outer surface on the face side made as a whole with the block, and at the inner side the block has a melted-in sheet profiled in accordance with the surface geometry on its surface, and/or an expanded steel sheet, and/or a close-meshed net.
EFFECT: higher efficiency in production of civil and installation works, higher extent of adhesive engagement between finishing lining and a block of a leave-in-place form and higher adhesion of blocks with monolithic concrete, universality of elements.
5 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hollow building block, which has two side and two end walls, and at least one link parallel to end walls, which separates the block cavity. Its hollowness makes from 20% to 60%, and it is made of a mixture, which contains cement, swollen perlite sand, a solid filler with hardness of at least 1.25 and water with the following content of components, wt %: cement of grade 400 or 500 - 38-42%; swollen perlite sand of fraction 0.63…5 - 12-15%; solid filler of fraction 0…5 or 0…10 - 32-38%, water - 14-17%.
EFFECT: invention provides for strength without loss of heat insulation and weight characteristics of perlite concrete, reduced load at structures during cast-in-place concrete house building.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: duplicating material to make tiled building blocks comprises webs of cellular and porous layers, which are thermally fixed to resist flaking from 0.01 to 0.19 kN/m, the cellular layer has surface density from 40 to 168 g/cm2 and comprises smooth anti-sorption threadlike elements, the porous material has apparent density from 10 to 50 kg/m3, and the duplicated material has thickness from 1.0 to 3.0 mm.
EFFECT: higher quality of produced blocks due to prevention of mortar leakage to visible surface of blocks.
8 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: tape is designed to fill seams between construction slabs. It contains a non-woven base, containing fibres, selected from a group made of natural cellulose fibres, synthetic polymer fibres, glass fibres and their combinations. At the same time the nonwoven base has the following properties, determined according to ASTM C474-05: relative swelling in cross direction is below approximately 1.3%; relative swelling in longitudinal direction is below approximately 0.2% and breaking strength in cross direction is at least approximately 2625 N/m. Besides, a method is proposed for finishing treatment of a seam between slabs, including the following: (1) application of a tape for filling seams onto a seam between slabs by submersion of a tape for seam filling into the first layer of the composition for filling seams; (ii) application of the second layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (ii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the composition for seam filling applied at the stage (i), have dried substantially, and if required, (iii) application of the third, filling or final layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (iii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the second layer have substantially dried.
EFFECT: improved quality of the tape due to high strength and reduction of swelling during moistening at simultaneous acceleration of seams filling.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: building element consists of the main part and an additional part, where the main part of the building element is in the form of two or more walls, connected to each other along the whole length with the middle crosspieces, and the additional part is made in the form of a middle element that has one or several bars joined or not joined to each other with middle crosspieces, besides, in case when the middle element is in the form of joined bars, the main part of the building element has walls that are shortened at the top and at the bottom relative to the extreme walls, or one of two walls is shortened as much as the second one is extended, besides, the width of the shortened wall complies with width of the middle crosspiece between these walls, besides, both in the walls and in the middle crosspieces of the main element there are through vertical openings for the possibility to connect building elements between each other.
EFFECT: increased speed of laying, saving of time and costs for erection of structures.
2 cl, 37 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a block is formed with a matrix based on light-transparent, shock-resistant, heat-resistant and moisture-resistant material. Inside the body there is a light diode cluster. The light-transparent matrix of the body is made as spatially matt, or at least one external side of the body is made as matt. The inner volume of the body is made in the form of an optical prism limited with reflecting and/or refracting planes.
EFFECT: improved optical properties of the block.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.
EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.
13 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare mix for cellular silicate building elements includes mixing of jointly ground lime and siliceous components with water and heat insulation glass foam or ground soundproof glass foam or mixture of these glass foams in any ratio, glass foam having been previously impregnated with lime suspension to saturation, containing 10 wt % of solid substance Ca(OH)2 and 0.5 - 7.0 wt % of hydroxide of univalent alkaline metal, ground to grain size of 3.0…30.0 mm, addition of aluminium powder. Building element in the form of tile or blocks or wall panels on the basis of silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening is produced from mixture prepared by method specified above is moulded in the form of an element, and has been through hydrothermal treatment in autoclave.
EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities to produce strengthened building elements with high heat and sound conductivity from silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg