Method of determining environmental risk in mining operations
SUBSTANCE: method includes assessment of the area under study, data collection and processing, while taking into account the area disturbed by the influence of man-induced and natural factors within mining allotment: open-pit field, degraded sites of plant communities in areas of mining operations, construction projects, and disturbed landscapes and roads, and with a share of the said areas more than 25% of the area under study the conclusion is given that this territory belongs to the category of stressed risk and requires necessary measures to reduce environmental stress.
EFFECT: simplification of the method, improvement of accuracy of the environmental situation assessment and determining the risk.
The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and can be used in the evaluation of the ecological situation on the territory of the mining operations.
There is a method of assessment of the ecological environment, when monitor over time a number of indicators and their complexity determine the ecological situation in the region (patent No. 2243554 published 27.12.2004,, IPC G01N 33/00).
However, in the known method determination process monitoring long and complicated, because the devices determine the appearance and the mass concentration of harmful substances with subsequent re-testing.
The known method is characterized by high complexity, because it performs an assessment of each administrative area, and then perform the sum of all areas.
There is also known a method of assessment of the ecological state of the locality in which conduct testing of soil, air and water, microorganisms and as they make about the environmental situation in the region and locality (patent No. 2234085 from 27.02.2004,, IPC G01N 33/00).
However, in the known method the process of determining the ecological status very long, which takes into account many facts, including microorganisms, which are not always accurate.
Most b is izkuyu technical solution is the way, where carry out a comprehensive environmental assessment on the basis of the state data, the fixation of the facts of valid values, tabulation and comparison of the previous and subsequent periods. Formed protocols for communication lines to the Central processing and control, where the form of the joint Protocol environment (patent No. 2369866 from 10.10.2009,, IPC G01N 33/00).
The disadvantages of the prototype method is the difficulty of monitoring, considerable awkwardness of the determination of the facts, their design and data collection. With this method did not accurately define the projections of the environment, especially in the region where the mining industry.
The technical result is to facilitate the method, a more accurate assessment of the environmental situation and determine the risk.
The technical solution of the declared object is that take into account the area disturbed under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors within the mining lease: career field, degraded areas of plant communities in areas of mining, construction sites, disturbed landscapes and roads, and the total area of the objects more than 25% of the study area given the conclusion that this territory belongs to the category of intense risk and requires it is possible measures to reduce environmental stress.
The method is as follows.
On the site of the mining lease the mining operations take into account the footprint of the open pit, technological roads, landscapes, susceptible to degradation due to anthropogenic and natural effects.
At all sites, the area is calculated, if it is more than 25% of the total territory, determine the type of environmental risk.
When the degradation of the surface of the lithosphere on qualifying characteristics violation occurs small circulation and balance of nutrients, reducing soil fertility, ingress of chemical elements and toxic substances into the groundwater and atmosphere. Also the penetration into the stratosphere of nitrogen oxides formed during denitrification of nitrogen compounds arising from mining operations.
In established careers are in the process of erosion and resedimentation of soil particles in air or water streams. This greatly accelerates the process of destruction of the lithosphere due to anthropogenic impacts of mining on the ecosystem.
Resulting from the extraction and processing of mineral slag, sludge, dust, etc. also contribute to contamination of topsoil and its alienation from its rational use.
The changing landscape is in under the influence of anthropogenic forcing changes (easier) biogeocenosis, typical of this territory.
When mining waste is generated, containing a number of chemical compounds, polluting not only the soil, but water and air layers, in particular: products of ore processing, free silica, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, lead and other toxic substances.
This ecosystem is disturbed landscape is a specific environmental risk to the surrounding nature.
Therefore, to reduce this risk, you must consider several factors, cautionary environmental disorder. This above all: reduction (reducing) the amount of wastes and their rational use through recycling and utilization. To reduce the risk required continuous monitoring of the investigated area during mining operations.
Example 1. On the site extraction of minerals within a radius of 20 km2take into account the area of paved roads 10 km long and 6 m wide, created in the process of working quarry square 0.8 km2degraded vegetation areas 2 km2, a building, a total area of 1.2 km2.
The amount of disturbed areas is 8 km2or 40%. This site belongs to the category of intense risk and requires the necessary measures to restore or reduce environmental napryajennost the territory.
Example 2. In mountain conditions take into account the open pit area 30 km2technological roads and construction sites 2 km2degraded areas 1.5 km2. The total area of the extended territories is 3.5 km2or 11.7%, which is relatively safe factor for the environment.
Thus, a comprehensive assessment of the study area allows a simple way and more accurately determine the environmental condition of the site during mining operations.
The method of determining the level of environmental risk in the minerals sector, including the assessment of the study area, data collection and processing, characterized in that consider area disturbed under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors within the mining lease: career field, degraded areas of plant communities in areas of mining, construction sites, disturbed landscapes and roads and with the share of these areas more than 25% of the study area given the conclusion that this territory belongs to the category of intense risk and requires the necessary measures to reduce environmental stress.
SUBSTANCE: when realising the method, a weight is placed on the top surface of the sample; the soil sample is converted to a pseudoliquid state; the beginning of sinking of the weight is recorded; further, the cross-section and length of the sample, pressure and volume of the stream of water over a defined period of time are measured; soil permeability is calculated from the measured values.
EFFECT: possibility of determining permeability of running soil in pseudo-liquid state by placing a weight on the top surface of the soil sample and recording the beginning of the sinking of the weight.
SUBSTANCE: photographic images of the eroded soil are taken using a cord (belt) and/or graduated scale. The obtained image is then displayed on a computer screen, where the profile of the eroded part is selected on the horizontal level and contours of the surface of the eroded soil. Further, the area of the eroded part is determined and the volume of soil lost due to water erosion is then calculated.
EFFECT: method for rapid determination of soil loss after torrential rain or snow melt, where there is fast photographic capture of the profile of the eroded soil with high speed of measuring soil loss, with low cost and high accuracy compared to existing methods.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to determine parameters of pillars erected in soil by the jet grouting method including arrangement of a well for the entire length of a pillar with subsequent erosion under permanent flow rate and pressure of a working solution and speed of lifting and rotation of a hydraulic monitor until formation of a pillar and determination of pillar parameters in compliance with soil properties. In process of well arrangement a soil sample is taken with a coring device with a case, with length multiple to pillar diameter, afterwards the case with the soil sample is installed in the horizontal position and under the right angle with one end is rigidly connected to a cylindrical conductor, the cavity diameter of which complies with the well diameter, and the other end is closed with a cover equipped with a metering system. In the conductor cavity coaxially to the cartridge with a soil sample there is a hydraulic monitor installed, and sample soil is washed with a working solution under permanent pressure, afterwards using the time of soil sample washing, the speed of hydraulic monitor lift is determined, as well as the radius of the given pillar section, and afterwards values of technological parameters are set for generation of a pillar with specified parameters.
EFFECT: simplified method, reduced costs, higher accuracy to detect geometric parameters of cement soil pillars along the entire depth of pillar erection depending on soil properties.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises planting in the soil of seeds of sprouted grains, their germination at constant optimal environmental conditions and measurement of guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. In addition, the guttation intensity is measured in these seedlings at a later age, and the ratio of the guttation intensity amount is calculated measured in addition to the guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. Thereat the assessment of the level of the soil phytotoxicity is carried out in accordance with the following gradation of the relative level of phytotoxicity of oil-polluted soil: the exponent IG2/IG1> 1 there is no toxicity; IG2/IG1 = 1 - a low level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 <1, a high level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 = 0 - a very high level of toxicity, where IG1 - is guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings; IG2 - is guttation intensity measured additionally. The guttation intensity is measured additionally at the age of 3-4 days of seedlings germination.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce complexity and maintain the high sensitivity of the assessment.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for determining moisture content includes non-conducting unit, power supply and measuring instrument. At the bottom of the unit there is a recess and at the top the block is covered with a lid with a recess coaxial to the recess of the unit bottom. In the recesses there are contacts which contact with the measuring rod. The container with soil is put on the measuring rod. At that the container from above and below is closed with lids with slits greater than the thickness of the measuring rod.
EFFECT: application of this device enables to determine the soil moisture under field conditions with minimal labor and resources costs and to choose the best version of cultivation technology of field crops.
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of aggregate composition of the soil consists of water tank with a drain hole, a base frame and an electric motor, where on the base frame a platform rotated with the electric motor is mounted, on which the water tank with sections different on volume is installed. The upper section is smaller than the lower section. The bottom of the lower section is removable and is fixed with snaps. At the bottom there are circular protrusions.
EFFECT: use of this device will enable to simplify the conducting of analysis of soil aggregate composition with minimal destruction of aggregates.
SUBSTANCE: shearing stand includes a ferrule with an extractor ring for holding a soil sample, a counterweight device, a drive mechanism and the surface of a tilting table placed under the ferrule. According to the invention, the drive mechanism for moving the ferrule is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod mounted on the surface of the tilting table, connected through a strain gauge dynamometer to the ferrule; the loading mechanism is in form of a swivelling two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, whose chamber is connected by hydraulic lines through an adjustable choke; the table tilting mechanism is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, having a manometer in the head end, wherein the traction hydraulic cylinder and the tilting hydraulic cylinder of the table are connected through hydraulic distribution valves by hydraulic lines to a power supply and drainage.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating the action of intensifiers on shearing stress of materials and soil on the shearing surface while varying the angle of interaction of the soil and the shearing surface.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining bioactivity of soil, water, wastes and preparations based on humic substances. To this end, seeds are pre-soaked for a day in a solution of the analysed substance. The seeds are then let to germinate at 25°C for 3 days on a substrate mounted on a vertical transparent plastic container. The container is a base and a rectangular cover of equal size, which are placed in parallel and joined to each other on the entire perimeter by "button" type fasteners. The container allows for installation of a removable central horizontal partition wall for holding the substrate. Before germination, the substrate is moistened, a filter is placed on the substrate and seeds are placed on said filter in a single row along the line of the central horizontal partition wall at a distance of 1 cm from it. After germination, the root length of the sprouts is determined relative control. If the root length in the test samples is shorter than that of control samples by 20% or more, the analysed substance has a toxic effect, if the root length exceeds the control length, the analysed substance has a stimulating effect, in the rest of the cases, the analysed substance has no bioactivity or is weakly toxic.
EFFECT: method enables to conduct serial investigations, is characterised by simplicity and rapidness, seeds are exposed in a short period of time and there is no mechanical damage when determining root length.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring relative shear resistance of an elementary layer inside granular material moving together with a bogie under the action of a falling weight. The granular material is divided into two parts by a horizontal plate on the level of said elementary layer. The top part is put into a box which is connected by a thread to the recording device of a dynamometer, and the bottom part is moved relative the top part on a bogie. The shear resistance force is measured and continuously recorded on paper in a function of the shear path, and the weight of the empty box is considered as additional height of the granular material.
EFFECT: ensuring high accuracy of measuring shear resistance force of granular material without violating its structure and conditions in which it lies.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare a monolith of mineral soils to identify a filtration coefficient includes picking of the monolith with a cutting sampling ring with subsequent filling of a filler between the inner wall of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. Prior to filling of the filler the diameter of the soil monolith is reduced by a value of doubled width of a cylindrical ring slot complying with thickness of a peripheral area of the monolith with soil properties damaged during picking of the monolith, but not less than 3 mm, by cutting of a cylindrical ring slot in the monolith between the inner surface of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. The filler used is a melted waterproof material with low melting temperature, for instance, mineral wax, besides, when identifying a filtration coefficient of mineral soils on monoliths the filtration area is accepted as complying with the soil monolith diameter D0 determined on the basis of the relation.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of filtration ratio identification, provision of accuracy of monolith preparation for filtration tests.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.