Method for determining relative strength of explosive
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: explosions of reference and investigated explosives are performed in rock masses of the same type as per mining-and-geological and mine engineering parameters; after the explosion of charges of compared explosives there measured is width of explosion funnel along the mine rock break line on the level of bench bottom along its lower edge, and relative strength coefficient is calculated as per the formula considering limit radius of mine rock break along bench bottom at explosion of the charge of reference and investigated explosives, capacity of well for reference and investigated explosives, and width of explosion funnel of reference and investigated explosives along the mine rock break line on the level of bench bottom along its lower edge.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing mine rock crushing intensity and reducing lump yield and cost of blasting operations.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to explosive and can be used in the mining industry to assess the explosive effectiveness of different types of industrial explosives used for blasting of rocks in the quarries of borehole charges.
Blasting work in industry and construction are the main focus of creative energy use explosives to solve the main task - the movement of large and crushing into transportable pieces of volumes of rock from direct effects of the explosion.
Currently, widespread different types of ammonia-Selitrennoe village explosives, manufactured directly on the ground blasting. Ammonium Selitrennoe village explosives manufactured at places of blasting, have a large critical diameter of detonation at lower velocity of detonation, low sensitivity to mechanical impact, safe in the manufacture. Knowledge of the values of detonation parameters, sensitivity to detonation pulse, the values of efficiency, defined as in the laboratory (sample treacle in the lead bomb, according to the method of the ballistic pendulum or by the method of ballistic mortar), and in field conditions in the production of m is somasshtabny explosions (1, 2), is insufficient to produce a full calculation of the parameters of blasting borehole charges on a career in the transition from one composition of explosives to another in terms of changes in a wide range of geological and geotechnical characteristics of the shattered rocks. For the reliable calculation of geometrical parameters of the location of the downhole explosive charges in the blasting of rocks at a quarry in the case of replacement of one explosive to another it is necessary to have data on health used (reference) and recommended replacements explosives obtained on rocks in the conditions of the existing quarry. In industrial practice, in terms of the existing enterprises relative efficiency of explosives determined by comparative analysis of the results of numerous industrial explosions carried out directly on the career of the use of these explosives by the method of successive approximation parameters of borehole charges to the desired result. This method is extremely costly and time consuming and does not allow us to evaluate the performance compared explosives.
There is a method of determining the relative health of explosives to change the volume of the inner cavity of the measuring rings of steel 45 with a diameter of not less than 150 mm, the height of 30-50 mm, placed on seamless steel pipe with a minimum diameter of 50 mm with wall thickness not less than 5 mm and a length of at least 10 diameters of charge, filled researched or reference explosive (3). The specified method of assessing the relative health of explosives does not take into account the actual process and the scale of blasting rock borehole charges in the process of industrial explosions at the existing quarry.
There is a method of determining the relative health of explosives, which includes the drilling of wells with the top surface of the ledge, location them in explosives and carrying out of the explosion with the loosening of the rock with the collapse of the ledge; the results of the test basis and test explosives compare the difference in the change in the amount of destroyed rock before and after the explosion, in absolute terms, then determine the ratio of the relative health of explosives by dividing the change in the volume of rock, caused by the explosion of new explosives, to change the volume of material obtained through the application of basic explosives, the volume of the unit breed before and after the explosion quickly determine using laser scanning (4)adopted by the authors as a prototype. The disadvantage of this method-p is ototype is the length and complexity of the measurement and calculation of the volume of the blocks before and after the explosion, as well as the uncertainty in the choice of block size before the explosion, which does not allow an unambiguous assessment of the ratio of the relative health of explosives.
An object of the invention is to increase the efficiency of blasting through improved reliability and accuracy of determining the relative performance of various types of explosives in blasting rocks in the quarries when changing the mining and geological conditions of the blasted rock mass; reducing the complexity and cost of blasting while maintaining the requirements of crushing and blasting of rocks.
The technical problem was solved by providing a method for determining the relative health of explosives at quarries, including drilling holes, placing and blasting charges compared explosives, measurement parameters blown block and the calculation of the coefficient of relative performance, in which explosions reference and test explosives carried out in the same rocks for geological and mining parameters, after the explosion of the charges compared explosives measure the width of the crater of the explosion by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge, and coeff is consistent with a person's relative efficiency calculated by the formula:
where: SSC - coefficient of the relative health of explosives,
R - limit radius margin rocks on the bottom of the ledge when the explosion of the charge reference explosives equal to, m;
RCCthe ultimate radius of separation rocks on the bottom of the ledge when the explosion of the charge of the test explosives equal to, m;
PEPCC- capacity wells for the reference and test explosives, kg/m;
InEInCC- the width of the crater of the explosion of the reference and test explosives by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge, m;
W is the resistance at the foot of the escarpment, m
Researched explosive when KCC>1 is inferior, and when KCC<1 exceeds the reference explosive in the explosive efficiency.
To assess the relative health of explosives reference and test explosives placed in two wells spaced from each other at such a distance at which the explosion results downhole reference charge explosives will not affect the results of the blast borehole charge investigated explosives.
Relative working the th of explosives permitted to be determined in the process of mass industrial explosion, when the reference and test explosives placed at the wells of the first row from the slope of the ledge of rocks.
The limiting radius fracture is calculated from the measured width of the crater of the explosion of the reference or investigated explosives by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its bottom edge.
The way to rapid and reliable determination of the relative health of explosives on the results of an industrial explosion at the pit should be simple, easy to run in a production environment and accurately simulate the real action of the blast hole charges of explosives when usturoi the blasting of rocks in the quarry.
The need to develop a way to quickly determine the relative health of explosives used when the detonations rocks at existing quarries, due to the following factors.
Currently developed and widespread technology of production of ammonium-Selitrennoe village of explosives on the ground blasting. Explosives are made on the basis of ammonium nitrate is mainly pellets and emulsion, which possess a wide spectrum of energy is them and detonation characteristics, therefore can be used in downhole charges of different diameters for blasting the rocks with different physical-mechanical and hydro-geological characteristics. When doing massive explosions on a career with diverse species there is a need for the use of explosives, corresponding to the characteristics of destructive explosion of arrays. In the presence of rapid and accurate method for determining the relative health of explosives in the process of direct industrial blasting eliminates the need for extensive selection experienced by explosives for effective blasting specific types of rocks. The feasibility of establishing facilities for the manufacture of explosives with a wide range of energy and detonation parameters on the ground blasting in this case, it becomes economically reasonable and justified.
Determination of the coefficient relative To healthCCadopted magnitude limit of the radius of the separation of rocks (the range of the explosion) R on the bottom of the ledge. R is a constant characteristic (R=const) for the destructible environment in the explosion of the well of the charge, has a specific capacity of explosive substance in a unit length of the borehole (P).
Numerous the military experiments revealed, this explosive magnitude limit of the range of the explosion borehole charge on the sole of the ledge at a constant capacity of the explosive in the borehole remains constant and independent of the magnitude of the resistance line on the bottom of the ledge, overcome borehole charge, without thresholds and increased mark the foot of the escarpment. When assessing the relative health compared explosives must be kept constant parameters blasting borehole charge affecting his destructive ability on the bench bottom, the diameter and length of charge, depth of perebor, height, and material of tamping, the conditions of initiation (the location of the intermediate detonator in the column of explosives, its dimensions and weight, detonation and power characteristics).
The invention is illustrated by figure 1, which includes:
(a) diagram of the formation of a crater of destruction in the explosion of the explosive charge in the borehole (diagram of the formation of the crater of the explosion on the ledge of rocks);
b) the locations of the wells from the reference and test explosives for mass industrial explosion:
1 - the upper edge of the ledge exploding block;
2 - the bottom edge of the ledge exploding block;
3 - well;
4 - crater;
5 - SLE the new well with the standard explosive;
6 is that it is extremely well researched explosive;
7 - extreme well with the reference explosive;
WE, WCC- resistance line on the sole, m;
R, R - limit radius margin rocks on the bottom of the ledge when the explosion of the charge (the range of the explosion);
InEInCC- the width of the crater of the explosion of the reference or investigated explosives by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge, m
The invention consists in the following.
In the explosion of a single downhole explosive charge in the direction of the slope of the escarpment along its height is formed sloping crater (figure 1), which has a similar form upper and lower base is approximately the same square. The shape of the upper and lower base close to parabolic or elliptical shape. The equality of the areas of the bases of the crater of the explosion is confirmed by the parallel edges of the crater of the explosion of the plane of the slope of the escarpment.
The limiting radius fracture R is calculated from the measured width of crater explosion by tear line rocks on the bottom of the ledge along its lower edge at the point of intersection of the crater of the explosion with the bottom edge of the ledge.
A similar crater formed by the explosion at borehole charges explosion is atogo substances, located in the first row from the slope of the ledge of rocks (figb). In this case, the crater of the explosion formed at the wells of the first row, is about half the volume of the crater from the explosion of a single hole in the ledge while maintaining the numerical values of the limiting radius fracture on the bottom of the ledge.
This circumstance allows to determine the relative efficiency of explosives ToCCas experienced explosions single hole charges in the ledge, and production of industrial mass explosions borehole charges of various explosives. For measurement of fracture along the sole of the ledge used the crater formed by the explosion at wells in the first row from the slope of the escarpment.
The proposed method is implemented as follows (figa). 1 shows one crater, because the type of exploding explosives affects the dimensions of the crater of destruction, but not on its shape. On the ledge drilled two separate from each other well for placement of the reference and test explosives. The distance between the holes is selected such that the results of the explosion of the charge reference explosives did not affect the results of the explosion investigated explosives. The parameters of borehole charges reference and IP is libimage explosives are the same, and settings downhole reference charge explosives resistance on the soles of the ledge, the length of the column charge, perebor, stemming, conditions of initiation are accepted on a model project blasting adopted on this mining facility, or calculated in a known manner to obtain the crater of the explosion with the necessary loosening (crushing) of rocks. Is the loading wells of the reference and test explosive and their sequential blasting. After the explosion, measure the width of the resulting explosion craters (EorCC) by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge, the results of which I hope the limiting radii of destruction from the explosion of the reference (RE) and analyzed (RCC) explosives. For used in the experiments explosives is determined by their bulk density (density loader) respectively for the reference ρeand analyzed ρCCof explosives. The capacity of the wells on explosive substance for a known diameter (d) of charge is calculated by the formula(kg/m). The coefficient of health investigated explosives against the reference explosives (KCC) is calculated by the formula . Knowing the coefficient of relative health explosives (KCC<1 orCC>1) in relation to the previously used on a career explosive substance, calculated by known methods necessary parameters downhole charge for the new explosives, providing the same explosive effect of crushing the soil of rocks, as with the previously used explosive in his career.
The relative efficiency of explosives permitted to be determined in the process of mass industrial explosion wells 5 with the standard explosive, when the reference and test explosives placed at the wells 6, 7 of the first row from the slope of the ledge of rocks (figb).
The main advantages of the proposed method for determining the relative health of explosives:
- efficiency, high precision measurement of the width of the funnel of destruction and the calculation of the maximum radius (radius of the explosion) after explosions borehole charges of the reference and test explosives;
- accuracy determination of the coefficient of relative health of explosives;
- reducing the time of selection of the optimal composition of explosives when changing the characteristics of the thump of hands on the different breeds.
Example No. 1 - determination of the coefficient of relative performance in the breaking of rock fortress Dan f=10 on the ledge height of 10 m
Diameter wells d=0.2 m Parameters downhole explosive charge: resistance on the soles of the ledge W=6 m, the length of charge lC=6 m, the length of the tamping lZAB.=5 m Reference explosive - Ammonite JV with bulk density ρE=900 kg/m3and capacity wells PE=28 kg/m Compared (investigational) explosive - granulit RP with bulk density ρCC=800 kg/m3having the capacity wells PCC=25 kg/m
Determination of the coefficient relative To healthCCgranulite RP in comparison with the standard Ammonite IV was based on the results of experimental explosions on the ledge of a single borehole charges of explosives. After the explosions formed two funnel explosion, in which he measured the width of the funnel of destruction along the sole of the ledge along its lower edge, which amounted to reference explosives Ammonite GW=13.4 m, and the maximum radius on the bottom of the ledge on the calculation amounted to RE=9.0 m, and for the studied explosives of granulite RPCC=10.6 m, and RCC=8,0 m relative performance of granulite RP to the reference Ammonite IV with the is - . Therefore, the explosive efficiency granulite SPM 13% below the reference explosives Ammonite IV in relation to the conditions of their tests on this career.
Example 2 - determination of the coefficient of relative health of explosives on the results of the industrial explosion of borehole charges diameter d=0,11 m on career building materials.
The explosion is carried out on the ledge height H=6 m Wells are placed in one row depth l=7 m relative to the slope of the escarpment. Resistance on the bench bottom hole charges is W=3.5 m, length of charge lC=3 m, the length of the tamping lZAB=3 m as the reference explosives used powdered Ammonite GW (ρE=900 kg/m3; PE=8.6 kg/m), as compared emulsion explosive "Nitronic" (e-70), with ρCC=1200 kg/m3; PCC=11.5 kg/m Reference and compare explosives were placed at the wells, other wells of a number of charged regular explosives, adopted on career. As a result a mass explosion was measured for two at the wells of the first row, the width of the funnel of destruction on the bench bottom, equal to the reference explosives Ammonite GWE=7,14 m, and the maximum radius on the bottom of the ledge on the calculation of the left R E=5.0 m, and for the studied explosives of granulite RPCC=9,75 m, and RCC=6,0 m relative efficiency of emulsion explosives "Nitronate" compared with Ammonite IV is:reflecting on his more explosive performance in the matched conditions.
The technical result of the proposed method of determining the relative health of explosives is:
- reducing the complexity in assessing the effectiveness of the replacement of explosives when changing mining and geological characteristics of the shattered rock of the array by determining the relative health of explosives to blow the block or exploding the block in the process of mass industrial explosion;
- improving the quality of ore crushing rocks due to the higher reliability of the coefficient of relative efficiency, defined for the blasted rock at a quarry of rocks;
- reducing the cost of blasting and determine the relative health of explosives due to combination of explosions on the determination of the coefficient of the relative health of explosives manufacture of explosions shattered the block.
The proposed methods for the determination of the relative health of the explosive was tested in open pits, took the fortress of rocks on a scale Dev from 8-10 15-17 at explosions experienced as separate wells, and the outer wells of the first row with various charges of explosives by measuring the width of the funnel of destruction and calculate the coefficients of the relative health of explosives. Replacement used explosives to another in accordance with the proposed method of determining the relative health of explosives allowed to increase the intensity of rock crushing, to reduce the output of oversize and cost of blasting.
Sources of information
1. Bassetlaw, Nearestto "Theory and properties of industrial explosives", M, "Nedra", 1973.
2. Welburn, Wagoner "Equipment and technology of blasting operations in the United States", M., Nedra, 1989.
3. RF patent №2407984.
4. RF patent №2376551.
1. The method of determining the relative health of explosives at quarries, including drilling holes, placing and blasting of explosive substances, measurement parameters blown block and the calculation of the coefficient of relative health of explosives, characterized in that the explosions of the reference and test explosives carried out in the same rocks for geological and mining parameters, after the EOI is IVA charges compared explosives measure the width of the crater of the explosion by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge,
and the coefficient of relative efficiency calculated according to the formula
where KCC- the ratio of the relative health of explosives;
REthe ultimate radius of separation rocks on the bottom of the ledge when the explosion of the charge reference explosives equal to
RCCthe ultimate radius of separation rocks on the bottom of the ledge when the explosion of the charge of the test explosives equal to
PE, RCC- capacity wells for the reference and test explosives, kg/m;
InEInCC- the width of the crater of the explosion of the reference and test explosives by tear line rocks at the level of the foot of the escarpment along its lower edge, m;
W is the resistance at the foot of the escarpment, m
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the explosives are placed in the wells, spaced from each other at such a distance, at which the results of the explosion of the charge reference explosives do not affect the results of the explosion of the charge investigated explosives.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the comparison explosives placed at the wells of the first row from the slope of the ledge of rocks, they carry out bombings in the process m is sovago industrial explosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to extraction methods of mineral deposits from ore veins. Drilling of wells located at some distance is performed directly in ore vein. Wells are reamed using thermal fragmentation basically to boundary surfaces between ore vein and environment. Then, in ore vein between thermally reamed wells there drilled is pit for introduction of explosive charge. The latter is blasted in order to destruct the ore between reamed wells. After ore vein section is destructed with guided blast wave, the other well is drilled in ore vein at the specified distance from the previous place of blasting operations and thermally reamed, and the next pit is drilled between them for explosive fragmentation. The process is repeated for as many times as it is required for extraction of the necessary amount of ore from ore vein.
EFFECT: invention allows minimising the ore extraction cost by reducing the ore impoverishment.
12 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes calculation of parameters of stress waves regarding the deflexion of detonation wave and energy dissipation. Rock stress is determined after detonation wave deflexion on the base of the laws of breakdown of an arbitrary discontinuity of data by the properties of explosive substances and impact adiabats of rock material. Then Cauchy problem is solved by the data about stress waves' parameters at random distances that allows determining these parameters at all further distances. It is taken into consideration that the rock is first dynamically loaded and then statically unloaded. Entropy change takes place only at impact wave front. Thus there is the difference between the energies of loading and unloading that is the energy of dissipation itself. Considering dissipation energy there calculated are the stresses obtained in massive at various distances from the charge.
EFFECT: method allows reducing the volume of small fractions and improving ecological indices of blasting activities.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling of blast holes with increased subdrilled area, their charging with an air cushion arranged in the above subdrilled area, and explosion of mine rocks. Air cushion with length of 6-10 diameters of the well is created below actual level of bench bottom by 2-3 diameters of the well. Additional charge with length of 10-20 diameters of the well is arranged under the cushion.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of charges.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling vertical main wells, definition of a contour in plan and soil elevations of solid inclusions along the depth of the main wells, drilling additional vertical wells inside the contour of inclusions, charging main and additional wells with explosive charges, with placement of explosive charges in additional wells inside their inclusions and their blasting. Selection of explosive charge parameters for charging additional wells is carried out by the value of product of explosive detonation speed and explosive charge diameter defined from the ratio.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of solid inclusions grinding.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: block to be exploded is drilled around the perimeter of its connection to rock mass by means of a row of wells in 3-4 metres. At that, during preparation for drilling and explosion loosening the well rocks in the row are drilled to the depth below the coal formation through the distance excluding the formation destruction during explosion of row by means of base charge.
EFFECT: reducing the cost of rock mass to be exploded owing to using explosives non-resistant to water as a result of drying of the block to be exploded.
SUBSTANCE: method of blast-hole drilling ensuring preset extent of blast rock grinding includes drilling of explosive wells at the distance between them, depending on detonating characteristics of explosives, physical and technical properties of a rock massif, parameters of its cracking, their charging and explosion. Explosive wells are charged with explosives with specific consumption per m3 of blast rock in amount determined with account of explosive energy losses as charge explosion products expand in a well volume occupied with the charge, and also with account of losses related to the extent of the specific explosive detonation completeness in the well of the specific diameter, which are introduced into a calculation expression for a coefficient of relative operability of the applied explosive.
EFFECT: reduced volume of drilling works in drilling of explosive wells, which results in higher efficiency and reduced cost of blast-hole drilling.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to form charges in drowned wells, including drilling of wells, their filling with explosives and a plug from inertial materials, a multicharge is formed in wells filled with water, made of two different types of hose explosive charges. The main hose explosive charge with detonation speed corresponding to the speed of stress wave propagation in surrounding rock and weight of 75…80% from total mass of the multicharge is placed vertically along the well axis. The second hose explosive charge with high speed of detonation exceeding the speed of stress wave propagation in a rock massif and weight of 20…25% from the total mass of the multicharge, is placed along the spiral around the first hose charge, with a pitch of one turn along the vertical line equal to two well diameters. Linear initiation of the explosive multicharge is carried out simultaneously along the entire length of the well with a detonating chord with a charge of 40 g/m.
EFFECT: amplified amplitude of a voltage pulse and intensity of rocks grinding, which as a whole increases efficiency of drilling and blasting works with reduction of hazardous effect of explosion to environment.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: during performance of drilling and blasting works in the lower part of each explosive well a bottom charge is arranged, on the outer surface of which there is a circular cumulative groove arranged, the top of which lies in the horizontal plane, which separates the volume of the bottom charge in two and matches the plane of a working site of an open pit ledge or a bottom of an underground stope. The value of well subgrade drilling is accepted as equal to the half of the cumulative groove base width.
EFFECT: reduced drilling flow due to reduction of subgrade drilling and higher quality of arrangement of a working site of open pit ledges and a bottom of stopes at underground mining works.
SUBSTANCE: inclusions may be represented by layers of hard rocks, various lenses and other inclusions, such as permafrost (eternal frost) in less hard enclosing rocks. Explosive charges in additional shortened wells are placed at the level or below the soil of hard inclusions and are exploded with moderation relative to charges in the main wells. The proposed invention makes it possible to execute efficient grinding of solid inclusions that are previously softened by explosion of charges in the main wells, due to dynamic effect of explosive gases from explosion of charges in additional wells at the lower part of inclusions.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of grinding of various solid inclusions available in the upper and middle part of the ledge and arranged in less hard enclosing rocks.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming hose charge in wells involves well drilling, arrangement of hose charge in it and stemming by means of inert materials. At that, hose charge is made in the form of a spiral wound on thin-wall perforated plastic pipe, with winding pitch equal to 4.0…5.0 diameters of hose charge. Hose charge and detonating cord is attached to thin-wall perforated plastic pipe. After the assembled structure is arranged in the well, cavity of the pipe and gaps between coils of hose charge are filled with water to the level of hose charge and the well is stemmed with inert materials.
EFFECT: reducing the specific flow of an explosive, increasing the crushing efficiency of rock masses, and reducing the dust loading of ambient air.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in opencast mining of mineral resources and hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the method for formation of a deep-hole charge of a multi-component mixed explosive consists in impregnation of porous and crystal ammonium nitrate with liquid petroleum product and placement of the obtained explosive in the hole, formation of the mentioned deep-hole charge in its extension is accomplished with sections of various density of the explosive depending the physico-mechanical properties of the rocks located in the length of the hole, varying the density of the explosive by varying the mass percent relation of the quantity of granules of porous and crystal ammonium nitrate in the explosive compound, the mass percent of a granule of porous ammonium nitrate is within 54.5 to 71.5, a granule of crystal ammonium nitrate is within 20 to 40, liquid petroleum product - within 5.5 to 8.5, the granules of porous ammonium nitrate are used with sizes of 2.5 to 4.5 mm, and those of crystal ammonium nitrate - 0.7 to 1.3 mm, mineral oil is used as petroleum product.
EFFECT: provided optimized destruction of the rock in opencast mining of mineral resources and in building blasting operations.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, applicable at blasting of rocks on the ground surface, at blasting of ores in the underground conditions and driving of underground open pit minings.
SUBSTANCE: the method for drilling blasting of rocks includes drilling of boreholes with subsequent their loading with explosive charges, short-delay blasting and registration of seismic oscillations on one block. Then, the zone with the maximum quantity of simultaneously blasted deep-hole charges on this block is determined according to the amplitude of speed exceeding the preset level on the seismograph. After that the intervals of operation between the adjacent charges on the next block are increased with due account made for the obtained results of measurements on the previous block.
EFFECT: provided the necessary degree of rock crushing at an allowable level of seismic action on the environment.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining of mineral raw material, applicable at opening of workings or manbreaking.
SUBSTANCE: a trapezoidal recess is made in the cartridge-shape charge of blasting destruction obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the charge. The recess is positioned at the cut of the generating line and the change end face. In the charged blast-hole (or well) the recess is directed towards the non-charged blast-hole or towards the additional exposed plane.
EFFECT: enhanced utilization factor at opening of workings and holes at mass breaking.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making well charge of individual members of the blasting agents that receive one or several strikers. The members are separated with spaces filled with a liquid with a density of 800-1400 kg/m3. The strikers are actuated so that the detonation of blasting agent is completed simultaneously in the bulk. The height of the active section of the charge of blasting agent interposed between the boundaries of the liquid and location of the striker are calculated from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry; openpit mining of ferruginous quartzites.
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed in two versions. According to first version, method includes drilling at bench parallel rows of vertical boreholes at angle β relative to strike line of layers determined by the following relationship: β=arc cos (cos 45°-sinγ·cosα)/(sinα·cosγ), where α is angle of dip; γ is angle between plane of blast wave front and vertical. Then, boreholes are charged with explosive followed by tamping at simultaneous blasting in each row for forming inclined compression blast wave. According to second version, proposed method includes drilling parallel rows of vertical boreholes at angle β relative to strike line determined by the following relationship: β= arc cos (cos 45°-sinγ·cosα/(sinα·cosγ)±ψ, where α is angle of dip; γ is angle between plane of compression blast wave front and vertical; ψ is angle of turn of compression blast wave front around vertical axis relative to strike line which is determined as follows: ψ=arc sin(υel·t/L) where υel is velocity of propagation of elastic wave in mass; t is interval of time between blasts of charges in first and last boreholes of row; L is length of this row of boreholes; sign of angle ψ is selected that angle between line of each row of boreholes and line of crest of bench of shoulder is close to or is equal to 90°, after which boreholes are charged with explosive followed by tamping and successive blasting in each row forming inclined compression blast wave.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of softening the ore.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: mining; construction industry; methods of breaking rocks from massifs with lenticular permafrost massifs.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mining and construction and is intended for breaking rocks from massifs with the lenticular permafrost spots. The technical result is improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting. The method provides for boring of the downward primary and additionally boreholes, their charging with explosive charges (explosives), stemming of boreholes and firing of charges of explosives. At that while boring the primary boreholes in the case of presence of the lenticular permafrost spots determine their contours in plane and marks of the roofing and soil of these lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the boreholes. The additional boreholes they drill inside the contour with a crossover of the indicated lenticular permafrost spots, but not deeper than the primary boreholes, At that determine marks of the roofing and soil of the lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the additional boreholes, and at a charging of the additional boreholes the charges of explosives place inside the crossing lenticular permafrost spots.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting.
8 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: mining art, applicable for mining by open method in rocky and semirocky rocks at placing of high benches on planned contour.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in collaring of inclined holes from the upper bench to be height of a doubled bench, for production of a cut-off slot at formation of the upper inclined part of the bench and contour vertical holes from the intermediate bench to the same depth for formation of the lower vertical part of the bench, loading and blasting. The novelty in the method is in the fact that the drilling of holes of the contour row from the intermediate bench is performed in three stages: initially in the first stage drilled is the part, of inclined holes from the initial to the final point of the section of sloping with one direction of inclination, in the second stage drilled are the inclined holes of the contour row having the same inclination and the same distance between the holes as in the first stage, but in the contrary direction, in the third stage between the mentioned inclined contour holes drilled are vertical contour holes, the inclined holes of the contour row are loaded by a permanent charge from the face to the mouth of the holes, and in the vertical contour holes positioned between the inclined contour holes, the amount of the charge is changed successively from the face to the mouth, corresponding to the minimum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench is the minimum charge in the vertical contour hole, which in proportion with removal from the bottom of the lower bench successively increases, reaching its maximum value at the bottom of the intermediate bench, at the maximum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench the value of the charge in the vertical contour hole from the face to the mouth is changed in the reverse order.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sloping.
7 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in driving of horizontal workings.
SUBSTANCE: compensation and blast holes are drilled in a rock mass over the entire length of the raise. The blast holes are charges partially or completely, and they are subjected to a short-delay blasting into compensation holes and then the formed compensation cavities. The interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession, depending on the detonation characteristics of the explosive, charge diameter, physico-technical properties of the rock mass, height and diameter of the newly formed compensation cavities should provide for breaking of the rock from the mass and full outburst of the rock mass from the cavity, i.e. to prevent the pressing effect of the rock mass in the contour of the raise.
EFFECT: determined the interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession with prevention of the rock mass pressing in the contour of the raise, which allows to increase the height of the blasted section and enhance the physico-technical properties of the raise driving.
1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl