Method of determining environmental risk in mining operations

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method includes assessment of the area under study, data collection and processing, while taking into account the area disturbed by the influence of man-induced and natural factors within mining allotment: open-pit field, degraded sites of plant communities in areas of mining operations, construction projects, and disturbed landscapes and roads, and with a share of the said areas more than 25% of the area under study the conclusion is given that this territory belongs to the category of stressed risk and requires necessary measures to reduce environmental stress.

EFFECT: simplification of the method, improvement of accuracy of the environmental situation assessment and determining the risk.

2 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and can be used in the evaluation of the ecological situation on the territory of the mining operations.

There is a method of assessment of the ecological environment, when monitor over time a number of indicators and their complexity determine the ecological situation in the region (patent No. 2243554 published 27.12.2004,, IPC G01N 33/00).

However, in the known method determination process monitoring long and complicated, because the devices determine the appearance and the mass concentration of harmful substances with subsequent re-testing.

The known method is characterized by high complexity, because it performs an assessment of each administrative area, and then perform the sum of all areas.

There is also known a method of assessment of the ecological state of the locality in which conduct testing of soil, air and water, microorganisms and as they make about the environmental situation in the region and locality (patent No. 2234085 from 27.02.2004,, IPC G01N 33/00).

However, in the known method the process of determining the ecological status very long, which takes into account many facts, including microorganisms, which are not always accurate.

Most b is izkuyu technical solution is the way, where carry out a comprehensive environmental assessment on the basis of the state data, the fixation of the facts of valid values, tabulation and comparison of the previous and subsequent periods. Formed protocols for communication lines to the Central processing and control, where the form of the joint Protocol environment (patent No. 2369866 from 10.10.2009,, IPC G01N 33/00).

The disadvantages of the prototype method is the difficulty of monitoring, considerable awkwardness of the determination of the facts, their design and data collection. With this method did not accurately define the projections of the environment, especially in the region where the mining industry.

The technical result is to facilitate the method, a more accurate assessment of the environmental situation and determine the risk.

The technical solution of the declared object is that take into account the area disturbed under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors within the mining lease: career field, degraded areas of plant communities in areas of mining, construction sites, disturbed landscapes and roads, and the total area of the objects more than 25% of the study area given the conclusion that this territory belongs to the category of intense risk and requires it is possible measures to reduce environmental stress.

The method is as follows.

On the site of the mining lease the mining operations take into account the footprint of the open pit, technological roads, landscapes, susceptible to degradation due to anthropogenic and natural effects.

At all sites, the area is calculated, if it is more than 25% of the total territory, determine the type of environmental risk.

When the degradation of the surface of the lithosphere on qualifying characteristics violation occurs small circulation and balance of nutrients, reducing soil fertility, ingress of chemical elements and toxic substances into the groundwater and atmosphere. Also the penetration into the stratosphere of nitrogen oxides formed during denitrification of nitrogen compounds arising from mining operations.

In established careers are in the process of erosion and resedimentation of soil particles in air or water streams. This greatly accelerates the process of destruction of the lithosphere due to anthropogenic impacts of mining on the ecosystem.

Resulting from the extraction and processing of mineral slag, sludge, dust, etc. also contribute to contamination of topsoil and its alienation from its rational use.

The changing landscape is in under the influence of anthropogenic forcing changes (easier) biogeocenosis, typical of this territory.

When mining waste is generated, containing a number of chemical compounds, polluting not only the soil, but water and air layers, in particular: products of ore processing, free silica, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, lead and other toxic substances.

This ecosystem is disturbed landscape is a specific environmental risk to the surrounding nature.

Therefore, to reduce this risk, you must consider several factors, cautionary environmental disorder. This above all: reduction (reducing) the amount of wastes and their rational use through recycling and utilization. To reduce the risk required continuous monitoring of the investigated area during mining operations.

Example 1. On the site extraction of minerals within a radius of 20 km2take into account the area of paved roads 10 km long and 6 m wide, created in the process of working quarry square 0.8 km2degraded vegetation areas 2 km2, a building, a total area of 1.2 km2.

The amount of disturbed areas is 8 km2or 40%. This site belongs to the category of intense risk and requires the necessary measures to restore or reduce environmental napryajennost the territory.

Example 2. In mountain conditions take into account the open pit area 30 km2technological roads and construction sites 2 km2degraded areas 1.5 km2. The total area of the extended territories is 3.5 km2or 11.7%, which is relatively safe factor for the environment.

Thus, a comprehensive assessment of the study area allows a simple way and more accurately determine the environmental condition of the site during mining operations.

The method of determining the level of environmental risk in the minerals sector, including the assessment of the study area, data collection and processing, characterized in that consider area disturbed under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors within the mining lease: career field, degraded areas of plant communities in areas of mining, construction sites, disturbed landscapes and roads and with the share of these areas more than 25% of the study area given the conclusion that this territory belongs to the category of intense risk and requires the necessary measures to reduce environmental stress.



 

Same patents:

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1 ex

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Shearing stand // 2460989

FIELD: physics.

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3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.

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EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.

1 tbl

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EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

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SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.

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EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.

2 cl, 3 tbl

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1 ex

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EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.

1 ex

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