Method of controlling phytoclimate in graphite-cenoses under drip irrigation and system for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes periodic irrigation of root habitable horizon, periodic moistening plants, determination of the surface air temperature, the temperature of plant leaves and relative humidity of the surface air. The values of the coefficients A, B, C are calculated by formulas. At A≥0.9 the drip irrigation is performed with a rate of 150-200 m3/ha from 22 pm to 2 o'clock at night. At B≥1.2 with dry winds from 11 to 15 o'clock in the afternoon the surface air is irrigated with atomization of water particles with a diameter of 10-50 micron with replaceable nozzles. At C≥1.5 the leaves and stems of plants are additionally moistened with water droplets with a diameter of 100-800 micron for 3-4 hours. At A+B≥2.1 drip irrigation is carried out to reduce the soil temperature +22…26°C, and the relative air humidity is increased to 50…70%. At B+C≥2.5 the agricultural plants leaves and the surface air is moistened by atomisation of irrigation water for 0.5 h with intervals every hour. At A+C≥2.5 drip irrigation is carried out for 2-3 hours, and the agricultural plants leaves are moistened. At A+B+C≥3.5 drip irrigation is carried out for 30-45 minutes at intervals of 2 hours. The system comprises water source, a pumping station with filters and irrigation network in the form of irrigation pipelines with droppers. The system is equipped with an additional water distribution pipeline which is hydraulically connected by flexible irrigation pipelines having droppers. Each rack for periodic moisturising of low- and middle-growing plants is made in the form of rods of circular section. The upper ends of the rods are connected by the adapter. The adapter has a nipple on one side for hydraulic connection with a fitting placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation pipeline with droppers. The fitting is located in the wall of the flexible irrigation pipeline with droppers. The adapter is connected to the conical cavity of the nozzle with a conical sleeve.

EFFECT: preservation of the cultivated harvest under critical conditions is provided.

3 cl, 36 dwg, 18 tbl, 7 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, and in particular to methods of maintaining phytoclimate in agrocenoses under drip irrigation by wetting the surface layer of air and moisture to the leaf surface of plants.

There is a method of fine sprinkling of annual crops by making irrigation irrigation norms disposable irrigation rates determined with consideration of climatic indices, in which, to save irrigation water, as climatic indicators use statistical data on the number of days and number of hours with temperatures above the optimal for this crop in the main phases of its development, while the irrigation requirement is determined by the following dependencies:

,

where M is the irrigation rate, m3/ha;

mτ- the single rate irrigation, m3/ha;

τ and nτaccordingly, the number of days and number of hours with temperatures above the optimal for this crop in the main phases of its development (SU, copyright certificate №1732864 A1, MCL5A01G 25/02. How fine sprinkling of annual crops. / Tijuana, Muhtarov (USSR). - Application No. 4683583/15; Claimed 24.04.1989; Publ. 15.05.1992, bull. No. 18 // Opening. Of the invention. - 1992. No. 18).

The disadvantages described what about the way fine sprinkling of agricultural crops in relation to the problem to be solved by us - creating optimal growing conditions of crops in drip irrigation system when the winds are incorrect formulas when determining irrigation requirements to create the optimum growing conditions of plants in the critical days.

A known method of irrigation, including the issuance of irrigation norms, in which, in order to maintain optimal soil moisture, improve the parameters of micro - and phytoclimate in the area of irrigation water saving, the issuance of irrigation norms is carried out by combined daily irrigation with simultaneous local soil moisture, aerosol humidification surface air and leaf surface of plants, while the irrigation rate is equal to the total consumption of water irrigated area during the preceding day; 5-10% of irrigation water is spent on local soil moisture, 25-30% for aerosol hydration surface air and 65-70% for aerosol wetting of the leaf surface of plants; daily combined irrigation carried out periodically within 5-7 minutes with an interval 35-40 minutes when the temperature rises above 25°C and decrease in relative humidity below 60% (inventor's certificate SU # 1178362 And MCL4A01G 25/00. The method of irrigation. / Averko, Isenemy, Budderball, Mdicos (USSR). - Application No. 3719361/30-15; Claimed 04.01.1984; the publ. 15.09.1985, bull. No. 34 // Opening. Of the invention. - 1985. No. 34).

The disadvantages of the described method of irrigation of agricultural crops during droughts, despite the possibility of improving the parameters of micro - and phytoclimate in the area of irrigation, are the lack of quantitative indicators to establish irrigation rates to hydrate the top layer of the soil, aerosol wetting surface air and leaf surface of plants.

The known method of determining the timing of watering with a fine sprinkling, which includes the determination of temperatures in which a fine sprinkling appoint and conduct early phase of plant development by temperature changes in the system worksheet/air from 1 to 3°C depending on irrigated crops (patent RU No. 2113110 C1, MCL6A01G 25/00. The method of determining the timing of watering with a fine sprinkling. / Agglutinate, E.I. Kuznetsova. - Application No. 95118388/13; Claimed 25.10.1995; Publ. 20.06.1998).

The disadvantages of the described method of determining the timing of watering with a fine sprinkler irrigation applied to solve our problem are, first, the availability of accurate devices for determining the temperature of the leaf and air temperature, and secondly, the post to define a sufficient number of indicators for irrigated array in the third, only the temperature l the leaves and air are indicative of the establishment of irrigation regimes, and furthermore maintain phytoclimate at the proper level.

There is a method of growing fertilizing agricultural crops, comprising preparing an aqueous solution of fertilizer and periodic irrigation of plants using a fine sprinkling of in which vegetation feeding combined with the diurnal cycle regulation phytoclimate crops method of fine sprinkling in the days when the ambient temperature exceeds the biologically optimal for crops, while growing feeding solution fertilizers combined with a final sprinkling vnutrisutochnogo cycle when the rate of flow of solution fertilizers 2...6 m3/ha; vegetation feeding and regulation of phytoclimate method fine sprinkling of winter wheat do with 10...11 to 17...19 hours with intervals of 0,5...2,0 h on days when the ambient temperature exceeds 22...25°C, depending on the variety; as a solution fertilizer use a mixture of brine natural mineral bischofite sulfate type and adhesives based on 16...22%-aqueous solution of starch glue 12...20 cSt, with bischofite brine and the adhesive are located in a mixture of 2:1...4:1 (patent RU No. 2221359 C1, MCL7AS 21/00. The way the vegetation fertilizing agricultural crops. / Approaches, Teamas the eve, Now, MAV. - Application No. 2002121702/12; Claimed 06.08.2002; Publ. 20.01.2004, bull. No. 2 // of the Invention. The utility model. - 2004. No. 2).

The disadvantages of the described method of vegetation C. fertilizing agricultural crops in relation to solving our problem is that in critical during droughts days for plants made of micro - and macronutrients foliar way have only a negative impact: plants are inhibited 2-3 times more than fine sprinkling of clean irrigation water. The described method does not allow the regulation of phytoclimate as with a fine sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation.

There is a method of fine sprinkling of agricultural crops, involving multiple times during the vegetation period, the hydration of the surface layer of air, a sheet surface of crops or plants, and open soil surface artificial rain drops with a diameter of 100 to 600 μm, pay rate 200-600 l/ha with an interval in excess of the surface air temperature and/or lowering the relative humidity of the surface layer of air below the optimal values for this type of culture in which the moistening of crops or plants provide artificial rain drops, covered by a monolayer of surfactant, its rate RASSC the population by the formula

,

where q is the rate of surface-active substances, kg/m3;

R is the degree of coverage drops of water to the leaf surface of crops or plants, %;

ds- the drop's diameter, microns;

with the concentration of surface-active substances, providing coverage by a monolayer of the surface of the droplets with a diameter of dsformed by spraying 1 m3water, kg/m3;

n is the coefficient of proportionality;

k is the spreading coefficient drops, and the interval between the moisture is determined by dependencies

,

where T is the interval between humidification, h;

tCOI- duration dried completely covered by a monolayer of surfactant drops of rain from the leaf surface of crops or plants, h;

tnq- the duration of the aftereffect single hydration, h, with the first hydration is prescribed for achieving temperature lower boundary of the range of optimum temperature of photosynthesis of the crop, the latter moistening of crops or plants during the day do water, do not contain surface-active agents; surface-active substances are used surfactant, excluding the temperature rise Capel is artificial rain in the process of evaporation or providing increased temperature drops during evaporation by an amount not greater than the difference

,

where,- temperature plants, corresponding to the upper (max) and lower (min) range of optimum temperature of photosynthesis (patent RU №2217902 C2, IPC7A01G 25/00. How fine sprinkling of agricultural crops. / Etc, VBA, Amilda, Ian. - Application No. 2001133670/13; Claimed 10.12.2001; Publ. 10.12.2003, bull. No. 34 // the Invention. The utility model. - 2003. No. 34).

The disadvantages of the described method is fine sprinkling C. agricultural crops in relation to solving our problem is, despite some reduction in the temperature of the leaves of plants in crops, low effectiveness of the application.

A device for the combined micro-irrigation, comprising a housing with a lid, drip and micromodelling outlets and switching mechanism in the form of a spring-loaded valve stem, in which the switching mechanism is provided with a lock operating positions of the valve, made in the form established in the upper part of the spindle drive gear ring and the grooves on the side surface and the corresponding drive gear ring mounted on the inner surface of the cover, and guides made on the inner surface the upper part of the body (patent RU №2129775 C1, IPC A01G 25/02. Device for the combined micro-irrigation. / Kwhour, Vpotapov, Gtplanet, Muhtarov. - Application No. 99110262/13; Claimed 17.06.1997; Publ. 10.05.1999; bull. No. 13 // the Invention. The utility model. - 1999. No. 13).

The disadvantages described device applied to solve our problem are, first, the low quality of the spray irrigation water micromodule outlets, and secondly, a repeated supply of irrigation water under high pressure as the command pulses. All this leads to the hydraulic breaks flexible irrigation pipes drip irrigation systems.

Known drip irrigation system including a water source, pumping station with filters and irrigation network in the form of irrigation pipes with droppers, and at least one irrigation pipe with the dropper provided with nozzles for fine spray of dissolved macro - and micronutrients, herbicides, fungicides and acids, in which the nozzle is placed on the telescopic rods with the ability to change the height position above the ground, with each nozzle with irrigation pipe is connected through the sleeve and tee and has a diffuser made of a single piece with the housing, the membrane made of an elastic material, the adjusting screw with needle on the end of the nut with a stiffening rib, connected to the housing, and a membrane mounted on the needle adjusting screw with mates with a conical cavity of the diffuser; the step placement of nozzles on the irrigation pipeline to 3-4 times the limit of the radius of the spray water nozzle, the angle of the solution of the conical cavity of the cone is made less than 90°; the angle of the solution of the conical cavity of the cone is made greater than 90°but less than 180°; diameter membrane of 1.05 to 1.15 times the diameter of the cone (patent RU №2322047 C1 IPC A01G 25/02 (2006.01). Drip irrigation system. / Bambusae, Amilda, Avier and others (a total of 15 families). - Application No. 2006131067/12; Claimed 30.05.2006; Publ. 20.04.2008, bull. No. 11 // the Invention. The utility model. - 2008. No. 11).

The disadvantages of the described system, drip irrigation, adopted us as naiblizhajshee analog, includes limited functionality.

The essence of the claimed invention is as follows.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, the creation of favorable growth conditions S. agricultural crops at critical conditions, including the period of droughts under drip irrigation.

The technical result is the preservation of crops grown under critical (abnormal) weather conditions.

This technical result in part of the method is achieved in that in the known method of regulating herbal the climate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation, including periodic irrigation of the root horizon irrigation water supply of flexible irrigation pipes drip irrigation systems, periodic watering the plants using a fine sprinkling, determination of surface air temperature, temperature of the leaves of plants and a relative humidity of surface air, according to the invention in agrophytocenosis instrumental determine the surface air temperature, the temperature of the leaves, the relative humidity of the surface air, the temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm), soil moisture in the root zone of the horizon, the speed and direction of surface wind, set for each crop based on years of observations, the optimum values of the above parameters are calculated according to the formula, the coefficients a, b With:

here Wbnoand Wbn- optimal and actual soil moisture in the rooting zone, %;

Tnoand TPF- optimal and the actual temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm, °C;

Wbboand Wbb- optimal and the actual relative humidity in the surface layer, %;

Tboand Tb- optimal and the actual air temperature, °C;

Vboand V b- optimal and actual surface wind speed, m/s;

Tloand TLF- optimal and actual leaf temperature, °C,

when the magnitude of the coefficient And≥0,9 perform drip irrigation by 150-200 m3/ha from 22 p.m. to 2 a.m reduce soil temperature 18...22°C, when the value of the coefficient≥1,2 from 11 to 15 hours to perform the humidifying surface air by the spray of water particles with a diameter of 10-50 μm interchangeable nozzles, when the magnitude of the coefficient With≥1,5 perform additional wetting of the leaves and stems of plants water drops with diameter 100,0-800,0 μm for 3-4 hours, and if the total value of the coefficient a+b≥2,1 perform drip irrigation and moisturize the surface layer of air to reduce the temperature to 22°...26°C and increase the relative humidity to 50...70% when the value b+C≥2.5, the set wetting the leaves of crops and surface air by spray irrigation water for 0.5 h at intervals of 1 h, and if a+C≥2,5 perform drip irrigation for 2-3 h and the moisture of the leaves of crop plants, while the total value of the coefficients a+b+C≥3,5 drip irrigation performed within 6 h and humidifying the air and leaves for 30-45 minutes at intervals of 2 hours

This technical result in part of the device temperature is raised, however, in the known control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation, including water source, pumping station with filters and irrigation network in the form of irrigation pipes with droppers, at least one irrigation pipe with the dropper provided with the possibility of changing the height position above the ground nozzles for fine spray dissolved in the form of macro - and micronutrients, herbicides, fungicides and acids according to the invention it is equipped with extra water distribution pipeline, hydraulically connected with a flexible irrigation pipes with dropper every hour for periodic wetting of low - and medium-size plants in the form of rods of circular cross section the upper ends of which are connected by a coupler having a nipple with one hand for hydraulic communication with the nozzle placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation tubing with drippers and tapered sleeve on the top edge to mate with the body of the nozzle, and each hour for periodic wetting of tall plants made in the form of a hollow rod of rectangular cross section, the lower ends of rods of circular cross section connected with the hollow core tube of elastic material, having the shape of a rectangular prism, and the upper end is mentioned rods of circular cross section connected to the adapter, having a nipple with one hand for hydraulic communication with the nozzle placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation tubing with drippers, and a conical sleeve on the top edge to mate with the body of the nozzle; each rack is equipped with a possibility of rotation around the horizontal pivot from a vertical position to a horizontal position and Vice versa.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 in the axonometric image shows a control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation.

Figure 2 shows the irrigation network management system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation with additional water distribution pipeline, hydraulically connected with a flexible irrigation pipes and drippers, type in the plan.

Figure 3 - cross section a-a in figure 2, the location of the main and additional power piping system regulation phytoclimate under drip irrigation C. agricultural crops.

Figure 4 - cross section B-B in figure 2, the connection of power tube nozzle cavity flexible irrigation tube drip irrigation system.

Figure 5 - cross section b-b In figure 2, the pair of the end of the flexible irrigation tube with additional power pipeline, local Quaternary incision.

Figure 6 - view of G in figure 2, placing the nozzle at the front the La support phytoclimate in crops of tall crops.

Figure 7 is a view On figure 6, the pair of the nozzle adapter to the rods of the rack.

On Fig - type E in figure 2, placing a nozzle on a rack for placement on the crops of low and medium S. agricultural crops.

Figure 9 is a view W to Fig, placing the nozzle through the adapter on the upper ends of the rods.

Figure 10 is a schematic representation of the hydraulic network of the receipt of irrigation water from the flexible irrigation pipe in the nozzles through pressure reducing valve or a hydraulic accumulator.

Figure 11 shows the interchangeable head system for regulation of phytoclimate on crops C. agricultural crops (photo).

On Fig - work management system phytoclimate on crops of tall and dwarf C. agricultural crops (photo).

On Fig - state corn sugar in the regulation phytoclimate under drip irrigation (photo).

On Fig shows a variant of embodiment strut.

On Fig - accommodation single and telescopic legs with nozzles on irrigated array control system phytoclimate.

On Fig depicted hour, pivotally connected to the anchor when the performance of the process.

On Fig the same, when translated in a horizontal position.

On Fig shows the wind rose according to the regional weather station, 2006.

N is Fig - same, 2007.

On Fig the same, 2008.

On Fig shows the evolution of the average speed of the winds during the growing season with. agricultural crops according to the regional weather station, 2006.

On Fig the same, according to the 2007 data.

On Fig in polar coordinates shows a graph of wind speeds during the growing season with. agricultural crops according to the weather station regional: a) in the morning; b) in the evening;) - average values, using 2008 data.

On Fig shows the structure of an interchangeable dynamic nozzles to ensure phytoclimate on crops C. agricultural crops, side view.

On Fig - same view in the plan.

On Fig depicted pulse nozzle for the radial distribution of droplets of water to humidify the air and the leaves of C. agricultural crops, side view with Quaternary section of double hull.

On Fig presents pulse nozzle diaphragm type.

On Fig shows the pulse nozzle for distribution of droplets of water in a circle, side view.

On Fig shown diametrically cut mud nozzles fine spray of water microdroplet sizes of 10-50 μm for air humidification.

On pig picture shown with Quaternary incision mud nozzles with spray droplets sector with an angle of 315...345°.

On Fig shown replaceable low-pressure nozzle for IU is todisperse spray of water to moisten the leaves.

On Fig - cross 3-3 on Fig diametrically slit nozzle and threaded tube in the housing of the interchangeable head.

On Fig - section And on Fig, Luggage turbulence in the front-end part of the jet.

On Fig shown replaceable dynamic nozzle with a nozzle for spraying jets of water to particles with diameters of 100 to 200 microns.

On Fig represented by block interchangeable nozzles for fine spray of water.

On Fig - section K-K in Fig diametrically cuts interchangeable nozzles, cross body and adapter for placement on the racks and the connection of a flexible tube with tubing drip irrigation systems.

Information confirming the possibility of implementing complex of the invention are as follows.

The method of regulation of phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation involves periodic irrigation of the root horizon irrigation water supply of flexible irrigation pipes 10 (1) drip irrigation systems, periodic watering the plants using a fine sprinkling nozzles 12 on the rack 13, the definition of surface air temperature, temperature of the leaves of plants and a relative humidity of surface air.

In agrophytocenosis during the droughts of the instrumental determine the surface air temperature, the temperature of the leaves, considers the optimum humidity surface air, the temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm), soil moisture in the root zone of the horizon, the speed and direction of surface wind. Then, on the basis of long-term observations for each culture set the optimum values of the above parameters. According to the data obtained, calculate the dimensionless coefficients a, b, C by the following formulas:

here Wbnoand Wbn- optimal and actual soil moisture in the rooting zone, %;

Tnoand TPF- optimal and the actual temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm, °C;

Wbboand Wbb- optimal and the actual relative humidity in the surface layer, %;

Tboand Tb- optimal and the actual air temperature, °C;

Vboand Vb- optimal and actual surface wind speed, m/s;

Tloand TLF- optimal and actual leaf temperature, °C.

To calculate the values of the coefficients a, b and C in table 1 shows the optimal soil moisture (%) during cultivation of S. main agricultural crops depending on the type and particle size distribution of the soil. In our case, the soil type is light chestnut, characteristic for a large number of C. agricultural districts of the Volgograd region.

In that the faces 2, 3 and 4 show three-year data of wind speeds during the growing season with. agricultural crops grown in the Volgograd region.

On Fig, 19 and 20 charts (rose of the winds) presents Rumba winds during the calendar year, respectively in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Value points take into account correction factors when calculating the numerical values of the coefficients "C".

On Fig, 11 and 23 in polar coordinates the data on a specific date critical speed winds that can adversely affect growth and development, flowering and fruiting of C. agricultural plants in agrophytocenosis.

Specific examples consider the values of the coefficients a, b and C and measures for decision-making with the aim of reducing the negative impact of droughts and maintain phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis for plant conservation, ensuing them fruits, corn, tubers, stalks, beans and other

Find the optimal values from the literature the above values of Wbno, Tno, Wbbo, TboVboand Tloare given in table 5.

Agricultural plants are very sensitive to temperature changes as soil and air. The activity and productivity of agricultural crops is associated with the temperature conditions of the environment.

Plants are typical representatives of poikilotherm the different organisms and can exist in a relatively narrow temperature range, which is determined in the process of their evolution. Psychologists characterize this interval three cardinal points: the minimum at which the plant dies from the cold, max, which still retained the ability to normal life, if the plant is to return to a familiar environment, and the optimum - the best temperature. Cardinal point during the life of the plant does not remain constant. As plant growth temperature optimum changes with a certain logical sequence corresponding to the normal direction of changes in external temperature.

Research has shown that up to mid-August, the temperature optimum is shifted to higher temperatures, which is consistent with the rise in temperature, which is usually observed from spring to mid-summer. In the future, respectively autumn cooling, the optimum is moved in the direction of less high temperatures. The ratio of plants to temperature changes during the day.

For optimal development, it is necessary to night temperatures were lower than the daytime. Fully all of the above can be attributed to the dynamics in time of the other two cardinal points.

In the temperature range from minimum to optimum biological, biochemical and physiological process is subject to the law of van't Hoff, i.e. double its intensity with increasing temperature by 10°C. this is especially true of plant growth, photosynthesis, life root system and biochemical processes in soil. Each of these processes has its own, usually different from the other, the optimum temperature. So in the study records the temperature at which there is maximum productive photosynthesis is: for potatoes 18°C for wheat and 20°C for corn 26°C and for cotton 28°C.

Exceeding these temperatures causes a sharp decrease in the productivity of photosynthesis. At the same time, the optimum soil temperature for the development of soil bacteria are much higher values - +29...38°C. the basis for the calculation of thermal needs of the plants rely mainly on thermal regime of the soil, and in all the formulas for determining the expected yield should enter the soil temperature with a positive coefficient, and the temperature coefficient is negative.

Despite this ambiguity values optimal temperature environment (soil, surface air) for different plant organs and in time, the overall pattern of the relationship between harvest and the heat factor can be traced clearly. These equations for different crops were obtained put the m mathematical processing of experimental data Shebanova CENTURIES and Shelgunova A.A. They have

where,

here, ni- value productivity;

nmax- maximum productivity under optimal conditions of temperature factor;

ϕt- the current value of the temperature factor corresponding to:

and- lower and upper limits of the optimal range.

Equation of the form (4) allow to calculate the necessary temperature range depending on the values of the degree of optimality of plant life Copt.

Thus, to obtain high guaranteed yields of crops needed to sustain, along with other factors, the optimum temperature conditions during the growing season.

Example 1. Sweet corn hybrid F1 Spirit. Based on the data of table 5 will calculate the coefficients a, b, C in the above formulas(1)-(3).

The values of the coefficients a, b and C:

A+B=1,3611; B+C=2,6519;+A=2,2070; A+B+C=2,43599.

In the dry steppe zone of light-chestnut soils of the Lower Volga, where is characterized by the continuous impact of droughts and dry winds, a slight amount of precipitation during during the delavayi sweet corn, you may receive more than 30 t/ha of corn grain high quality by regulating phytoclimate in the environment of plants.

The optimal parameters of maize:

1. Minimum temperature for seed germination is 6-7°C;

2. Optimal - 10-12°C

3. The temperature optimum for the growing season of maize - 23-25;

4. Flowering corn comes in 3...5 days later panicles. Under favorable conditions, 1...2 days.

The drought continues for 10 to 20 days. Resulting in a large number of infertile cobs and cobs with incomplete (low humidity and high temperatures).

Corn is different economical flow of moisture to the organic mass.

Transpiration rate of about 280...350 [Volodarsky];

5. Soil moisture early in the growing season 60-70% HB, before tasseling 80% HB when filling and maturation of ears 65% HB;

6. The efficiency of photosynthesis in most plants 3-5%max could reach 20% [McComb];

7. Fine sprinkling increases the humidity up to 15...30% [Muhtarov];

8. Critical humidity - 25%;

The optimal humidity of 70-75%;

9. Permissible wind speed of 6 m/S.

Application of the method of drip irrigation is not only promising method of irrigation, but also has a number of advantages for the implementation of the basic options, the ante drip irrigation system (RMS) improving methods and irrigation technique depending on the physiological characteristics of crops. As shown by long-term observations, meteorological conditions in arid and especially in astrotheology years play an important role in the realization of the potential productivity of crops. So very true solution of the optimization problem and combining different methods of irrigation, multipurpose use of irrigation equipment for application with irrigation water of root and foliar fertilizing, and controlling fungal diseases and parasites.

The need for a broad introduction agricultural production of drip irrigation other irrigation methods was determined by the direction of our research. We have designed and constructed a pilot plant to implement fine sprinkling (DMD) in drip irrigation systems. Experimental studies were conducted at the farm "Sadko" Dubovsky district of Volgograd region. Install DMD in drip irrigation system mounted on a plot of 0.25 ha, the kit which includes: power plant; water pump; site water treatment; transmission and distribution pipelines; irrigation piping with built-compensated drippers; rack with spray nozzles for operation of the system in the mode of fine dodavany is; valves; metering and regulation of water supply.

Withdrawals of water from wells, which are operated to conduct irrigation irrigation of agricultural crops at the farm.

Field experiment laid the plan of a full factorial experiment to study the questions of the impact of water use on the growth, development and productivity of plants sweet corn in the modes of drip irrigation (CO), fine sprinkling (DMD), as well as in the mode of combined irrigation (KO+DMD).

The experiment scheme was studied from the following options:

- Option I - control (no spray);

- Option II control (drip irrigation);

- Option III - TO+DMD after 1 hour at the flowering stage;

- Option IV - KO+DMD after 1 hour the whole vegetation period;

- Option V - DMD without drip irrigation;

- Option VI - KO+DMD after 1 hour a day watering.

Research conducted on crops of sweet corn hybrid Spirit F1early ripening, when the temperature exceeded 25°C. the Rate of seeding was established with a view to ensuring the density of plants to harvest 70 tesst/ha pre-Irrigation threshold of soil moisture on all variants of the experiment was maintained within 80% of HB in combination with fertilizer norm N180P100K50.

Compared to the time nestlenutrition.com periods on weather conditions and the critical phases of development of plants showed their frequent coincidence. As can be seen from table 7, with the hot and dry period in June - July of the same phase 5 of the sheet - lactic ripeness of the corn.

To assess the feasibility and efficacy of fine sprinkling is important to know not only the number of days with critical temperatures, but the duration of these periods during the day. With this purpose was the analysis of hourly meteorological data, which are fairly close correlation (r=0.87) between the temperature and the duration of the critical period. The probability of monthly temperatures by hour of the day in some years by calculating the empirical curves of security. The use of empirical curves were determined value of the air temperature with different probability levels. These values are taken from the curve of the probability distribution used to build curves vnutrisutochnoi dynamics of air temperature at different probability levels for the months of the vegetation period. The obtained data allowed us to establish during the day time, when it is necessary to irrigate fine sprinkler. Such intervals will be slightly depending on the selected security. Based on the duration of the critical period, you can calculate the approximate value of irrigation norms for kurusu with regard to pay humid norms and the accepted interval moisture. Thus, the irrigation technology fine sprinkling should be closely linked with the optimal critical for corn values of meteorological factors, the total duration of the dry period and economic conditions.

Example 2. The Dutch potato breeding Impala. Impala - early-maturing breed. Is very popular among farmers for sustainable high productivity and profitability. Grade Impala ideal for early market sales. Has worked well for three years of observations (2007-2009,), held in Volgograd region. The Bush is upright, high, flowers white, jagodoobraznye stable. Tubers yellowish, oval, with smooth skin and small eyes, the flesh is light yellow. The yield in drip irrigation system 70 to 80 t/ha of marketable tubers. The weight of marketable tuber 90-150 g, the starch content of 12-15%, taste good, excellent keeping quality, the yield of marketable tubers after winter storage 90%. Varieties resistant to diseases such as cancer and Golden potato nematode. Susceptible to late blight and stem canker. Friendly maturation of early harvest and timely cleaning, as well as strict observance of agronomic and preventive actions allow you to completely avoid the risk of diseases.

Set the values of the coefficients a, b and C is La plants in the most intense period of the growing season: July - August - the months when surface wind speeds Vb=8.6 m/s, temperature of the leaves and tops of potatoes TLF=26,7°C, Tb=42,6°C relative humidity Wbb=31,4%, temperature of soil layer (0-10 cm) TPF=36,7°C and relative humidity of the soil layer 0-0,3 m Wbn=14.8 per cent.

Based on the data of table 5, we adopted the following values of Wbno=20,1%, Wbbo=80%, Tno=24°C; Tbo=25°C, Vbo=4 m/s and Tlo=20°C.

These values allow us to calculate the values of the coefficients a, b and C:

Total factor values:

A+B=2,1080; B+C=2,7965;+A=2,2780; A+B+C=2,6000.

Example 3. The peppers. Varieties and hybrids: Maxim F1, Dawn F1, Cube F1, Rubik F1, Alyosha Popovich, Dobrynya Nikitich, California wonder, Prometheus, Bonus, Swallow, Poplar, Belozerka, Garden ring, Katyusha, the Gift of Moldova and the Bun.

By the aforementioned formulas (1), (2) and (3) set the numerical values of the coefficients a, b and C, using the numerical data from table 5:

Total factor values:

A+B=2,1511; B+C=2,4044;+A=3,05030; A+B+C=3,8029.

Example 4. Tomato hybrid Inkas F1(Jncas F1- vysokonogaya the first, and the fruits are of excellent quality. Known to many specialists early high-yielding cluster hybrid for all kinds of processing and fresh consumption. One of the best hybrids for canning whole fruit without the skin. The plant is medium, compact. The fruit of 80-100 g is dense, bright red, pertsevidny, fleshy, smooth, well tolerated sunburn, very close to maturing, are transported over long distances without loss of quality. Resistant to Fusarium (dew 1-2), participles. This hybrid is perfectly adapted to the different growing areas, responds well to high agrobackground. On the best courses repeatedly achieved productivity of fruits up to 120 t/ha

In the above formulas (1), (2) and (3) set the numerical values of the coefficients a, b and C when the droughts affecting flowering and fructification of tomato hybrid Inkas F1using data table 5:

The total value of the coefficients

A+B=2,9344; B+C=3,2584;+A=3,6152; A+B+C=4,904.

Example 5. Daikon. Set the values of the coefficients a, b and C under adverse weather conditions that occur during summer seeding of daikon. The calculations are performed by the formulas (1)to(3), and their numerical values based on the data of table 5 is equal to:

Total factor values:

A+B=1,6858; B+C=1,7405;+A=1,4183; A+B+C=2,4223.

Daikon, unlike many other root crops that can grow on heavy clay soils, but to improve the yield and quality it is better to grow in light fertile soils. The roots of this are more aligned and smooth. In addition, on heavy soils is complicated cleaning.

Daikon - culture of short day. When the length of a day more than 10-12 hours in growth, blossoms and bears fruit, and the formation of roots is inhibited. Therefore planted daikon is necessary so that the roots have begun to form from the second half of the summer. This will reduce the number stralkowski plants and increase yield. If the plant gave the arrow, it will affect the value of the root, but the taste does not change. Sow radish with rows 60-70 cm, placing about 10 seeds per one running meter. Planting depth is 3-5 see the Seedlings appear 5-7 days. In phase one or two of these leaves of the plants thinned out, leaving a meter row 4-5 most developed.

Promising varieties of daikon.

Takanashi. Early-maturing, high-yielding varieties of daikon. Root length up to 60 cm great taste without bitterness. In food to salads, used Fox the article and petioles.

Caesar. The variety is medium. The period from germination to harvest 50-70 days. Root length 35-40 cm, cylindrical shape. Surface and the pulp of the root is white, with a pleasant taste of radish. It is recommended for planting on beds with a comb, as the roots deep in the soil. Used fresh and for short-term storage.

Favorite 990809. Recommended for use in fresh form. Intermediate (62-66 Nam). Rosette leaves proprionate. Sheet grayish-green, obovate, slightly pubescent, laboratery, smooth. The root is conical, white, smooth, head of medium size, green, flat. The flesh is white, tender. Weight 450-500, the Taste is excellent. The yield of 5.6-6 kg/m2. The variety is resistant to premature sprouting.

Flamingo Hybrid daikon with pink flesh. Recommended for use in fresh form. Intermediate (63-75 Nam). Rosette leaves proprionate. The green sheet is cut, smooth, slightly pubescent. Root soulquality, purple-pink-white, smooth, smooth, head of medium size, flat, purple-pink. The pulp is white. Immersion into the soil to 2/3 the length of the root. Weight 600-790, the Taste is excellent. The yield of 4.2-5.6 kg/m2. The hybrid is resistant to Clubroot and premature sprouting.

Shogoin. Very high-yielding varieties of daikon. The roots are large, round weight 1.8-2.3 kg, juicy, from the ranks taste.

Japanese white long. High-yielding, late-maturing varieties of daikon, long roots (50-65 cm), white, weighing 2-3 kg, the Flesh is juicy, slightly spicy taste. Sustainable is slow to bolt and travleniyu. Perfectly stored. The scheme of planting - 20×20 cm

F1 Tsukushi spring cross (Japan). An early hybrid. From seeding to harvesting 60-65 days. The roots of cylindrical shape with light green shoulders. The optimum size of the root crop harvesting: diameter 7 cm, length 25-27 see the Flesh is firm, crisp, good taste, slowly grabnet. Indispensable for spring planting. Resistant to premature sprouting hybrid. Has a small rosette of leaves and is suitable for compacted planting. Grows well in cold areas. Resistant to black stem and root rot.

The Tusk of the elephant. Mid-grade daikon with the growing period of 72-80 days. The root is white, cylindrical, with a length of 50-60 cm, weight 315-491, the Flesh is white, juicy, tender.

Inovace (peony). The root form is cylindrical in the upper part and the lower elongate-conical white. The root length of 40-50 cm, with a diameter of 7-9 cm, 3/4 of its length buried in the ground. The period to technical ripeness 50-60 days. Heat-resistant, resistant to diseases. The best sowing date of July 10-16.

Monofase summicrons. Hybrid daikon, sustainable, slow to bolt, so can sow from April to July. Karnala the cylindrical smooth white. In good soil can reach 1 m in length and weight 3-4 kg has good keeping quality and fine taste.

Mesage. Varieties of daikon for spring planting with a smooth, thin skin. The root mass 100-400, the Variety is resistant to premature sprouting, cold-resistant. Taste quality.

Prince of Denmark. The mid-early variety of daikon from Denmark. High-yielding. Beet red color with a length of 20-25 cm and a diameter of 8-10 cm, juicy, tender, with no sharp taste.

Pink glitter Misato. Very beautiful varieties of daikon with aligned round roots with a diameter of 10 cm with pink flesh. The variety is hardy. Is used only for the autumn sowing. The flesh is very tender and juicy.

Sasha. Cold-resistant, early-maturing, high-yielding cultivar breeding Russian universal term use with smooth white roots weighing up to 400 g and short-cylindrical shape. Relatively resistant to premature stableman and bacteriosis, heat resistant. The root is half-submerged in the soil. The flesh is juicy, tasty, and tender. The vegetation period of 35-40 days. Suitable for cultivation in the open and protected ground.

Resistant to bacterial to bacteriosis and premature stableman. Yields 3-4,5 kg/m2. Mass of 0.2-0.4 kg is Used in fresh, salted and boiled. The recommended scheme of planting - 20-30×15-20 cm

Example 6. Carrot is. Hybrids and varieties. The producers deserve attention following varieties and hybrids carrot: Vita Longa, Santana Royal, Fence, Flackebo, Olympus, Nantes, Corina, Tinga and Losinoostrovskaya.

A+B=2,1124; B+C=2,215;+A=2,9906; A+B+C=3,6590.

Example 7. Soybean. In all planting dates and any group of Mature soybean seeds in the drip irrigation system is the most difficult period falls on flowering and ovary beans. For the specified period will calculate the coefficients a, b, C, using the data of table 5.

Total factor values:

A+B=2,0065; B+C=3,1006;+A=1,9977; A+B+C=3,5517.

When the total value of the coefficients a+b+C≥3,5 drip irrigation performed within 6 hours and the moisture of the air and leaves within 30-45 minutes with intervals of 2 hours.

These data argue in favor of the claimed process control phytoclimate in the cultivation of corn, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet pepper, carrot, daikon, soy drip irrigation system.

When the total value of the coefficients a+b≥2,1 perform drip irrigation and moisture of the surface layer of air to reduce the temperature of the soil +22...26°C and uvelicena.stabilnaya humidity up to 50...70%.

When the total value of the coefficients b+C≥2,5 perform hydration leaves C. agricultural crops and surface air by spray irrigation water for 0.5 hours at intervals of every 1 hour.

The results obtained on the basis of examples 1-7, presents numerical data in table 6.

When the value of the coefficient a≥0,9 perform drip irrigation by 150-200 m3/ha from 22 p.m. to 2 a.m. for moisture soil moisture in the layer 0-0,3 m and the temperature of the soil to 18...20°C.

When the magnitude of the coefficient In≥1,2 when the winds are from 11 o'clock till 15 o'clock perform the humidifying surface air by the spray of water particles with a diameter of 10-50 μm interchangeable nozzles.

When the magnitude of the coefficient With≥1,5 produce additional wetting of the leaves and stems of plants water drops with a diameter of 100-800 μm for 3-4 hours.

The control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation includes water source 1, a pumping station 2, the filters 3, 4 and 5, the irrigation network in the form of a pipeline 6, the water distribution pipes 7, pressure regulators 8, flexible irrigation pipes 9 with integral droppers 10, the device 11 for the preparation of mother solutions of macronutrients N, P, K, CA, S, Mn and other trace elements, Co, Mg, Mo, Cu, Zn and others, herbicides, fungicides, acids (olofsfors is Oh, salt and other). The system is equipped with the ability to change the position on the height above ground level interchangeable nozzles 12 for the fine spray of dissolved macro - and micronutrients, herbicides, fungicides and acids on the racks 13 (see Fig.1-7).

The control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis provided with an additional water distribution pipe 14 (see figure 2, 3 and 5).

The primary and secondary water distribution pipes 7 and 14 have a diameter ⌀50 PNDS, length 25 m, in the experimental area, located on the lands of the farm "Sadko" Dubovsky district of Volgograd region. The pipe 7 is laid on the surface of the field at a depth of 500 mm, and the secondary pipe 14 is mounted at a depth of 200 mm (see figure 3). Additional pipeline 14 with the main pipe 7 is hydraulically connected by struts 15 and 16 length 800 and 500 mm, respectively, areas 17, 18, 19, 2//, 20 ball valve PVC 20 with threads on the ends of the M 50, plug connection 21⌀63 with a collet adapter ⌀50 mm

Additional water distribution pipe 14 is hydraulically connected with a flexible irrigation pipes 22 in the cavity which in increments of 400 mm is mounted dropper 10 (see figure 2 and 3).

One end 23 of the flexible irrigation pipe 22 with a diameter of 20 mm with additional distribution pipe 1 is connected by means of detachable connections 24 transition of the threaded sleeve 25 and a collet Chuck 26 (figure 5).

In the wall of the distribution pipe 14 is the water outlet hole ⌀15 mm (figure 5).

To prevent water from leaking into the plug connection 24 between its parts laid the sealing ring 27. The sealing ring 28 of a smaller diameter is placed in the grooves of the transition of a threaded sleeve 25. The other end of the flexible irrigation pipe 22 is closed by a plug (not shown).

Over flexible irrigation pipes 22, laid along the rows of plants on either the rack 29 to periodic wetting medium and stunted plants (potatoes, vegetables, shrubs, berries)or 13 hours to hydrate the stems and leaves of tall plants (corn and others) (see figure 1 and 3).

Each rack 29 to periodic wetting of low - and medium-size plants made in the form of a pair of rods 30 of circular cross section (see Fig and 9). The upper ends of the rods 30 are connected by a coupler 31. The adapter 31 has a nipple 32 with one hand for hydraulic communication tube 33 with an opening 34 (figure 10) in the wall of the irrigation pipe 22 through the input of the adapter 35 and the mounting adapter 36 (Fig, 9 and 10).

On the top edge of the adapter 31 is provided with a tapered sleeve 37 to mate with the housing 38 replaceable nozzles 39 for fine spray of water.

Each rack 13 (see Fig.6 and 7) for periodic wetting visoko abelneh plants made in the form of a hollow rod of rectangular cross-section. The lower ends of the rods 30 of circular cross section connected with the hollow rod of rectangular cross-section through the tube 40 (6) of the elastic-plastic material. Tube 40 has the shape of a rectangular prism. The upper ends of the mentioned rods 30 of circular cross section connected by a coupler 31. The lower ends of the rods 30 are placed in the holes of the tube 40.

The adapter 31 has a nipple 32 with one hand for hydraulic communication tube 33 and the fitting 35 with the wall of the flexible irrigation pipe 22 with the dropper 10. The adapter 31 on the top face has a conical sleeve 37 to mate with the body 38 of the nozzle 39 (6, 7, and 10).

On Fig and 15 illustrate the ways structural embodiment of the rack 13 changing the height of the stalks of the plants and use to maintain phytoclimate on crops of medium size plants.

For carrying out of agricultural practices (inter-row hoeing, spraying crops dissolved pesticides, cleaning of ears of corn) each rack 13 is provided that can be rotated around a horizontal hinge 41 to the vertical position (Fig) in the horizontal position (Fig) and back. The bottom of the rack 13 of the anchor 42 is fixed in the upper soil layer.

Figure 11, 24-36 shown replaceable nozzle 39 with different qualities of water to hydrate leafy mass and surface air is and when the winds.

On Fig shows the system control phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under critical climatic conditions.

On Fig presents the status of tall crops (maize) in the drip irrigation system when the winds after hours work management system phytoclimate.

Consider the construction of nine interchangeable nozzles 39, satisfactorily demonstrated their work on crops C. agricultural crops under drip irrigation during the growing season.

Existing sprinkler machines and installations for breaking the flow of water for artificial rain used nozzles of various designs. Types of sprinkler nozzles is divided into the deflector ring outlet, deflector-circular deflector "jet to jet", slotted. Design features and parameters of the last manufacturers are applied arbitrarily. Available in production sprinkler nozzles do not meet the requirements even for irrigation sprinkler. For artificial rain these nozzles necessary working pressure in the water supply network at least 5-6 bar (0,05-0,06 MPa). As a rule, they are heavy and bulky. Water jet at the exit of the nozzle fails qualitatively split into smaller parts. Moreover, at small values of the pressure are high consumption of water - more than 150 l/h All this has led to design of new nozzles and their approbation, to conduct an audit of existing, used in greenhouses.

Interchangeable dynamic nozzle 39 to provide phytoclimate on crops C. agricultural crops (Fig and 25) includes a housing 43 with the axial channel 44 and slot 45 between the case 43. In the threaded upper part of the housing 43 is screwed a threaded rod 46 with a dynamic platform 47. On the threaded upper end of rod 46 is made a groove 48 for changing the position of the dynamic platform 47 relative to the top edge of the axial channel 44. The upper and lower housing 43 are connected by bridges 49. The threaded rod 46 allows you to change the gap between dynamic space 47 and the axial channel 44 in the lower part of the housing 43. The body 43 of the threaded section 50 is connected with a water supply pipe 33 (see figure 3).

Interchangeable dynamic nozzle 39 is as follows.

When water under pressure from the compressed stream meets dynamic platform 47. Shock. The water flow, changing the direction of movement, a thin film with a dynamic platform 47 enters the slit 45 and the circle is divided into the atmosphere in the form of drops. When meeting with the air flow every drop is broken into small droplets and due to gravitational forces every drop settles down on the leaf-stem mass, humidifying the air and reducing the temperature of the tour leaves stems and air.

Technical characteristics of the nozzles 38 are shown in table 8.

Pulse nozzle 39 to the upper distribution of droplets of water to humidify the air and the leaves of C. agricultural crops (see Fig) contains double chamber housing 51, the hydraulic accumulator 52, a removable nozzle 53, the rotary blade 54 and a C - shaped attachment 55.

The main hole 56 of the chamber 57 low pressure in the housing 51 mud nozzle 38 is mounted on a tapered sleeve 37 of the adapter 31 (see figure 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6).

The hydraulic accumulator 52 has a cover 58, the piston 59 with the rod 60, the elastic element 61 in the form of a compression spring and the diaphragm 62. The cover 58 of the hydraulic accumulator 52 with double chamber housing 51 are connected to the screw cuts.

The membrane 62 closes off the chamber 57 low pressure chamber 63 high pressure. Luggage 63 high pressure axial channel 64 is connected with the cavity 65 of the C-shaped attachment 55.

C - shaped console 55 in its upper part has a burst of 66 with a hole. In the hole tide 66 posted by axis 67 of the rotary blade 54. The lower part of the rotary blade 54 is placed on the protruding part of the nozzle 53. In the rotary blade 54 is made of an inclined groove 68. The groove 68 is inclined to the axis of rotation of the rotary blade 54 at an angle of 5°.

Pulse nozzle 39 for radial distribution of water microdrops for microclimate control in crops is.-X. cultures works as follows.

Of flexible irrigation pipe 22 water under pressure is not higher than 0.02 MPa is fed through the opening 34 in the wall where the input and the mounting adapter 34 and 35 (see figure 10), and then the tube 33 water enters the nipple 32 of the adapter 37. Of the adapter 32, the water in the hole in the Bush, 37 under pressure is directed into the axial bore 56 of the housing 51, and in the cavity of the chamber 57 low pressure. Incoming water pressure on the membrane 62. Due to the large surface contact of water with the membrane 62, even when slight pressure is created more total force by which the piston 59 compresses the coils of the elastic element 61 by moving the rod 60 from the housing of the hydraulic accumulator 52. These movements of the membrane 62 and the piston 59 has led to the fact that water under pressure from the chamber 57 flows into the cavity of the chamber 62, filling the entire volume of the axial channel 64 and the cavity 65 of the C-shaped attachment 55. The air from the specified channel 64 and the cavity 65 is discharged to atmosphere through a calibrated orifice in the nozzle 53. When fully filled cavities 65, 64 and 63, the reverse hydromulch and triggered elastic element 61 of the hydraulic accumulator 52. The piston 59 presses on the membrane 62, and it pushes more water level in the chamber 63 high pressure, creating a greater pressure of the compressed water 3-4 times. This pulse of water is a squirt with a diameter of 0.1 mm (see table 2) is served on the inclined wall of the groove 68 of the rotary blade 54. Due to the lateral component of the force of the blow microstrain water lipasti starts to rotate through the axis 67 and the protruding part of the nozzle 53. The blade 54 is rotated either in a few turns, or at a certain angle in the horizontal plane. Water particles are fed onto the surface of leaves and stems of C. agricultural crops. By reducing the water pressure in the work re-enters the hydraulic accumulator 52. The cycle repeats.

Technical characteristics of the nozzles 39 are shown in table 9.

Pulse nozzle 39 (see Fig) membrane type includes a housing 69 with an axial channel 70, double adapter 71, the membrane 72, shaped nut 73, the nozzle 74, a C-shaped attachment 75, dynamic pad 76 with the wedge 77.

Axial channel 70 of the housing 69 of the nozzle 39 is placed on the tapered sleeve 37 of the adapter 31 (see figure 10). Double adapter 71 is installed on the flat annular portion of the membrane 72 and fixed to the bottom of the casing 69 of the fitting nut 73. The membrane 72 divides the cavity triple adapter 71 in the cavity 78 low pressure and the cavity 79 high pressure. The nozzle 74 is made removable and is installed in the cavity 80 of the C-shaped attachment 75.

The tide 81 C-shaped attachment 75 is installed dynamic space 76 with the wedge 77 for directing a stream of droplets in the desired e.g. the no.

Pulse nozzle 39 membrane type operates as follows.

When the water flow through the axial channel 70 it is supplied under pressure under the diaphragm 72 in the cavity 78 low-pressure two-chamber adapter 71. Overcoming the tension of the elastic membrane 72 through the annular protrusion in the cavity of the adapter 71, water enters the cavity 79 high pressure and fills the cavity 80 of the C-top box 75, closed nozzle 74. The air of these cavities is discharged to atmosphere through a calibrated orifice nozzle 74 with a diameter of 0.6 mm (see table 10). When the pressure of the water in the cavity 79 high pressure to 0.04 MPa, the membrane 72 closes the access of the incoming water. Due to the high water pressure in the cavity 80 water through a calibrated orifice in the nozzle 74 at high speed hitting a dynamic platform 76. A thin stream of water is divided into tiny water droplets with diameters of 40 to 80 μm and is discharged into the atmosphere, moistening the surface layer of air. Wedge 77 is sent a steady stream of water particles, excluding their chaotic collision with a rack-shaped attachment 75.

Technical characteristics described nozzles 39 are presented in table 10.

Pulse nozzle 39 for distribution of droplets of water in a circle for wetting the surfaces of the leaves and stems of C. agricultural crops and prizemnogo air (see Fig) contains double chamber housing 82, a hydraulic accumulator 83, the adapter 84 and balanced single blade turbine 85.

The housing 82 of the nozzle 38 has an axial channel 86 is communicated with the cavity 87 of low pressure and an axial channel 88, which is connected with the cavity 89 high pressure.

Hydraulic accumulator 83 of the housing 82 of the nozzle 38 connected to the threaded section and contains a piston 90 with the rod 91, the elastic element 92 and the diaphragm 93. Membrane 93 in the initial position of the piston 90 overlaps the cavity 87 and 89 of the housing 82 of the nozzle 38.

The adapter 84 threaded section associated with the housing 82 and the axial channel 94 summed up in the center balanced single blade turbine 85. The side wall 95 of the turbine 85 given the shape of a logarithmic spiral, which ensures the creation of reactive torque forces during the collision of the jets of water.

The nozzle 39 for distribution of droplets of water in a circle for wetting the surfaces of the leaves and the air is as follows.

When the admission of water under a pressure of 1-2 kg/cm2in the axial channel 86 of the housing 82 it uniformly fills the cavity 87 of low pressure. Due to the large membrane surface 93 of this pressure diaphragm 13 moves the piston 90 to the left, compressing the coils of the elastic element 92. The stem 91 of the piston 90 is at this point the body of the hydraulic accumulator 83. Water fills the cavity 89 high pressure and axial channels 88 of the 94 is directed into the end of the turbine 85. Under pressure jets of water from the axial channel 94 of the turbine rises above the adapter 84, rotating on a hydraulic pedestal (heel) practically without friction torques. When limiting the amount of padding cavity 89 and channels 88 and 94 actuates the pulse compressed coils of the elastic element 92. Membrane 93 with a 3-4-fold greater force pushes the column of water in the cavity 89 high pressure. Due to the high water pressure water stream in the form of a thin jet of diameter 2 mm hits first end of the turbine 85, and then, changing its direction, on the side surface of the wall 95 of the turbine 85. By performing the side wall 95 in the form of a logarithmic spiral turbine 85 is attached to rotary motion. A thin layer of water microdrops on a circle goes on irrigated land.

Technical characteristics of pulse nozzles 39 for distribution of water microdrops on a circle are shown in table 11.

Pulse nozzle 39 to hydrate surface air particles of water with a droplet size of 10-50 μm includes a housing 96 and a hydraulic accumulator 97, mutually mating threaded section (see Fig).

Hydraulic accumulator 97 has a diaphragm 98, the piston 99 with the rod 100 and the elastic element 101 in the form of a compressed cylindrical coils of the spring.

In the housing 96 of the nozzle 39 is made of the axial channel 102, the low-pressure chamber 103, the camera 104 high giving is to be placed, axial channels 105 and diametrically oriented nozzles 106. In the lower part of the housing 96 is made nipple 107 for connection with a pipe 33 (see figure 10).

Pulse nozzle 39 operates as follows.

When the water flow in the axial channel 102 in the housing 96 of the nozzle 39, the water fills the chamber 103 low pressure. Due to the prevailing water pressure membrane 98 is raised, the piston 99 up, additionally compressing the coils of the elastic element 101. From the camera 103 water is poured into the chamber 104 high pressure. When filling the axial channels 105 and nozzles 106 is triggered elastic element 101 and the piston 99, the membrane is pushed to its original position. There is a hydraulic shock in the axial channels 105, and water through the nozzles 106 under high pressure is discharged into the atmosphere. Then there is the water discharge and the cycle repeats. Technical characteristics described pulse nozzles 39 are shown in table 12.

Pulse nozzle 39 a spray of droplets of water sector 315...345°From the one shown in Fig. It contains double chamber housing 108, a hydraulic accumulator 109, the nozzle 110, the C-shaped adapter 111 and dynamic pad 112 with the gate 113.

Described nozzle 39 operates the above-described techniques. Its technical characteristics are given in table 13.

Replacement of low-pressure nozzle 39 for fine spray of water flow (see figure 1, 32 and 33) includes a housing 114, a threaded tube 115 and a removable nozzle 116 with a combined hole 117. The housing 114 of the nozzle 39 is mounted on a tapered sleeve 37 of the adapter 31. His nipple 32 is connected with a pipe 33 for supplying water into the body cavity 114 (see Fig).

Threaded tube 115 at one end has a hex-shaped recess 118 and the slot 119 under the size of the tip of a screwdriver (see Fig). The other end of the tube 115 is made flat. On the lateral surface of the threaded tube 115 is made channels 120 to supply water to the nozzle 116 (see Fig and 31). The lower end portion of the replaceable nozzle 116 is associated with the upper flat end of the threaded tube 115, and its upper part is placed in the cylindrical hole at the end of the body 114 replacement of low-pressure nozzles 39.

On the lower end of the removable nozzle 116 in the recess made vortex chamber 121 (Fig), paired with a conical chamber 122 narrow stream of water before discharge under high pressure and at high speed in a calibrated hole 117. The upper end of the threaded tube 115 through the segmental cylindrical wall 123 coaxially connected with the nozzle 116.

Replacement of low-pressure nozzle 39 is as follows.

When the flow of water from the cone sleeve 37 of the adapter 31 it enters the body cavity 114 of the nozzle 39. The channels 120 on the surface of the threaded tube 115 water fills n is the maturity of replaceable nozzle 116. If the water output of diametrically spaced channels 120 tube 15 water is directed into the camera 121. Due to the implementation of the walls on spirals circle the flow of water in the chambers 121 is attached to rotary motion. Swirling the flow of water into the chamber 122 narrowing and through kalibrowannoj hole 117 of the nozzle 116 is ejected at high speed in the atmosphere. In the form of finely pulverized fog-like mass of water deposited on the leaf surface of plants.

Technical characteristics of replaceable nozzles 39 are shown in table 14.

Consider the design interchangeable dynamic nozzles 39 a nozzle for spraying a jet of water on the particle diameter of 100 to 200 μm (see Fig). The specified dynamic nozzle 38 mounted sleeve 124 (see Fig) on the Bush 37. In the cavity of the sleeve 124 has a removable nozzle 125. In the C-shaped rod 126 is installed dynamic Playground 127 wedge 128.

The nozzle 39 is as follows.

From the tube 33, the water under pressure enters the hole in the nipple 32, and then is directed into the cavity of the conical sleeve 37 and the transition sleeve 124. Next it is sent to the nozzle 125. When exiting an orifice nozzle 125 jet of water under pressure is supplied to the dynamic pad 127, spreads on its end face in the form of a thin film with a thickness of several microns and is discharged into the atmosphere. Drops the odes thin layer covering the leaf surface of plants. When water evaporates from the leaf surface of plants reduces the temperature and increases the humidity of the surface layer.

Technical characteristics dynamic nozzles 39 are shown in table 15.

Block removable nozzles 39 for fine spray of water (see Fig and 36) may operate as a hydraulic accumulator and direct the flow of water from the tube 33 mounted on the nipple 32 of the adapter 31. Cone sleeve 37 of the adapter 31 is mounted yoke 129 unit in which the radial channels 130 for supplying water to the replacement of low-pressure nozzles 39. The latest design, and their operation described above. Technical characteristics of the unit interchangeable nozzles 39 are shown in table 16.

Thus, there is a set of interchangeable nozzles 39 with large consumption characteristics and range of crushing water droplets with sizes ranging from 10 to 800 μm and the radius of the spray jets from 0.6 to 2 m

The control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation works in the following way.

During the growing season with. agricultural crops vegetation watering and feeding macro - and micronutrients are as follows (see figure 1). Figure 1 shows the identical conditions of cultivation of the same crops only under drip irrigation and drip irrigation with microclimate regulation to create the conditions for PR is isratine plants at critical conditions: high temperatures and soil, low humidity and high wind speed in the surface layer.

From the water source 1 pump station 2 (figure 1), water is supplied to the filters 3, 4 and 5. Further along the main pipeline 6 is fed into the distribution pipes 7. From the distribution pipe 7 through a flexible irrigation pipes 9, laid along the rows of plants, droppers 10 drops of water is in the surface layer of the soil. Due to gravitational and capillary forces irrigation water hydrates the local soil volume in a given layer, for example, 0-0,3 m, and maintaining the moisture level 80-90-70% HB.

With the deterioration of climatic conditions (see figure 2 and 3) the operator of a drip irrigation system turns the handle of the ball valve 20 at a 90°angle.

Irrigation water for additional distribution pipe 14 is supplied in flexible irrigation pipes 22. From the piping 22 to the tube 33, the water is sent to the interchangeable head 39. Depending on the height of plants nozzle 39 can be placed on a high 13 or short 29 racks (see figure 1, 2 and 3).

So is the distribution of water to hydrate leafy mass C. agricultural crops, surface air and topsoil, thus creating an optimal climate in agrophytocenosis.

Table 17 shows the results of hydraulic testing of Olivero module combined system of drip irrigation and spray wetting of tall crops.

In table 18, the characteristic of the control system phytoclimate under drip irrigation in sweet corn hybrid Spirit F1 according to the field seasons of 2006-2008, held in UFC Sadko Dubovsky district of the Volgograd region (Chapter Vampuric).

Table 1
The optimum soil moisture (%) during cultivation of C. agricultural crops depending on the type and particle size distribution of the soil
The soil typeGranulometric compositionCulture
cornpotatoespepperstomatoesdaikoncarrotssoy
Black earthmedium26,528,128,126,528,128,125,0
loam30,1 31,931,930,131,931,928,3
Brownsandy15,516,416,415,516,416,414,6
medium19,020,120,119,020,120,117,8
loam24,125,625,624,125,625,622,7

tr> 6/14
Table 2
Average decade wind speed by year of study (according to the weather station of the Federal state educational institution of higher professional education "Volgograd state agricultural Academy", Volgograd)
MonthDecadeYears
200620072008
may13,6-the 5.7-3/85/10
23,5-5,6-6/118/13
34,4-5,0-4/912/15
June14,8-4,1-4/67/11
2the 3.8-4,2-10/14
33,2-5,5-5/95/10
July14,6-4,4-6/88/13
24,3-4,4-5/109/9
33,6-3,5-4/910/14
August14,4-5,2-5/87/11
2of 5.4-4,4- 7/210/17
34,1-3,4-4/810/17
September15,3-4,5-5/98/14
24,1-5,8-3/77/10
34,5-the 4.7-5/77/11
environments. decademax per decadeenvironments. decademax per decadeenvironments. decademax per decade

td align="center"> the 3.8
Table 3
Daily averages of wind speed during the growing season with. agricultural crops in 2006 and 2007
MonthDateYears
20062007
1234
may13,44,5
may23,35,5
may33,44,4
may43,47,7
may5a 3.97,0
may65,86,9
may7a 4.92,8
may 82,87,1
may91,64,3
may10a 3.97,1
may114,47,0
may124,56,2
may132,54,3
may141,74,8
may152,05,0
may164,53,0
may172,7of 5.4
may18the 3.87,7
may19a 3.96,8
may205,65,6
may21the 3.8of 5.4
may225,25,3
may234,24,6
may243,04,8
may25a 3.9a 3.9
may264,64,6
may275,84,6
may282,56,9
may294,4 7,1
may30a 4.94,3
may315,34,1
June15,82,2
June2the 3.86,3
June35,15,1
June4of 5.42,6
June56,54,0
June64,26,0
June73,22,7
June8of 5.44,5
June9 the 5.73,2
June103,2a 3.9
June112,23,6
June122,74,6
June132,72,9
June147,44,3
June153,04,3
June162,74,3
June174,25,1
June18a 4.9of 5.4
June19the 4.73,3
June 203,64,4
June213,05,6
June222,87,1
June233,05,1
June243,17,2
June252,88,0
June263,33,2
June274,34,1
June28the 3.84,2
June293,65,6
June302,45,3
July14,84,1
July27,23,3
July34,22,8
July44,23,1
July52,43,1
July62,34,3
July75,95,3
July85,8of 5.4
July94,17,4
July105,3a 4.9
July115,2 3,6
July124,33,6
July134,12,6
July144,1the 5.7
July154,24,4
July162,86,0
July174,14,3
July183,65,1
July195,14,2
July205,8a 4.9
July214,33,5
July222,4
July233,3the 3.8
July243,12,5
July253,34,2
July26a 3.97,1
July27a 4.9a 3.9
July285,02,7
July293,12,8
July303,32,2
July312,43,6
August14,1the 5.7
August is 24,55,0
August33,05,5
August43,34,4
August52,44,4
August63,73,2
August73,63,2
August88,16,4
August95,88,3
August105,26,2
August113,44,3
August1253 4,5
August135,35,6
August146,26,2
August15of 5.45,3
August16the 5.74,3
August176,64,4
August187,5a 3.9
August194,52,6
August20the 3.83,3
August214,35,0
August223,04,1
August233,41,9
August241,62,4
August253,43,1
August263,23,4
August274,84,0
August286,34,0
August296,2a 4.9
August304,53,6
August31the 4.73,6
September17,52,4
September2 8,42,4
September34,84,4
September45,24,8
September56,8the 3.8
September6the 4.76,1
September74,45,3
September84,15,0
September92,6of 5.4
September104,55,2
September115,15,0
September12the 4.74,3
September134,17,1
September143,310,0
September155,88,2
September16the 5.75,0
September17of 5.46,3
September182,16,5
September192,12,2
September202,93,0
September21the 4.74,5
September224,65,0
September234,45,9
September244,8a 4.9
September25the 3.86,2
September263,65,0
September27of 5.4of 5.4
September283,74,5
September295,03,4
September305,32,5

Table 4
Minimum, maximum and average wind speeds in 2008 (according to the weather station regional)
Days mayJuneJulyAugustSeptember
13/756/97,55/44,54/864/86
25/107,54/117,55/134/96,52/64
34/1077/1196/874/1072/53,5
43/64,59/1110 4/867/108,54/84
53/864/75,54/117,53/85,58/1411
62/644/654/96,54/96,58/1411
72/642/645/132/74,53/96
83/754/75,58/13 9,55/974/86
95,972/648/12104/117,55/97
104/862/116,53/1163/752/77
4,5
115/107,58/1310,54/75,58/12 105/107,5
127/129,59/1210,52/682/53,57/108,5
138/1310,510/14123/64,54/33,55/97
147/356/1294/865/86,53/75
156/118,56/14105/107,510/12 113/64,5
168/1310,57/129,53/755/86,52/64
174/865/1187/1192/74,52/64
183/756/1082/74,53/89,54/86
193/963/759/1310,54/96,5 2/53,5
207/1193/85,55/107,53/85,52/53,5
2112/1513,54/96,57/1193/1177/108,5
225/975/86,55/974/96,53/75
234/96,55/974/862/223/7245/118¼ 2,52/53,54/862/74,5
253/962/53,52/645/972/64
268/1511,55/86,510/14123/757/108,5
273/85,55/974/96,54/79,55/107,5
284/117,55/107,52/645/973/85,5
294/96,54/863/64,52/53,54/75,5
303/85,53/85,54/1073/756/97,5
314/75,54/654/96,5
-cf.-cf.-cf.-cf.-cf.

Table 6
The values of the coefficients a, b, C, a+b, b+C, C+a, a+b+C when critical weather conditions
№ p/pCultureConditional coefficientsThe decision
AndInA+bB+C+AndA+b+C
1Corn sugar0,45810,90301,74891,36112,65192,20072,4360
2 Potatoes0,79301,3115of 1.4852,10802,79652,27803,6000
3Peppers1,39850,75261,65182,15112,40413,05033,8029
4Tomatoes1,64561,28881,96962,93443,25843,61524,9004
5Daikon0,68181,00400,73651,68581,74051,41832,4223
6Carrots0,6684 1,44401,54662,11242,2152,99063,6590
7Soy0,45111,55401,54662,00653,10061,99773,5517
8Averages0,87091,17971,52642,05132,59522,50723,4817

Table 8
Technical characteristics of the interchangeable dynamic slit nozzle according pig and 25
№ p/pName of indicatorDesignationEd. MEAs.Value
1The diameter of the inletd1mm6,5
2Outletd2mm4,5
3The narrowing of the streamK-1,45
4The diameter of foothold on the endd3mm7,0
5Slit widthtmm1,0
6Connecting thread-M 10 x 1,5
7Dimensions: length : lmm30,5
widthbmm17
heighttmm23
8Weightm1g12,1
9Working pressurep
10The radius of the spray patternrm1,25
11The diameter of the drops and their content in %mm - %1,0...1,5-30...35
mm - %0,5...0,7-20...30
mm - %0,1...0,3-25...50
12LifeTmonths4...6
13The size of the abrasive particles in the irrigation waterm2mm0,4...0,8
14Water consumptionQl/h80...120

Table 9
Brief technical characteristics of the pulse nozzle for the radial distribution of droplets according to the drawing on Fig
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm8-0,2
2The diameter of the exit hole at back the Oia from the shell d2mm5
3Narrowing of the streamK-1,6
4The number of cells in the bodynpieces2
5The diameter of the outlet of the expansion jointd3mm4
6The diameter of the inlet compensatord4mm12,5
7Diaphragm diameterd5mm14,5
8The thickness of the membranetmm1,2
9Diameterlength d6mm10
10The stroke of the plungerSmm5
11Spring diameterd7mm8
12The diameter of the spiral springd8mm1,0
13Height replaceable jetH19
14Outer diameter replaceable jetd94
15The diameter of the outlet nozzled100,1
16Quantity the STW rotating blades pieces1
17The height of the bladeH2mm10
18The blade pitch angle to the axis of rotationa1deg3+0,5
19The width of the blades of the greatestInmm10
20The diameter of the axis of rotation of the bladed11mm2,0
21Dimensions:lengthlmm62
widthbmm21
heightt1 mm75,5
22Weightm1g47,3
23Working pressurep
24The radius of the spray patternrm1,68 1,75...
25The diameter of the drops and their content in %mm - %700...800-5...18
mm - %400...300-46...72
mm - %80...120-10...49
26The size of the abrasive particles in the irrigation waterm2 mcmless than 50
27Lifetime replacement jetThour42
28Water consumptionQl/h40...42

Table 10
Technical and pulse discharge characteristics of the nozzles with circular membrane according pig
№p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm8+0,2
2 The diameter of the annular membraneDmm14
3The height of the annular membraneNmm15
4The diameter of the inlet in the annular membraned2mm6
5The diameter of the outlet membraned3mm3
6The wall thickness of the membranetmm0,8
7The height of the jetH1mm7,0
8The diameter of the inlet to the jetd4mm4,5
9The diameter of the outlet of the nozzled5mm0,6
10The diameter of the base of the jetd6mm7,1
11The distance from the nozzle to a dynamic siteH2mm7,2
12The diameter dynamic sitesd7mm4,0
13The corner solution of wedge dynamic sitesadeg21
14The height of the wedgeH3mm3,5
15The length of the wedgeLm the a 3.9
16Dimensions:lengthlmm35
widthbmm22,5
heightt1mm76
17Weightm1g28,6
18Working pressurepMPa0,005...0,020
19The radius of the spray patternrm0,8
20The diameter of water dropletsmcm40...80
21 Lifetime replacement jetTh40...44
22Water consumptionQl/h56...73

td align="center"> 68...76
Table 11
Technical and pulse discharge characteristics of the nozzles for the distribution of water microdrops on a circle according pig
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm4,5
2The diameter of the outlet from the housing/td> d2mm4,0
3The coefficient of contraction of the streamKmm1,125
4The number of cells in the bodyn1pieces2
5The diameter of the outlet of the expansion jointd3mm4,0
6The diameter of the inlet compensatord4mm12,5
7Diaphragm diameterd5mm14,5
8The thickness of the membranetmm1,2
9 The diameter of plungerd6mm10
10The stroke of the plungerSmm5
11Spring diameterd7mm8
12The diameter of the spiral springd8mm1,0
13Height replaceable jetH1mm38
14The width of the removable nozzleB1mm24,8
15The thickness of the replaceable nozzleT1mm8,9
An inlet opening in the LM is ler d7mm3,7
The outlet from the jetd8mm2,0
16Spinnern2pieces1
17The number of blades in the choppern3pieces1
18The shape of the working surface of the blade--logarithmic spiral
19Trim vane in the vane--dynamic
20Dimensions:lengthlmm43,5
widthbmm21
heightt1mm95,5
21Weightm1g58,2
22Working pressurepkgf/cm2to 2
23The diameter of dropletsd/mcm180...480
24The radius of the spray patternrmto 1.43
25Life jetTh120
26Water consumptionQl/h

Table 12
Technical characteristics of the removable mud pulse nozzles for spraying water drops with diameters of 10-50 μm according pig
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm3.5
2The diameter of the outlet from the shelld2mm0,05
3The coefficient of contraction of the streamK-70
4The number of the outlet openings of the casing n1pieces2
5The location of the outlet openings of the casing--diametrically
6The number of chambers of the expansion joint in the bodyn2pieces2
7The diameter of the outlet of the expansion jointd3mm4,5
8The diameter of the inlet in the compensatord4mm12,5
9Height replaceable jeth1mm11,5
10The diameter of the inlet of the jetd5mm8
11The diameter of the exit hole at back the Oia in jet d6mm2,5
12Diaphragm diameterd7mm14,5
13The thickness of the membranetmm1,2
14The diameter of plungerd8mm10
15The stroke of the plungerSmm5
16Spring diameterd9mm8
17The diameter of the spiral springd10mm1,0
18Dimensions: length : lmm21,0
Shi is ina bmm21,0
heightt1mm58,5
19Weightm1g12,1
20Working pressurepbar1...2
21The radius of the spray patternrm0,6...0,8
22The diameter of dropletsmcm10...50
23Water consumptionQl/h0,30...0,35

Table 13
Technical characteristics of the removable mud pulse nozzle with additional dynamic PLO is adcoy for fine spray of water to hydrate surface layer of air under Fig
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm3,5
2The diameter of the outlet from the shelld2mm5,5
3The number of cells in the bodynpieces2
4The diameter of the outlet in the compensatord3mm12,5
5The diameter of the inlet of the expansion jointd4mm4,5
6Diaphragm diameter compensatord5mm14,5
7The thickness of the membranetmm1,2
8The diameter of plungerd6mm10
9The stroke of the plungerSmm5
10Spring diameterd7mm8
11The diameter of the spiral springd8mm1,0
12Height replaceable jetH1mm9
13Outer diameter replaceable jet d9mm4
14The diameter of the outlet nozzled10mm0,8
15The distance from the nozzle to a dynamic siteH2mm7,0
16The diameter dynamic sitesd11mm4,0
17The corner solution of wedge dynamic sitesadeg21
18The height of the wedgeH3mm3,5
19The length of the wedgeLmma 3.9
20Dimensions: length : lmm 60,0; 45,0
widthbmm21,0
heightt1mm78
21Weightm1g48,9
22Working pressurepMPa0,02
23The radius of the spray patternrm1,2...1,6
24The diameter of water dropletsmcm120...180
25Water consumptionQl/h12...29

4,8
Table 14
Technical characteristics of the interchangeable head is a rotary water sprinkler according pig, 32, 33
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm8
2The height of the threaded tubeh1mm8,8
3Tube diameterd2mm5,3
4The threaded tube--M 7×0.5
5The length of the channel on the tubel2mm
6The depth of the channel on the tuben2mm0,75
7The number of channels on the tubenpieces2
8Channel width on tubeb2mm1,0
9The diameter of the outlet nozzled3mm1,5
10The height of the jeth3mm4,5
11Nozzle diameterd4mm6,5
12Dimensions:lengthl1 mm26,0
widthb1mm11,2
heighth1mm22,8
13Weightm1g12,8
14Working pressurepMPa0.02
15The radius of the spray patternrm1,4
16Water consumptionQl/h36...72

Table 15
Technical characteristics of the interchangeable dynamic nozzle for fine spray of water and the continuous distribution which drops the segment according pig
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendEd. dimensionValue
12345
1The diameter of the inlet in the bodyd1mm7,5
2Nozzle diameterd2mm7,0
3The height of the jetH1mm7.0
4The diameter of the inlet to the jetd3mm5,0
5The diameter of the outlet in the nozzled4 mm0,6
6The diameter dynamic sitesd5mm4,0
7The corner solution of wedgeadeg21
8The height of the wedgeH3mm4,5
9The length of the wedgeLmmthe 3.8
10Deleting a dynamic platform from jetH2mm7,5
11Dimensions:lengthlmm34
widthbmm 12,5
heightt1mm37,5
12Weightm1g19,8
13Working pressurepMPa0.02
14The radius of the spray patternrm1,6
15Water consumptionQl/h40...48

Table 16
Technical characteristics of the unit interchangeable nozzles for spraying water in crops C. agricultural crops according pig and 36
№ p/pName of indicatorLegendE is. dimensionValue
12345
1The number of nozzles on the crossn1pieces4
2Input the diameter of the hole crossesd1mm8
3The output diameter of the hole crossesd2mm4,6
4The dimensions of the cross:lengthl1mm45,2
widthb1mm45,2
heightt1 mm25,4
5The diameter of the inlet in the nozzle bodyd3mm7,5
6The height of the threaded tubeh1mm8,8
7Tube diameterd4mm5,3
8The threaded tube--M 7 x 0,5
9The length of the channel on the tubel2mm4,8
10The depth of the channel on the tubeh2mm0,75
11The number of channels on the tube n2mm2
12Channel width on tubeb2mm1,0
13The diameter of the outlet nozzled5mm0,25
14The height of the jetd6mm6,5
15Unit dimensions:lengthl2mmto 83.5
widthb2mmto 83.5
heighth2mm25,4
16Weightm1 g87,4
17Working pressurepMPa0,02
18The radius of the spray patternrm0,7...0,8
19Water consumptionQl/h16...18

Table 17
The results of hydraulic testing of the irrigation module combined drip and spray wetting
ExperienceThe repetitionThe beginning of the line / 1st attachmentThe middle line / 6-9 nozzleThe end of the line / last nozzle
The pressure barFlow rate l/hThe pressure barFlow rate l/hFlow rate l/h
I11,132,20,9730,30,6527,6
I21,1330,9730,20,6526,6
I31,132,80,9729,90,652,7
I41,132,30,9730,20,6526,9
I51,132,50,9730,30,6527,2
II1 1,5337,71,2833,91,1833,1
II21,5337,71,2834,21,1832,9
II31,5337,51,2834,31,1832,8
II41,5337,31,28341,1832,7
II51,5340,41,2834,41,1832,7
III11,841,11,538,235,2
III21,840,41,538,41,3535,6
III31,840,71,5of 37.91,3535,5
III41,840,21,5a 38.51,3535,2
III51,8411,538,11,3535,4
IV12,145,21,740,21,638,4
IV246,51,740,41,638,1
IV32,144,91,740,11,6of 37.9
IV42,145,61,739,81,6a 38.5
IV52,145,11,739,91,6to 38.3

1. The method of regulation of phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation, including periodic irrigation of the root horizon irrigation water supply of flexible irrigation pipes drip irrigation systems, periodic watering the plants using a fine sprinkling, determination of surface air temperature, temperature of the leaves of plants and otnositelbnosti surface air, characterized in that in agrophytocenosis instrumental determine the surface air temperature, the temperature of the leaves, the relative humidity of the surface air, the relative humidity of the surface air, the temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm), soil moisture in the root zone of the horizon, the speed and direction of surface wind, set for each crop based on years of observations, the optimum values of the above parameters are calculated according to the formula, the coefficients a, b, C:



here Wbnoand Wbn- optimal and actual soil moisture in the rooting zone, %;
Tnoand TPF- optimal and the actual temperature of the soil layer (0-10 cm, °C;
Wbboand Wbb- optimal and the actual relative humidity in the surface layer, %;
Tboand Tb- optimal and the actual air temperature, °C;
Vboand Vb- optimal and actual surface wind speed, m/s;
Tloand TLF- optimal and actual leaf temperature, °C,
when the value of the coefficient a≥0,9 perform drip irrigation by 150-200 m3/ha 22 p.m to 2 hours a night for soil moisture in the layer 0-0,3 m and the temperature of the soil on the 18...22°C, when the magnitude of the coefficient In≥1,2 when the winds are from 11 to 15 hours a day to perform the humidifying surface air by the spray of water particles with a diameter of 10-50 μm interchangeable nozzles, and when the magnitude of the coefficient With≥1,5 produce additional wetting of the leaves and stems of plants water drops with a diameter of 100-800 μm for 3-4 h, and when the total value of the coefficients a+b≥2,1 perform drip irrigation and moisturize the surface layer of air to reduce the temperature of the soil 22...26°C and increase the relative humidity to 50...70%, while the total value of the coefficients b+C≥2,5 perform hydration leaves C. agricultural crops and surface air by spray irrigation water for 0.5 h at intervals of 1 h, and when set to the total value of the coefficients a+C≥2,5 perform drip irrigation for 2-3 h and hydration leaves, when the total value of the coefficients a+b+C≥3,5 drip irrigation performed within 6 h and humidifying the air and leaves for 30-45 min at intervals of 2 hours

2. The control system phytoclimate in agrophytocenosis under drip irrigation, including water source, pumping station with filters and irrigation network in the form of irrigation pipes with droppers, at least one irrigation pipe with the dropper provided with the possibility of changing the height position above the level of p is cwy nozzles for fine spray of dissolved macro and trace elements, herbicides, fungicides and acids, characterized in that it is equipped with extra water distribution pipeline, hydraulically connected with a flexible irrigation pipe with droppers, each hour for periodic wetting of low - and medium-size plants in the form of rods of circular cross section, whose upper ends are connected by a coupler having a nipple with one hand for hydraulic communication with the nozzle placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation tubing with drippers, and a conical sleeve on the top edge to mate with the body of the nozzle, and each hour for periodic wetting of tall plants made in the form of a hollow rod of rectangular cross section, the lower ends of the round rods section associated with hollow core tube of elastic material having the shape of a rectangular prism, and the upper ends of the above-mentioned terminals are connected with an adapter having a nipple with one hand for hydraulic communication with the nozzle placed in the wall of the flexible irrigation tubing with drippers, and a conical sleeve on the top edge to mate with the housing of the nozzle.

3. The system according to claim 2, characterized in that each rack is configured to rotate around a horizontal pivot from a vertical position to a horizontal position and reverse the.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: irrigation system includes a water source, the device of pulsed water supply, distribution pipeline and irrigation pipeline with drainage outlets. The drainage outlets are made in the form of birecurvate tubules. One end of the birecurvate tubes is connected to the irrigation pipeline across its upper surface. The other end of birecurvate tubes is fixed vertically at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipeline. The second end of the birecurvate tubes is provided with branch pipe mounted to be movable in the vertical plane.

EFFECT: design enables to ensure an even distribution of water between the irrigated pipelines along their length and uniform wetting of irrigated area.

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Sprinkler // 2446676

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkler includes a cylindrical body and a lid. The cylindrical body comprises slotted turnouts in the middle part. In the lid opening a finely divided spray is set. Annular grooves are made on the inner surface of the body, above and below the slotted turnouts. In the annular grooves O-rings are placed. The lid of the sprinkler has a ring bearing collar. The annular bearing shoulder comes up inside the body to the upper ring groove. In the lower part of the body a mechanism of switching modes of operation of the sprinkler is placed. The mechanism of switching modes of operation of a sprinkler consists of locking drum commensurate with the inner diameter of the body with O-rings coming into the grooves. At the bottom of the locking drum holes are made. In the center of the locking drum a lead-trough tube is mounted with a spring mounted on it. The spring passes through the hole in the lid to its outer surface. The finely divided spray consists of a deflector with a calibrated channel and the sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface. The deflector with a calibrated groove is fixed by screwed connection in the upper part of the tube of the locking drum at the exit of the body. The sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface has a diameter of the deflector channel, and installed with a bracket on the body lid at the exit of the deflector coaxially with it.

EFFECT: design enables to mechanise switching of working modes of sprinkler and flushing of the finely divided sprinkler.

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Sprinkler apparatus // 2444892

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkling apparatus contains a union nut on the inlet pipe, pivotally mounted on the rotatable housing with water-supply and flow-generating channel, and a jet drive. The flow-generating channel is made in the form of a vertical rod. The jet drive is designed as a blade pivotally freely mounted with two stages on the rod, and supplied with blades from the side of the flow-generating channel. Jet blade on the top along the entire length is made with two protrusions. On the rod a flange is rigidly fixed with the stops made to diameter with the ability to move the stops along the holes made to the radius. Above the flange at the top of the stem additional flow-generating channels are made. Above the stem in the water-supply channel a fitting and a threadably connected plug are installed. The fitting is designed as a finger with axial and transverse channels, and an annular groove. Between the fitting, the stem and the plug springs are installed.

EFFECT: design will improve the quality of irrigation of irrigated area, increase reliability of sprinkler apparatus operation.

8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: system comprises a water-intake structure, the first pump, the first lock, controlled microhydrants, the second pump, the second lock, the third lock, an activator and a water accumulator. The first pump is connected via the first lock to the input of a transporting pipeline. Two groups of controlled microhydrants are connected to the transporting pipeline for supply of water into irrigated furrows. Film screens are installed under irrigated furrows. Film screens are laid along edges of wide stationary ridges with narrow trenches. Trenches are dug along the middle of the stationary ridges and are filled with vegetable remains and manure. Parallel to the first lock the following components are connected in series - the second lock, the activator and the water accumulator, the third lock and the second pump. Slopes of ridges used to grow plants are aligned towards the south. Slopes of ridges are covered with a layer of sand. The lower part of narrow trenches is filled with trunks of trees and wooden remains. In the irrigated furrows there are partitions installed in autumn and winder period. There are slots made at the southern slopes. Slots are perpendicular to the irrigated furrows and are filled with sand. The distance between slots reduces when approaching end of irrigated furrows, providing for even moistening of ridges along the furrows length during irrigation.

EFFECT: design will make it possible to improve quality of irrigated areas melioration.

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FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: irrigating pipeline includes holes. The pipeline wall, at least in area of each hole, is arranged as multilayer. At least, one of the upper layer and the lower layer of the pipeline wall is made of a water-repellent material. The inner layer of the pipeline wall is made of the transparent material. The hole is defined by the cut surface in the pipeline wall. The specified surface of cut in the pipeline wall includes a tight coating, which coats at least the inner layer. The method to form a hole in the irrigating pipeline wall includes formation of a hole in the pipeline wall and a tight coating of the specified cut surface, at least, in the field of the inner layer.

EFFECT: design and technology make it possible to increase reliability of the pipeline operation by prevention of possible leaks.

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EFFECT: technology will make it possible to reduce hardness of irrigation water.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, ameliorant is applied in them. Ameliorant is represented by particles of lignin.

EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with melioration.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes tillage of middle and compaction of side parts of strips in surface of watered site with their simultaneous coverage by synthetic film, supply of irrigation water under film. Prior to compaction of side parts in strips on surface of watered site, herbicide is applied in them. Herbicide is applied in the form of emulsion concentrate.

EFFECT: technology makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of method by combination of watering operation with suppression of weeds in rows of cultivated plants.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Dropper // 2409024

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: dropper includes vessel with inlet and outlet nozzles. Vessel comprises locker element, entering outlet nozzle. In outlet channel of lower vessel part there is a drop feed controller. Drop feed controller consists of three composite parts. Upper conical part is a locker element. Average threaded part with thread pitch T is the channel for water passage. Lower part has a conical element with concave surface. Concave surface generatrix is arranged with gradual increase of angle and is described by the following equation: where R - radius of conical element base; α - final angle of tangent turn to generatrix curve, α<90°.

EFFECT: design makes it possible to improve efficiency of drop sprinkling and to improve reliability of dropper operation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Dropper // 2409023

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: dropper includes vessel with inlet and outlet nozzles and gasket. Foam rubber is placed inside dropper vessel. Foam rubber has a shape of cylinder with conical head. Top of conical head is oriented towards upper part of vessel to inlet nozzle. Output channel of lower part of vessel is arranged as telescopic with the possibility to mechanically measure length, so that internal output nozzle, deepening inside, presses foam rubber and changes flow of water dispensed by dropper.

EFFECT: design makes it possible to improve efficiency of drop sprinkling and to improve reliability of dropper operation.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used for surface application of liquid solutions. Device with flight vehicles comprises a propeller and a flexible frame. There are tensioners on the propeller. The flexible frame is equipped with flight vehicles and a solution duct with sprayers. The flexible frame is kinematically connected to the tensioners. The solution duct with sprayers is located on the flexible frame by adjustable suspension units.

EFFECT: possibility is provided of orientation of the solution duct with sprayers in three-dimensional space.

7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a method of irrigation with variable flow on furrows located across the line of hydrants and a device for positional irrigation on furrows cut across the line of hydrants. The method provides consistent irrigation of the irrigated area with simultaneous irrigation of two adjacent irrigated plots with separate supply to them of rate of lag. Then post-humidification of irrigated plots is carried out with a break with corresponding combinations of the supplied flows and furrow length on irrigation periods of equal duration. The value of the reduced water flow is designated according to the length of its promotion along the moistened furrow for a time equal to the travel time of the initial flow on the dry furrow of equal length. The device comprises a multisupporting wheel pipeline equipped with a driving truck, water-intake rotating sleeves. The multisupporting wheel pipeline is equipped with a driving truck, a unit of connection to the irrigation network. The water-intake rotating sleeves are evenly mounted along the water conducting pipeline length. Irrigation stubs are connected to the water-intake rotating sleeves with the corresponding sequence and length. The irrigation stubs are functionally divided into sections by length. The sections are multiple of distance between the hydrants. The sections of short irrigation stubs are combined with corresponding functional sections of long stubs. Long stubs are mounted on each rotating sleeve. The lower sections of irrigation stubs are made of smaller diameter and are equipped with water outlets.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of reduction of end discharges from irrigation furrows in the period of post-humidification at positional irrigation and to increase the reliability of the device operation.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to irrigation systems and is intended for organisation of automatic irrigation of agricultural and decorative crops and plants in winter gardens, greenhouses, and also for watering house plants. The system comprises a tank for irrigation fluid, a feeder of irrigation fluid, a program device and a control unit. The device input for the irrigation fluid is connected to the tank for irrigation fluid. The device output for the irrigation fluid is connected to the distribution piping for watering plants. The program device is made with the ability to control automatically the process of watering plants according to given programs. The output of the control unit is connected to the feeder of irrigation fluid. The corresponding inputs of the control unit are connected to the program device, to switch of the manual irrigation and the switch of irrigation delay. Outputs of the switch of irrigation delay are connected to the input of the program device and to the input of unit of adjusting the parameters of irrigation. The other input of the unit of adjusting the parameters of irrigation is connected to the corresponding output of the switch of the manual irrigation. Input-output of unit of adjusting the parameters of irrigation is connected to the input-output of the program device.

EFFECT: invention enables to adjust parameters of irrigation in a wide range and ensures correction of irrigation parameters.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant relates to gardening, namely to vegetative propagation of horticultural crops by the method of herbaceous cuttings. The device comprises operating mode switches on the number of units of mist-generating plant, a commutation switch to connect the power source to the units of mist-generating plant and cyclical timing relay that determines the duration of the presence or absence of each unit power. The cyclical timing relay consists of a microcontroller, a real-time clock, a memory module, two encoders, control buttons and an alphanumeric LCD display.

EFFECT: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant provides optimisation of watering mode by an independent set of time of watering and the time of pause separately for several intervals within the day, such as morning, day, evening and night.

1 dwg

Sprinkling machine // 2460278

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: sprinkling machine comprises one central carriage 13 and two side carriages 14, 15 driven by hydraulic cylinders 10, 11, 12, sprinkling pipeline 18, speed controllers 16, 17, and machine course control device. Said side carriages are arranged in symmetry on both sides of said central carriage. Said machine course control device consists of carrier 2, frame 3, first and second pushers 4, 41, turn assembly 5, first and second speed controllers 16, 17. The latter consist of first and second shaped control rods 8, 6, first and second control valves 6, 7. Base of frame 1 is articulated to central carriage frame 13. Frame top is pivoted to carrier 2. Control rods are pivoted by their first ends to frame 1. Second end are pivoted to speed controllers to control first and second control valves. One speed controller is secured to one side carriage. Second speed controller is secured to another side carriage. Inlets of control valves are connected to machine pipeline 18. Control valve outlets are connected to side carriage hydraulic cylinders.

EFFECT: correction of machine travel.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes discharge and drainage outflow of seepage water, application of nitrogen fertilisers and herbicides, transferring of map and site drainage and discharge channels to the mode of backwater and return the water through a water lift. Thereat the air-heating installation is mounted at the site of conjugation of the site drainage and discharge channel and the intra-entity collector, and is used for energy conversion of the hydraulic drop in the air pressure, which is reported to the water lift to return the water.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the number of hydro-mechanical devices per area unit of rice irrigation system, to increase the use of drainage and discharge runoff, to improve the conditions of mixing and dilution with water from the waste ditch with clean irrigation water, along with an increase in fertiliser use efficiency for rice growing.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, anti-helminth agents piperazin or diethyldiamine are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.

EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress pathogenic helminths in watering water.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, weed control agents sodium trichloroacetate or treflan are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.

EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress weeds in rows of crops.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, a pest control agent Trichlorfon is applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.

EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress crop pests.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, antimycotic agents zineb or polycarbacin are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.

EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress pathogenic mycotic microflora for crops.

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.

4 cl, 4 dwg

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