Buried waste storage and method of its creation

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: storage comprises regional confining layer, said layer there above, at least one layer of loam and/or clay sediments making sorption (filtration) shield above sand layer, system of horizontal tubular drains fitted in sand layer along storage edges to extend to pits for possible feed of filtrate to surface. Proposed method comprises selecting regional confining layer proceeding from hydrogeological data on estimates of flows over refining layer, analysing engineering survey of soil stratum section town to refining layer to reveal shielding and filtering layers at future storage bed and excavating soil to reach, at least, one pillar of loan and/or clay beds making a natural sorption and/or filtration shield. Note here that, additionally, cuts in pillar are exposed along pit edges down to sand layer under lower filtration layers for laying horizontal drains along pit edges and mounting pumps therein.

EFFECT: decreased costs.

5 cl, 1 dwg

 

1. The technical field

The present invention is intended for use in the urban industrial and utility sector by creating a repository of solid household and industrial waste (TPB). For the establishment of the proposed type of storage required is the identification of the geological conditions under which the upper strata of Quaternary sandy-clayey sediments placed at a depth of about 20÷50 m, underlain by sustained regional aquitard.

2. The level of technology

There are protected by patents of different suggestions on how to isolate the bottom, sides and slopes of the repository.

In the patent RU 2337419 features tab stores on the earth's surface with the geological barrier coating of loam at its base, is used as the sorption of the screen with the preparation of the species barrier to achieve the required filtration sorption properties that are justified based on the fact that the filling time of the screening layer of sorbed components does not exceed the time of filling the store. The disadvantages of this proposal: 1) after exhaustion of the sorption capacity of the soils screen he ceases to play a role hydrochemical barrier and becomes an additional source of groundwater contamination; 2) do not stay in this screen and freely received in Grun the new water naservirujeme toxic components.

In the patent RU 2235610 proposed development of the pit for storage with the construction of the protective screen and the drainage base along its bottom and sides with the subsequent breakdown of the pit on a separate partition. This solution is proposed for laying waste with a low density. The disadvantages of this proposal, intended mainly for waste low density, is the need to create artificial screen and incomplete drainage of the filtrate proposed drainage device.

In the patent RU 2344238 a device two-layer geological barrier, and at least one of its layers is of geosynthetic materials, and is also provided with means to move the liquid at the exit barrier. The disadvantage here is, besides artificial barrier, the uncertainty of the technical solution of the problem of water drainage at the exit barrier.

In the patent RU 2336206 it is suggested to place the landfilled waste in the tank performed from separate sections, separated by impervious curtains, with tube drainage, located on the contour of the veil. In this sentence, the waste is located on the earth's surface and in the structure of his cut-off protection is not taken into account the geological conditions of the territory of the repository.

Most liscie to offer in this application the problem of cut-off protection of a closed municipal solid waste (MSW) is the proposal Mosvodokananiiproekt (Liongate, Bauerfeld. The deposition of sewage sludge (for example, polygon "Marino") / "Ecology and industry of Russia", №10, 1999) by depositing silt sediment in the area Mariinsky Park mountains. Moscow. In this project to store rainfall built sewage pit to the regional aquitard (Jurassic clays), leaving pillar sandy rocks a depth of 6 meters For the protection of groundwater inflow into the pit created impervious veil way "wall"cutting the aquifer to the impermeable layer (to a depth of about 20 m). In addition, for dewatering store is vertical drainage system. Operation of this system found its low efficiency, and has not been proved that the device of the veil, which resulted in a significant rise in the cost of construction of storage for the device of the veil, with vertical drainage because of the small tributary to wells worked in highly unequal mode of the pumps in the wells. It should be noted the low efficiency of the pumping system, in combination with the filtration device of the veil, which leads to high operating costs per unit volume pumped out of the filtrate.

Closest to the claimed here technical solution is the proposal Vimsatika (Vmesto. Depositing industrial the x waste in underground repositories / "Ecology and industry of Russia", No. 3, 2000), in which the store is laid directly on a regional aquitard (Jurassic clay) with a horizontal reservoir drainage in the base body store. As disadvantages of this proposal may be noted the absence of sorption of the screen at the bottom of the vault and the need for drainage under the entire bottom surface of the repository.

Disclosure of inventions

3. The invention

In the proposed storage type solid waste is deposited in a pre-dug pit, the bottom of which is left pillar loamy and/or clay soils, which is a sandy layer. The vault is constructed so that the filtrate from the repository passes through clay screen, which retained good adsorbed toxic components. After that, the filtrate is transferred to the horizontal tubular drains, laying in the underlying sandy layer on the contour of the store under the protection of dewatering. For these purposes, produce extra opening slots in the rear sight (which plays the role of sorption of the screen) on the contour of the pit to the sand layer for laying horizontal drains at a depth of 1-2 m

In these drains enters the filtration flow from the surrounding storage areas. From drain water enters the mine from which pumped to the surface of the earth is, where, if necessary, prior to discharge to a nearby stream undergoes additional treatment. Thus, the proposed technical solution provides for two stages of purification of the filtrate. The first stage is when the treatment takes place on the pillar of clay and/or loam soils, which play the role of sorption (filter) screen, and it uses natural sorption capacity of clay rocks. At the final step, if necessary, use additional cleaning of leachate treatment facilities. After filling the store is made reclamation of its surface coated with greenery.

Excavation of soil from the pit is protected under construction dewatering. As such can use contour drainage wells or story well point.

4. The novelty of the proposal

Compared to existing solutions on the device stores closed type new is a special device to the base repository. It provides:

- the presence of at least two natural screens, namely: at least one sorption is directly at the base of the vault and the second, below, is a natural aquitard, virtually precluding the flow of filtrate through it to the underlying in ononye horizons;

device horizontal drainage between the two screens (or, if the sorption of several screens, between the bottom of the sorption screens and regional aquitard) for filtrate discharge and flowing seepage flow;

- the presence of natural aquitard.

As an additional protection against contamination of the filtrate provides for the use of treatment facilities on the earth's surface. Such a storage device, based on the use of natural opportunities hydrogeological and engineering-geological structure selected according to the invention section, eliminates the need for construction of artificial screen on the bottom of the store, which significantly reduces the cost of creating the vault. If the upper parts of the sequence permeable (sandy or sandy-gravel rocks can be provided by their shielding at the sides of the slopes of the repository.

The advantage of this type of storage is the natural character of the screens that protects from almost mandatory deficiencies artificially constructed barriers which are caused by the complexity of the technology of their devices, and high cost. Thus, the proposed solution is implemented not expensive artificial screens and maximum protection of underground odot industrial pollution.

The principle of the proposed solution, ensuring its effectiveness comes from the fullest possible use of the structure of the geological environment to control the flow of filtrate from the store. Used for this purpose is a system of two natural screens in the base storage: sorption of the screen in the bottom of the store and regional aquitard beneath it with natural drainage layer and horizontal drains between them. The filtrate passing through at least one filtration (sorbing) screen, gives adsorbed part of the toxic components, after which, taking into account the protection from flowing down the regional aquitard, is transferred to the horizontal drains. Further pumping from drains the filtrate is fed to the treatment plant, which is brought to a condition suitable for discharge into the nearest natural watercourse. In addition, the external flow to the horizontal drains serves as a hydraulic barrier to protect against infiltration of leachate into the ground water table.

After filling the storage to the level of the surface of the earth is full reclamation of the site. When the water level in the drain is maintained at the depth required for the desired ameliorative effect on the surrounding area.

5. The technical result

Here the way to create storage and operation stated what about the invention of the store allow you to get a number of positive effects and benefits of environmental and economic nature. First of all, it refers to the protection of aquifers from the filtrate entry: excludes the ingress of leachate into ground water due to the effect of the hydraulic barrier carried by the flow to the horizontal drains; through interception seeping through sorbing screen filtrate horizontal drains and shielding impact of regional aquitard is significantly reduced ingress of contaminated leachate into the underlying aquifer. In some cases, associated with an increased risk of ingress of contaminated water from the upper layers of storage in groundwater, due to the hydraulic conditions of a particular store may provide additional activities for waterproofing sides of the store, and the store itself optionally include the waterproofing.

It should be noted that completely eliminate the possibility of leakage certain amount of filtrate through the confining bed in such stores not in any way cut-off protection and this possibility should be evaluated in each case by special calculations; however, a priori exclude the possibility of the use of such repositories for the storage of highly toxic, in particular highly radioactive, waste water.

In addition, in this system, the cut-off protection storage p is another advantage of the opportunity of the discharge of environmentally friendly residual of treated leachate in natural ponds and streams with minimal expenditure on cleaning at engineering and reclamation of the surrounding area, make up the original inconvenient for use of land, including the surface area of the repository.

It is essential that due to the maximum use of the geological structure of these beneficial effects are achieved with the least cost in comparison with stores, localized artificial screens.

Thus, the claimed technical result is achieved by the storage of TPB recessed type, the base of which includes:

regional confining bed,

- sandy layer above it,

at least one layer of loamy and/or clayey sediments as sorption screen above the sand drainage layer,

- a system of horizontal tubular drains, laying in the sand layer on the contour of the store supplied to the mine, providing the possibility of leachate to the surface.

The specified location of TPB can additionally be equipped with treatment facilities for surface cleaning of the effluent before discharging it into the water.

The claimed result is achieved by way of creating a repository TPB recessed type, which produces:

search regional aquitard on the basis of the hydrogeological assessment materials flowing through the confining bed,

- study of the geotechnical section the soil is howling aquitard thickness to identifying the presence of shielding and filtering layers in the Foundation of the future store,

- excavation of soil from the pit before reaching the at least one pillar of clay and/or loam rock, which is a natural sorbent screen

- additional opening slots in the rear contour of the pit to the sand layer under the bottom of the filter layers for laying horizontal drains;

device horizontal pipe drainage along the contour of the pit storage of mines for the location of the pumps.

In the method of creating a repository can be additionally provided that the excavation for the Foundation pit is produced under the protection of construction dewatering. At the same time as protective construction dewatering can use contour drainage wells or story well point.

6. Brief description of drawing

In the application the figure, which presents in schematic form the incision is deepened drained repository TPB. In the diagram the pit under TPB indicated by figure 1, was constructed in the thickness of the sandy-clayey sediments in the lower part of which there is a clay layer. All the strata identified by the number 2. The pillar of clay and/or loam rock, representing the natural absorptive screen on the bottom of the pit, identified as 2A. The bottom of the filtration sand layer, which is laid horizontal drainage indicated by figure 3, the region the regional confining bed - figure 4. Horizontal pipe drainage along the contour of the pit storage of mines for the location of the pumps indicated in the figure by figure 5. The location of the temporary construction drainage indicated by the numeral 6.

7. An example of a possible implementation of the invention

The following example does not limit the possible applications of the claims and only illustrates the claimed invention.

For example, the Moscow region is considered a possible repository of TPB offer type. This area is widely distributed regional confining bed, presents Jurassic clays. According to the regional hydrogeological studies in watershed areas Jurassic clays are nearly impermeable layer. Especially they are represented on the Western, Northern and South-Eastern territories of the region. The main terms of the suitability of the site for construction of a repository TPB offer are: the presence of impermeable layer, i.e. the thickness of waterproof or slabovodopronitsaemyh rocks, insulated from each other aquifers.

According to "Geolink Consulting (Istarski) is composed of "Cartogram of overflow coefficient Jurassic deposits", which shows the area distribution of the Jurassic impermeable clays with values adjusted the flow rate χ=k/m per day -1(k is the permeability coefficient, m - thickness: ranges from less than 10-7from 10-7up to 10-6from 10-6up to 10-5from 10-5up to 10-4from 10-7up to 10-3less than 10-3.

As a result of studying the above data can be selected to create a store from one of the locations suitable for the implementation of the proposed technical solutions. It is located near the village. Podrezkovo in the Khimki district. Geological structure of the territory:

- cover loam, age QII-III, the thickness of 2-3 m;

- loam Moscow moraine, age QII4capacity 12 m;

- fluvioglacial Sands, age QII3capacity 8 m;

- loam Dnieper moraine, age QII2the capacity of 9.0 m;

- Sands, age K1capacity 8 m;

- clay, age J2-3capacity 30 m

limestone, age C3capacity 100 m

On the attached figure integumentary loam, loam Moscow moraine, fluvioglacial sand and loam Dnieper moraines shown together as sandy-clayey sediments and identified by the number 2. A layer of sand of Cretaceous age are marked on the figure by the numeral 3, and a layer of Jurassic clays, representing regional confining bed, in the figure denoted by the numeral 4.

On this territory there are two aquifer: unconfined, Gorizont Sands of Quaternary and Cretaceous age at a depth of 20 m from the ground surface, which is used by local people for centralized water supply and high pressure horizon in Carboniferous limestone with a pressure level of 30 m, which is on the territory of the exploited aquifer centralized intake. Protection from contamination by leachate from storage are subject to both the aquifer.

The filtration coefficient of the Cretaceous Sands according to the review papers by Moscow and the Moscow region is 3÷10 m/day, which is enough for the device horizontal drainage. The coefficient of flow of the Jurassic clays at the site according to the "Cartogram" is from 10-7up to 10-6day-1or the permeability of clays in the vertical direction 3×10-6÷3×10-5m/day, i.e. the clay layer at the site can be considered practically impermeable aquitard.

The pit for the storage (figure 1 in the figure) is constructed to roof loam Dnieper moraine (labeled 2A). The construction of the pit and the device horizontal drains is carried out under the protection of vertical drainage, laying along the contour of the trench at the sites designated in the figure by figure 6, in the Cretaceous Sands (figure 3 in the figure). After completion of the construction of horizontal drainage vertical drainage wells are dismantled. Loam inside of the pit, marked on figure 2, will be logit absorbing layer. The depth of the pit for storage will be 30-31 m Cretaceous Sands are in this case, the drainage layer. The contour of the trench in the layer of loam Dnieper is cut with depth in the Cretaceous Sands up to 2 m for the horizontal strip drains. At the same depth, and that drains, laid wells for pumps. Created listed here way store implements the technical result of the invention and is a repository of TPB offer type.

1. Storage of solid household and/or industrial waste buried type, the base of which includes:
regional confining bed,
- sandy layer above it,
at least one layer of loamy and/or clayey sediments as sorption (filter) screen over the sand drainage layer,
- a system of horizontal tubular drains, laying in the sand layer on the contour of the store supplied to the mine, providing the possibility of leachate to the surface.

2. Store according to claim 1, characterized in that it is additionally equipped with treatment facilities for surface cleaning of the effluent before discharging it into the water.

3. How to create a store of solid household and/or industrial waste buried type, in accordance with which it is produced:
search regional aquitard on the basis gidrogeologicheskie the materials according to overflow through the confining bed,
- study of the geotechnical section of soil massif to the aquitard with detection of the presence of shielding and filtering layers in the Foundation of the future store,
- excavation of soil from the pit before reaching the at least one pillar of clay and/or loam rock, which is a natural sorbent (filter) screen,
- additional opening slots in the rear contour of the pit to the sand layer under the bottom of the filter layers for laying horizontal drains;
device horizontal pipe drainage along the contour of the pit storage of mines for the location of the pumps.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the excavation for the Foundation pit is produced under the protection of construction dewatering.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that as the protection of construction dewatering systems contour drainage wells or story well points.



 

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3 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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