Method of automotive catalyst
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of automotive catalysts, particularly, to their recovery. Method or recovery comprises thermal decomposition of pyrocarbon, dissolution of platinoids by the mix of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, or 30%- hydrogen peroxide in closed cycle. Note here that dissolution process is analysed for completeness of platinoids extraction while excess nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide are removed by reducing agents. To extract platinoids, acid solution is subjected to ionic flotation extraction by cationic surfactants. Then, extract with platinoid precursors is separated from acid solution containing cerium and aluminium ions to evaporate extractant. Platinoid precursors are dissolved in water to produce micellar solution, added is hydrazine hydrate to reduce platinoids in alkaline medium to metal nanoparticles on mixing by ultrasound. Dispersion is centrifuged to drain aqueous solution and rinse centrate by alcohol to proceed with centrifugation to obtain nanopowder of platinoids. Acid solution containing ions of cerium and aluminium is neutralised by potassium hydroxide to pH=8-9. Potash soap of higher carbonic acids is added to separate cerium and aluminium soaps. The latter are dissolved in micellar aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulphate to make the mix of cerium and aluminium hydroxides and centrifuge obtained dispersion. Precipitate of cerium and aluminium hydroxides are rinsed by water to be centrifuged again so that precipitate is separated and air dried. Then, said precipitate is calcined at 400°C to obtain nanopowders CeO2 and γ-Al2O3 and CeO2.
EFFECT: new catalysts produced with no extra treatment.
5 cl, 2 ex
The invention relates to the production of automotive catalysts-catalysts. In particular, regeneration of catalysts for the afterburning of exhaust gases - carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons.
The composition of the catalyst comprises nanoparticles double or triple systems, Pt/Rh, Pd/Rh, Pt/Pd/Rh deposited on the sublayer ultrafine γ-Al2About3and of cerium dioxide CeO2with a specific surface area of about 200 m2/year / γ-Al2O3plays the role of a catalyst carrier, a SEO2reduces the coefficient of thermal expansion and creates favorable conditions for regulating the content and activity of oxygen on the catalyst surface. The composition of the catalyst, in turn, covers cellular ceramics from cordierite, 2MgO·2Al2O3·5SiO2. Honeycomb ceramic has a much smaller specific surface 0.0014 m2/g than nanoscale materials.
Known methods of removing the catalytic components of the platinum group by oxidation of gaseous reactants, oxygen, chlorine, fluorine. They are dangerous in the work, require expensive equipment, compliance increased security measures. Widely presents the methods of extraction of platinum group metals with liquid reagents, for example the Royal vodka, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc. they are All listed in the best part close to the claimed invention of the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2209843 (Publ. 10.08.2003).
Thus, the method for extracting platinum group metals from automobile catalysts, including thermal decomposition of pyrocarbon, dissolution of platinum with a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids or 30% hydrogen peroxide in a closed loop. Platinum after leaching precipitated by cementation aluminum powder.
The disadvantage of this method of recycling of automotive catalysts is that the recycled material cannot be used directly to create a new catalyst. Recoverable platinum nanomaterials are not, as is required to create a new catalyst. In addition, waste not retrieved ultrafine SEO2and γ-Al2About3.
The present invention is carrying out the regeneration process in such a way as to extract from the solution after leaching of platinum group metals and other valuable components (CEO2and γ-Al2About3) in the form of powders, thereby providing the technical result: the preparation of extracted materials for the new catalyst.
The technical result is achieved by the method of recycling of automotive catalysts after thermal decomposition of pyrocarbon and dissolution of platinum with a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids or 30% hydrogen peroxide in a closed loop, and gave the e, according to the invention, according to the scheme:
analysis of the solution on the completeness of extraction of platinum;
- recovery of excess nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide;
- selection of platinum group metals from acidic solution by the method of ion protectable using cationic surfactant;
- separation of the extract with a precursor of platinum group metals from acid solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum;
- removal of the solvent by evaporation;
- dissolution of the platinum precursor in water to form a micellar solution;
- restore to platinum nanoparticles by hydrazinehydrate in alkaline medium under stirring ultrasound;
- separation of the resulting dispersion by centrifugation, the sediment washing successively with water, ethanol and re-centrifuged for separation of nanopowder platinum;
- alkalinization of acidic solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, potassium hydroxide until pH=8-9;
- adding to the resulting solution of potassium Soaps of higher carboxylic acids, and separating the formed soap cerium and aluminium;
- dissolving soap in micellar aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate;
- biodegradable Soaps ammonium hydroxide with formation of a mixture of cerium hydroxide and aluminium;
the Department of dispersion by centrifugation, washing the precipitate hydroxides of cerium and aluminum water surface is priori by centrifugation;
- drying the precipitate hydroxides of cerium and aluminum in the air and calcination at a temperature of 400°C with the formation of nanopowder SEO2and γ-Al2About3.
When regeneration of the automotive catalyst according to the above scheme proceed redox reaction of nano-powders of platinum, CEO2and γ-Al2About3with acids and hydrogen peroxide. The speed of these reactions to four orders of magnitude greater than the reaction rate of dissolution of cordierite, because the rate of heterogeneous reactions is proportional to the value of specific surface area. Therefore, the acid dissolves only the active layer of the catalyst, and cordierite is practically insoluble. To minimize the dissolution of cordierite, the solution further analyze the content of platinum finishing process in achieving its constant concentration.
All the platinum must be in solution in the form of complex ions such as [PtCl6]2-. Therefore, the excess strong oxidizing agents: nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide - restore lower aliphatic alcohols: methyl, ethyl or isopropyl. The content of ethyl alcohol to a concentration of 0.1 mole fraction strengthens the structure of water, which facilitates the subsequent formation of precursors for platinum.
For ionic protectable acid rest the R after the dissolution of the active layer of the catalyst is placed in a column, add organic solvent: toluene, a mixture of toluene with isoamyl alcohol in the ratio of 1:4 (by volume) or kerosene. Include a compressor for air supply, add a stoichiometric amount of cationic surfactant - pyridinium chloride (CPH) or cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, which form the precursor complex ions of platinum by the equation:
The precursor is carried by air bubbles in the layer of the extractant and there is gradually concentrated.
To prevent the formation of micelles of the surfactant added in the form of a solution in ethyl alcohol. The formation of micelles affects the interaction of complex ion platinum with CP. The surfactant solution in the process of photoexcitable add gradually, preventing the formation of a hazy solution.
After protectable (bleaching solution) extract is separated from the acid solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum. The organic solvent is distilled off. Thus obtained precursor is dissolved in water with the formation of the micellar solution. The critical micellization concentration (CMC) CP 6·10-4M Precursor has a lower CMC. To increase the solubility of the precursor can be added ethyl alcohol content of 0.1 M. D.
Precursor to restore the platinum nanoparticles by hydrazinehydrate in the alkaline environment of the ri stirring ultrasound by the reaction:
Get nanohybrid platinum, which corresponds to their concentration in solution.
The variance of nanohybrids platinum centrifuged, washed with ethanol, centrifuged again and poured the alcohol. The precipitate is dried. Get black nanopowder with a metallic luster.
The acidic solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, neutralized with potassium hydroxide to pH=8-9. Add potassium soap of higher carboxylic acids. Ions of cerium and aluminum ions with carboxylic acids to form lahoratories in mild soap and water, which floats on the surface of the solution:
The resulting soap cerium and aluminum is separated, dissolved in micellar aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and decompose the ammonium hydroxide. This forms a dispersion of a hydroxide of cerium and aluminum. The resulting dispersion is centrifuged, the resulting precipitate hydroxides of cerium and aluminum washed with water, again centrifuged, separated, air-dried, and then calcined at 400°C. Receive light nanopowder SEO2and γ-Al2About3.
Used in the technological process of extraction agents, surfactants, higher carboxylic acids and cordierite also regenerate.
The invention is illustrated by examples.
Example 1. Trabot the config catalyst with a car "Mercedes-Benz" weight 1.3 kg according to chemical analysis contains 0.12% Pt, 0.009% Rh and 10% of pyrocarbon. Removal of pyrocarbon the spent catalyst was pre-calcined in a muffle furnace at 600°C for 1 hour. Cool and handle the rest in a known manner with a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide within 1-2 hours, until the contents in the solution Pt does not reach a constant value. The solution is cooled and filtered. Half of the solution 1.25 l leave to example 2. In the other half the volume of 1.25 l gradually poured ethanol to recover the excess of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The resulting solution was poured into photoextract.com. Add in 50 ml of toluene with isoamyl alcohol in the ratio of 1:4 (by volume). Separately prepare a solution of pyridinium chloride (CPH) in 5 ml of ethanol in an amount necessary for the formation of a Pt precursor according to equation (1). Poured 1 ml CP in the flotation machine and start the flotation process, gradually adding the remaining 4 ml of surfactant solution. After ion protectable extract is separated from the solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, and distilled toluene and ISO-amyl alcohol. The remaining platinum precursor is dissolved in water, add hydrazinehydrate and potassium hydroxide in accordance with equation (2) and recover the platinum with stirring, ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 22 kHz. The resulting dispersion p is adenoidal centrifuged, the precipitate is washed with 5 ml of ethanol, centrifuged again, pour the alcohol and dry nanopowder platinum on the air. Get black with metallic nanopowder containing 95% Pt and 94% Rh content in the catalyst. According to transmission electron microscope, the size of the nanoparticles of 5-10 nm.
The acidic solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, neutralized with potassium hydroxide to pH=8-9. Poured a 50% alcohol solution of potassium soap of oleic acid in accordance with equation (3) until such time as adding an alcoholic solution of potassium soap will not receive the precipitate aluminum soap. Received soap bubble to the surface of the solution. The solution is drained. The resulting soap is dissolved in 0.5 l of 0.01 M micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate. To the resulting clear solution was added gradually concentrated ammonia solution to obtain hydroxides of cerium and aluminum as long as the sample does not show the dissolution of the precipitate by adding ammonium hydroxide. The resulting dispersion is centrifuged. The precipitate cerium hydroxide and aluminum was washed with distilled water and again centrifuged. Centrate is separated, dried in air and calcined at 400°C. Obtain 16.2 g of γ-Al2About3with a specific surface area of 185 m2/year
Example 2. The regeneration process of the car is strong catalyst performed analogously to example 1. In the remaining volume of the acidic solution of 1.25 l, dissolve 15 g CEO2. As the reductant take isopropyl alcohol as the organic solvent take kerosene, instead CPH cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and stirred by ultrasound 44 kHz. Get black with metallic nanopowder with a particle size of 4-12 nm, which contains 93% Pt and 92% Rh content in the catalyst, 14 g of γ-Al2About3and 13 g CEO2with a specific surface area of 173 m2/year
Thus, the proposed method of recycling of automotive catalysts allows to obtain regenerated nanomaterials, suitable for the manufacture of new automotive catalysts, or for use in other catalytic processes. Simultaneously regenerated and cordierite, because in the process of dissolution of the catalyst it is completely purified from other components. Extractants, alcohols, surfactants, higher carboxylic acids, sodium dodecyl sulphate also easily regenerated.
1. The method of recycling of automotive catalysts, including thermal decomposition of pyrocarbon, dissolution of platinum with a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids or 30% hydrogen peroxide in a closed loop, characterized in that the process of dissolution analyze the completeness of extraction of platinum group metals, and excess nitric acid and peroxide of bodoro is and remove the reducing agent, for selection of platinum acid solution is subjected to ion protectable cationic surfactant, then extract with platinum precursors are separated from the acid solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, the solvent is evaporated, the precursor of platinum dissolved in water with the formation of the micellar solution, add hydrazinehydrate and restore the platinum in alkaline medium to nanoparticles of metals under stirring and ultrasonic dispersion is centrifuged, the aqueous solution is drained, the centrate is washed with ethanol and again centrifuged and get the nanopowder platinum; acid solution containing ions of cerium and aluminum, neutralized with potassium hydroxide to a pH of 8-9, add potassium soap of higher carboxylic acids, separating the resulting soap cerium and aluminum, dissolved them in micellar aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and then decompose the ammonium hydroxide with formation of a mixture of cerium hydroxide and aluminum, the resulting dispersion is centrifuged, the resulting precipitate hydroxides of cerium and aluminum washed with water and again centrifuged, the precipitate was separated, air-dried, and then calcined at 400°C, receive the nanopowder SEO2and γ-Al2O3.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as reductants use of aliphatic alcohols: methyl, ethyl or isopropyl the output.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as extractants used toluene, kerosene, a mixture of toluene with isoamyl alcohol.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cationic surfactant is used, pyridinium chloride, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for mixing use ultrasound with a frequency of 22 and 44 kHz.
SUBSTANCE: sensor has a housing (1) in which there is a nano- and micro-electromechanical system consisting of a membrane (2) which is integrated with the base (3). A heterogeneous structure (4) of thin films is formed on the membrane. Tensoresistors are formed in the structure (4) and lie on a circle on the periphery of the membrane. A cylindrical bushing (7) with a hole (8) is mounted on the base on the side of feeding the measured medium, symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the sensor and said bushing lies inside the base with a gap from the membrane and the peripheral base in a region adjacent to the membrane. Elements of the first and the second measuring circuits, lying outside the housing, are placed in a common screen (9) made from material with high heat conductivity. Characteristics of structural components of the sensor are linked by a corresponding relationship.
EFFECT: reduced measurement error.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in electronics and nanotechnology. The method of producing material for a field-emission cathode based on carbon nanotubes involves deposition of modifying material - molybdenum disulphide on the surface of the nanotubes from a mixture of thiourea solution and ammonium molybdate in a closed volume for 1-3 days at 180-250°C.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the method of producing material for a field-emission cathode, and obtain material characterised by low electron emission threshold voltage, improved field emission of nanotubes and high density of emission current.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in producing an adsorbent for efficient purification of water systems. The method of producing an adsorbent based on anatase-structured titanium dioxide using a kraft method involves mixing powdered titanium (IV) oxysulphate - sulphuric acid hydrate (TiOSO4·xH2SO4·yH2O) with water in weight ratio 1:(5.5-6.8), heating for 60 minutes without stirring at temperature 90-98°C, cooling and separating the residue by filtering. Further, the mixture is treated with a 0.1-0.4 M solution of an alkali metal hydroxide, washed with distilled water and acetone and dried in a drying chamber at temperature 90-95°C for one hour.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain nanosized anatase-structured titanium dioxide with bismuth ion sorption capacity of 99%.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to composite nanostructures applicable for photodynamic diagnosis of malignant tumours. The declared nanostructures represent gold-silver nanocells coated by silicone dioxide formed by tetraethylortosilicate hydrolysis in an alcohol medium The silicone dioxide coating surface is functionalised by itterbium 2,4-dimethoxyhematoporfirine.
EFFECT: preparing the composite nanoparticles combining plasma resonance within biotissue transparency (760-1000 nm), fluorescence in visible and near IR spectrum, photogeneration of singlet oxygen, increased collection in new growths.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, pharmacology and concerns an oral granulated dosage form in sachets containing phospholipids in the form of particles of small (20-30 nm) diameter, glycyrrhizic acid and its salt (including sodium glycerrhizinate), as well as carbohydrate (including maltose) and excipients (granulation, anti-clotting and powder), as well as to a method for preparing it by mixing fat and water phases of herbal phospholipids and acceptable carbohydrate to prepare an emulsion, cooling to 50°C and passing through a microfluidiser for 4-5 cycles under pressure 2000 atm.
EFFECT: preparation shows high activity.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and pharmaceutics, and concerns a storage-stable composition in the form of nanoparticles of size 10-20 nm containing a fatty acid salt, phosphatidyl choline and maltose for the integration of biologically active substances, particularly, drugs, as well as drug compositions containing the fatty acid salt, phosphatidyl choline, maltose and a drug substance, and a method for preparing them.
EFFECT: development of the storage-stable composition.
4 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at producing hybrid nanocomposite material which contains conducting inorganic elongated crystals with an electrically conducting organic compound of given formula grafted on at least part of its surface, said compound forming a self-organising layer. The invention also discloses thin films, solar batteries and switching devices containing said hybrid nanocomposite material.
EFFECT: production of original nanocomposite materials, especially for high-efficiency cheap solar batteries.
20 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has a pair of telescopic nanotubes, a constant optical signal source, two output optical nano-waveguides, two constant optical signal sources, two power supplies, two groups of electric contacts and an optical nano-waveguide Y-splitter.
EFFECT: broader capabilities of the device owing to execution of optical pulse generator functions, said generator having a nanosize design.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to self-assembling sublithographic nanosized structures in an orderly periodical grid and to methods of their manufacturing. The concept of manufacturing is as follows: the method to form a nanosized pattern on a substrate includes formation of the first stenciled layer, covering the specified area on the substrate, arrangement of a system of first holes in it, each of which has a shape of a rectangular hexagon and which are arranged in cells of the first hexagonal grid, formation of the first nanosized self-assembled self-built structures in the first holes, formation of the second stenciled layer covering the specified section, arrangement of a system of second holes in the second stenciled layer, each of which has a shape of regular hexagon and which are arranged in cells of the second hexagonal grid, formation of the second nanosized self-assembled self-built structures in the second holes, formation of the third stenciled layer covering the specified section, arrangement of a system of third holes in the third stenciled layer, every of which has a shape of regular hexagon, and which are arranged in cells of the third hexagonal grid, and formation of the third nanosize self-assembled self-built structures in third holes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce a nanosized self-assembled self-built structure that would stretch on a section of larger area.
21 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalysis, particularly a method of producing a catalyst for protium-deuterium isotopic exchange and ortho-para conversion of protium. Disclosed is a method of producing a Ag/SiO2 catalyst for heterogeneous catalysis of molecular hydrogen in form of a protium-deuterium isotopic exchange reaction or ortho-para conversion of protium. The method involves obtaining silver nanoparticles by reducing silver ions from a reverse micellar solution of silver and depositing the obtained silver nanoparticles onto a SiO2 support which is immersed into the solution. The silver ions are reduced from a reverse micellar solution of silver which is prepared by adding 0.03-2.0 M AgNO3 aqueous solution and 0.000075-0.0002 M quercetin solution as a reducing agent to 0.02-0.5 M solution of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate in a nonpolar solvent - isooctane, followed by treatment of the obtained solution with ultrasound until formation of a reverse micellar dispersion.
EFFECT: catalyst is meant for operation at temperatures maximally close to liquefaction temperatures of protium and deuterium.
1 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of hydrotreating catalyst activation containing metal oxide of group VIB and metal oxide of group VIII containing contacting catalyst, acid and organic additive with boiling point within 80-500°C and water solubility, at least, 5 gram per litre (20°C, atmospheric pressure), optionally with following drying in the environment providing at least, 50% of the additive remains in the catalyst. There are disclosed hydrotreating catalyst produced by the method described above, and method of hydrotreating raw hydrocarbons there after applied.
EFFECT: higher activity of both raw hydrotreating catalyst, and utilized hydrotreating catalyst being regenerated.
20 cl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalyst compositions for reducing sulphur compounds contained in a gas stream. Described is a catalyst composition for catalytic reduction of sulphur compounds contained in a gas stream, wherein said catalyst composition contains aluminium oxide, a group VI metal compound or a group VIII metal compound or metallic components from both group VI metal compounds and group VIII metal compounds, where said catalyst composition has a pore structure such that pores with pore diameter of more than 10000 Å account for more than 10% of total pore volume of said catalyst composition and pores with pore diameter less than 70 Å account for more than 10% of total pore volume of said catalyst composition. Described is a hydrolysis method, which involves feeding a gas stream into a reactor with temperature at the input of said reactor ranging from 115°C to 300°C, wherein said gas stream contains a sulphur compound, and bringing said gas stream into contact with said catalyst composition, and outputting from said reactor a treated gas stream having low concentration of said sulphur compound.
EFFECT: described catalyst composition provides high degree of conversion of sulphur compounds.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons - paraffins and olefins (in form of gaseous, liquid and solid products) from reaction of CO with H2 (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and catalysts for this process. Described is a catalyst for synthesis of hydrocarbons from a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, containing a product of thermal treatment of the cobalt-aluminium hydroxo-nitrate-carbonate phase with a hydrotalcite-type layered structure or containing a phase of a product of thermal treatment of cobalt-aluminium hydroxo-nitrate-carbonate with a hydrotalcite-type layered structure at temperature 250-500°C in a current of inert gas or a mixture containing an inert gas and one or more of the following gases: oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and hydrogen oxide. Described also are methods of producing hydrocarbons from synthetic gas using the catalysts described above.
EFFECT: use of disclosed catalysts in catalytic conversion of synthetic gas increases hydrocarbon output due to higher activity and selectivity of the catalyst.
9 cl, 11 ex, 2 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is a catalyst for oxidising hydrocarbons during gas-phase contact, containing a mixed oxide of molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), tellurium (Te) and niobium (Nb), having chemical formula 1: Mo10VaTebNbcOn, (1) where a, b or c independently denotes atomic molar ratios of vanadium, tellurium or niobium, provided that 0.01≤a≤1, 0.01≤b≤1, 0.01≤c≤1 and n denotes the atomic molar ratio of oxygen, which is determined by valence and atomic molar ratios of vanadium, tellurium and niobium, and palladium (Pd) or palladium oxide bonded to the mixed metal oxide, where the atomic molar ratio of palladium bonded to the mixed metal oxide and molybdenum contained in the mixed metal oxide ranges from 0.00001:1 to 0.02:1. Described is a method of producing said catalyst, comprising steps for: preparing a first mixture of a molybdenum (Mo) precursor, a vanadium (V) precursor, a tellurium precursor (Te), a niobium precursor (Nb) and an acid; preparing a mixed oxide of molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), tellurium (Te) and niobium (Nb) by calcining the first mixture; preparing a second mixture of mixed metal oxide and a palladium precursor and calcining the second mixture. Described is a method for gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons, involving oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of the catalyst described above.
EFFECT: high activity and selectivity of the catalyst.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 12 cl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts. Described is a catalyst for oxidising hydrocarbons during gas-phase contact, containing a mixed oxide of molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), tellurium (Te) and niobium (Nb), having chemical formula 1: Mo1.0VaTebNbcon, (l) where a, b or c independently denotes atomic molar ratios of vanadium, tellurium or niobium, provided that 0.01≤a≤1, 0.01≤b≤1, 0.01≤c≤1 and n denotes the atomic molar ratio of oxygen, which is determined by valence and atomic molar ratios of vanadium, tellurium and niobium, and tungsten (W) or tungsten oxide bonded to the mixed metal oxide, where the atomic molar ratio of tungsten bonded to the mixed metal oxide and molybdenum contained in the mixed metal oxide ranges from 0.00001:1 to 0.02:1. Described is a method of producing said catalyst involving steps for: preparing a first mixture of molybdenum (Mo) precursor, a vanadium (V) precursor, a tellurium precursor (Te), a niobium precursor (Nb) and acid; obtaining a mixed oxide of molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), tellurium (Te) and niobium (Nb) by calcining the first mixture; preparing a second mixture of mixed metal oxide and the tungsten precursor and calcining the second mixture. Described is a method for gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons, involving oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of the catalyst described above.
EFFECT: high activity and selectivity of the catalyst.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel catalyst for use in synthesis of aliphatic carboxylic acid containing (n+1) carbon atoms, where n denotes an integer of up to 6, and/or an ether derivative thereof by bringing an aliphatic alcohol containing n carbon atoms, and/or reactive derivative thereof, selected from dialkyl ether, ester of alcohol and alkyl halide, into contact with carbon monoxide, where said catalyst is prepared via ion exchange or saturation of the ammonium or hydrogen form of mordenite with silver, drying the saturated/ion exchange-treated mordenite and subsequent calcination of the dried silver-containing mordenite at temperature from 500 to 600°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing aliphatic carboxylic acid containing (n+1) carbon atoms, where n denotes an integer of up to 6, and/or an ether derivative thereof, which involves bringing the aliphatic alcohol containing n carbon atoms and/or reactive derivative thereof, selected from dialkyl ether, ester of alcohol and alkyl halide, into contact with carbon monoxide in the presence of said catalyst.
EFFECT: improved selectivity with respect to carbonylation products.
22 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing catalysts for oxidising carbon monoxide. Described is a method of producing a porous granular catalyst for oxidising carbon monoxide, involving mixing functional oxides, including manganese dioxide, obtained from chemical reaction of reactants, wherein the mixture is put into a porous frame having the shape of granules, wherein the porous frame used is silica gel granules saturated with iron, cobalt and manganese oxides via step-by-step impregnation with aqueous solutions of metal salts with inter-operation drying in the following sequence: first step - separate impregnation with iron sulphate and cobalt nitrate, each conjugated with the last impregnation of porous granules with potassium hydroxide solution in ethyl alcohol, and the formed metal hydroxides are then thermally decomposed to end iron and cobalt oxides; second step - separate impregnation with potassium permanganate and sodium hyposulphite, thereby saturating porous granules of the formed manganese dioxide; the obtained mixture of said metal oxides then undergoes final washing and the ready powdered product is then dried.
EFFECT: efficient, highly stable carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst is obtained.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to inorganic oxide extrudates used as catalysts or catalyst supports. Disclosed is an extrudate containing titanium dioxide and a comb-shaped polymer obtained through copolymerisation of an ethylene carboxyl-containing monomer with a polyether macromonomer, including acrylates or methacrylates of an oxyethylene and oxypropylene copolymer, wherein the extrudate contains a backbone polymer chain, a carboxyl-containing side chain and a side chain containing polyether, including an oxypropylene and oxyethylene copolymer, wherein the amount of titanium dioxide is not less than 10 wt %, and the amount of the comb-shaped polymer is not less than 1 wt % of the weight of the extrudate. Said extrudate which is annealed is also described.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties of extrudates.
7 cl, 4 tbl, 21 ex