Extraction of ore using explosion and thermal fragmentation

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to extraction methods of mineral deposits from ore veins. Drilling of wells located at some distance is performed directly in ore vein. Wells are reamed using thermal fragmentation basically to boundary surfaces between ore vein and environment. Then, in ore vein between thermally reamed wells there drilled is pit for introduction of explosive charge. The latter is blasted in order to destruct the ore between reamed wells. After ore vein section is destructed with guided blast wave, the other well is drilled in ore vein at the specified distance from the previous place of blasting operations and thermally reamed, and the next pit is drilled between them for explosive fragmentation. The process is repeated for as many times as it is required for extraction of the necessary amount of ore from ore vein.

EFFECT: invention allows minimising the ore extraction cost by reducing the ore impoverishment.

12 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention generally relates to a method for extraction of minerals using thermal fragmentation to create a blast of directed action.

Disclosure of inventions

The aim of the present invention is to minimize the cost of extracting the ore by reducing the dilution of the ore.

Thus, according to the basic aspect, a method for extracting ore from ore veins, comprising: a) drilling spaced at wells directly in the ore vein, b) applying thermal crushing, extending the well, essentially, to the boundary surfaces between residential ore and surrounding rock to create adjacent thermally enhanced wells, (C) drilling at least one hole in the ore vein between two adjacent extended wells for laying explosives and d) undermining explosives to fracture the ore between the two advanced wells.

According to an additional aspect, a method for extracting ore from ore veins, having side walls, passing along the axis, including the creation of two located at a distance from each other in the axial direction of the zones of weakening along the ore veins, providing less resistance to pressure than the side walls and, in this case, at least one of the zones of attenuation obtained using thermal crushing, drilling out the hole in the ore vein between the zones of weakening, a bookmark, an explosive charge in the borehole, undermining the explosive charge to create the explosion sent to the zone of attenuation, where the resistance is lower.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a side view of the underground ore veins, passing between two cars workings along the direction of stretch of the ore veins and provide access to the ore vein.

Figure 2 is a top view of the ore veins, shown in figure 1.

Description of the preferred embodiments of the invention

Figure 1 shows an underground ore body 10 or ore vein that runs between the two horizontal mount 12 and 14, with access from the ground surface through an inclined ramp or vertical development, known as the shaft (not shown). As is known in the prior art, the mine is equipped with lifts, which workers, mechanisms and breed can access the galleries or observation wells 12 and 14. Generation 12 and 14 represent the tunnels, built in the rock, the size and shape which allow the extraction of the ore body 10. Each generation produces a current horizon, passing through the ore is eaten. Current horizons can, for example, be spaced vertically at 18 m (59 ft).

As shown in figures 1 and 2, the well 16 (figures 1 and 2 shows only two) drilled at equal intervals along the ore veins 10, each wellbore passes vertically through the ore vein 10 from the top 12 to generate lower development 14. The diameter of these wells typically is about 6 inches (15.2 cm). The diameter of the wells 16 is not critical, but it is preferable to maintain a minimum for minimizing the cost and time of drilling. The diameter should be sufficient to allow for expansion of the borehole thermal fragmentation. Each of the wells 16 may be drilled at half the distance from the top 12 to generate lower production 14 in order to limit the curvature of the borehole. It is clear that wells 16 can be drilled completely from the top 12 to generate lower production 14. As will be seen below, the distance between adjacent wells 16 is chosen to provide enough enclosed space expansion or space, limiting the effect of the explosion so that the ore body between adjacent wells could be destroyed by the explosion with minimal dilution of the ore in the surrounding empty rock. Well 16 is used to further restrict the action of the explosion of the boundary on what arnosti ore veins 10, minimizing, thus, the dilution. Satisfactory results have been achieved at a distance of 6 m between the centers of two consecutive holes.

Each of the drilled wells 16 thermally expand in the manner described in U.S. patent 6,913,320, issued July 5, 2005, the content of which is incorporated here by reference. In particular, each hole 16 extends through the lower burner (figure 1) into the well, its ignition and then gradually rises, until the well will not extend fully from the bottomhole to the wellhead end. Tube P set on hole 16 for its isolation and ensuring an increase in temperature in the well. The heat produced by the burner, increases the temperature in the borehole up to 1800°C. This creates a thermal stress-cracking ore. Simply put, the splitting is a form of cracking caused by the uneven expansion of mineral crystals, overcoming intermolecular coupling. Destroyed or fragmented material formed by this process has a size in the range from fines of up to 4cm (1.6 inches). The tube is removed, and destroyed material Recuperat any suitable way. Wells 16 typically extend to the side wall of the ore veins (for example, the boundary surfaces between the ore body and the surrounding waste rock for the building thermally expanded bore 17, as schematically shown by the dashed lines in figure 2. For example, the distance between the wells 16 can be selected so as to leave about 1 m (3.28 ft) ore between two adjacent extended wells 17 for ore veins, having a width in the range from about 13 inches (33 cm) to about 15 inches (38,1 cm). The distance between adjacent wells is not only a function of the width of the ore veins, but also explosives, which should be used for splitting ore between such extended debilitating wells. As mentioned above, satisfactory results are achieved at a distance of 6 m (19,69 ft) between the centers of adjacent shafts 16 wells.

After the first two wells drilled thermally expanded and emptied, as described above, at least one hole 18 vibereview through the ore vein 10 between two adjacent extended wells 17, as shown in figures 1 and 2. If vibereview only one hole 18, it is usually located in the middle between the advanced wells 17. Each hole 18 is typically located at a distance of 80 cm (31,5 inches) from the periphery adjacent the extended bore 17. The 18 hole can be drilled at half the distance from the top generation 12, the other half vibereview from lower production 14. Alternatively, the hole can be completely drilled from the top exp is processing 12. The diameter of the explosive in the borehole 18 typically has a value in the range 21/2 inches (6.4 cm). It is clear that the diameter of the hole may vary depending on the type of explosive used in it.

Selected explosive charge placed into the hole 18 and then to undermine the destruction of the ore is between two advanced wells 17. As shown by the arrows 20 in figure 2, the effect of the explosion, essentially limited to the boundary surfaces of the ore veins between 10 advanced wells 17. When the explosive charge undermine, a powerful blast wave operates essentially in all directions, but most movement occurs along the line of least resistance or the lowest retention. Advanced borehole 17 provide areas of weakness with less resistance than the side walls of the ore veins. The propagation of the blast wave, therefore, should be directed to the advanced wells 17 in the ore vein 10 and not to the surrounding empty breed with more resistance, thereby minimizing dilution. When creating such wells on opposite sides of the hole, the effect of the explosion may be limited to a direction essentially along the longitudinal axis of the ore veins. In other words, enlarged bore 17 set line of propagation of the shock wave.

After RA the violations section of the ore veins aimed blast, as described above, another well wyborowa in the ore vein 10 at a specified distance from the previous blasting site. Drilled wellbore and then expand by thermal fragmentation described above, and wyborowa second hole in the ore vein in the intermediate point between the place of previous blasting and a new, expanded well. Then in the hole lay the explosive charge, which is then undermined for splitting ore between the location of the previous blasting and a new, expanded well. Again there is a propagation of the blast wave where there is the least resistance, in other words, along a line passing between the first place of blasting and a new, expanded well. This process is repeated as many times as necessary to retrieve the required quantity of ore from the ore veins. It is also clear that all of the wells and bore-holes you drill, and then to produce thermal fragmentation wells. In the ore vein can be made consistent undermining. Also offered other sequence of drilling and blasting.

1. The method of extraction of the ore from the ore veins, including:
a) drilling spaced at wells directly in the ore vein, b) applying thermal crushing, extending the well, in which usesto, to the boundary surfaces between residential ore and surrounding rock to create adjacent thermally enhanced wells, (C) drilling at least one hole in the ore vein between two adjacent extended wells for laying explosives, and (d) undermining explosives to fracture the ore between the two advanced wells.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the distance between the centers of adjacent boreholes is about 6 m and less.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which at least one hole vibereview at a distance of about 80 cm or more from adjacent the periphery of the expanded hole.

4. The method according to claim 1, comprising placing a tube in the downhole end of each located at a distance well before performing thermal crushing.

5. The method according to claim 4, including the removal of the tube upon completion of thermal crushing and recovery of fragmented ore to perform step (d).

6. The method according to claim 4, in which step b) includes lowering the burner in well before they downhole end and its gradual ascent to the mouth for a gradual expansion of the borehole from the bottom to the mouth.

7. The method of extraction of the ore from the ore veins, having side walls, passing along the axis, including the creation of two located at a distance from each other in the axial direction of the zones of weakening along the ore veins, providing ensee resistance to pressure, than the side walls, with at least one of the zones of attenuation obtained using thermal crushing, drilling out the hole in the ore vein between the zones of weakening, a bookmark, an explosive charge in the borehole, undermining the explosive charge to create the explosion sent to the zone of attenuation, where the resistance is lower.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the step of creating two located at a distance in the axial direction of the zones of weakening includes: drill out the two located at a distance of wells in the ore vein between the side walls and the use of thermal fragmentation to extend two spaced at wells to the side walls.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the bore extends from the bottom to the mouth.

10. The method according to claim 8, in which thermal fragmentation involves the placement of tubes located at a distance of wells and ignition burners in them.

11. The method according to claim 8, containing the removal of tubes from wells on the completion of their expansion by thermal crushing and recovery of fragmented ore to detonate the explosive charge.

12. The method according to claim 8, in which the centers are located at a distance of wells located at a distance of about 6 m or less to leave the area between the two spaced wells, with the specified teaching the current after the expansion of wells to the walls of the ore veins has a length of about 1 m



 

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