Electrolytic cell to extract indium from melt of indium-containing alloys

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: electrolytic cell comprises heated cathode and anode baths separated by porous diaphragms impregnated with electrolyte. The cylinder of the cathode bath is arranged as perforated, and a diaphragm from quartz fabric is fixed on it with a yoke above the perforation level. The cathode bath is vertically submerged into the melt of the initial alloy of the anode bath equipped with a mixer. Inside the cathode bath a cup is installed onto the bottom from the diaphragm and fixed on the cathode current conductor. At the same time the cathode bath cylinder is submerged into the alloy melt in the anode bath at the perforation height. The cup fixed on the cathode current conductor is installed below the cylinder perforation level. On the cylinder of the cathode bath there are two layers of the diaphragm fixed from quartz fabric.

EFFECT: higher stability of operation, higher extent of indium extraction with higher extent of separation from electric positive metals.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular to electrochemical methods of extraction of metals from the melt.

Known electrolytic cell for refining low-melting metals [1], in which the anode electrically heated bath posted by cathode tub with the bottom of the porous silica fabric, i.e. the anode and cathode separated by a porous dielectric diaphragm, and a flat current lead is fixed on the axis.

The disadvantage of this cell that requires increased monitoring costs, timely immersing the cathode of the cell while reducing the anode metal in the electrolysis process, as well as depletion in India the surface of the anode layer under the cathode and due to this increased transition electrophoretically impurities on the cathode.

Known cell [2], adopted for the prototype, in which the cathode cylinder baths with the bottom of the porous silica fabric, immersed in the anode tub of the original alloy, characterized in that on the bottom of the cylinder cathode baths impose two layers of quartz fabric, fixed clamp above the annular ledge at the end of the cathode cylinder baths. The electrolyzer can improve the cleaning of the cathode metal from electrophoretically impurities.

The disadvantage of this cell is that it also requires increased monitoring costs for a timely on what rutenium cathode of the cell while reducing the anode metal in the electrolysis process. In addition, in the process of electrolysis is the depletion in India the surface of the anode layer under the cathode, and this increases the transition electrophoretically impurities on the cathode and not fully indium is extracted from a lead-tin alloy.

The essence of the proposed cell is that the cathode cylinder baths perforated and aperture of the quartz fabric fixed on it above the level of the perforation. In the electrolyzer cathode tub vertically loaded on the size of the perforations in the alloy anode bath equipped with a stirrer. In the electrolytic cell inside the cathode of the bath to the bottom of the diaphragm below the perforation inserted Cup, mounted on the cathode busbar. On the cylinder cathode of the bath can be attached two layer diaphragm made of quartz fabric.

The technical result is achieved in that the electrolytic cell can improve the completeness of extraction of indium alloy and to reduce the output of concentrate.

In the drawings (Figs 1, 2) shows a General view of the electrolytic cell and the cathode of the bath. The electrolytic cell includes an anode 1 bath (Fig 1) stainless steel to melt the source alloy, which has a cathode 2 bath in the form of a cylinder 3 made of stainless steel with perforations 4 in the lower part and with the annular protrusion 5 (Fig 2) above the perforation. The cylinder 3 has two layers of quartz fabric 6, for example, the R, CT-11 C8/TO with the formation of the bottom of the double diaphragm cathode 2 baths. Overlap fabric above the level of the perforation is fixed to the cylinder 3 above the ledge 5 detachable spring clip 7. Cathode 2 bath (Fig 1) immersed in the anode alloy in the bath 1 to the height of the perforations 4. Inside the cathode 2 baths on the surface of the fabric 6 is freely inserted the Cup 8, mounted on the cathode busbar 9. Anode 1 bath equipped with a mixer 10 with a propeller at the level of the diaphragm and heated 11 controller with temperature.

The cell operates as follows. In the anode bath 1 (Fig 1) download source alloy, is melted and maintain the temperature of 230-250C. To the molten source alloy anode bath 1 download a portion of the electrolyte at a rate of 0.1-0.2 g/cm2the tissue. Then lower the Assembly of the cathode 2 bath with immersion 1-2 cm in alloy and fix. Inside the cathode 2 baths also load a portion of the electrolyte at a rate of 0.1-0.2 g/cm2. The fabric is not wetted by the metal and is not permeable to metal (pressure permeability of 10 kg/cm2tissue). The same electrolyte wets the fabric and it is able to transfer metal ions.

Through electrodes include DC voltage 1-30 In with a current density of 0.02-0.2 a/cm2. Cations India diffuse through the electrolyte in the capillary of the two layers of fabric and discharged on the Cup 8. More on vitellinae tin, lead, bismuth, usually in the presence of India is not ionized.

However, in the process of electrolysis upper metal layer with insufficient mixing of depleted indium and the difference of the ionization potential of tin, lead is reduced and they can ionize. Cations of tin, lead diffuse through one layer of the diaphragm, discharged as more electrophoretically before India and remain between the layers of the iris tissue.

Cations India diffuse through the second layer of the diaphragm and discharged on the metal in the Cup 8.

Perforation of the cathode cylinder 3 baths 2 allows you to immerse cathodic bath in the molten anode metal and increases the area of diffusion of ions through the diaphragm. Diffusion of ions takes place not only through the aperture 6 of the bottom, but through the side wall perforations 4. Continuously operating mixer 10 with a propeller at the level of the diaphragm produces a more uniform distribution of India in the anode alloy, reducing the depletion priyaraman layer.

As far as filling the cathode 2 baths indium periodically bowl 8 on the cathode busbar extract and pour the Indies. The drain operation is repeated until the termination of the filling of the Cup 8. After that, the electrolysis continues. Periodically using a clamp 7 is drained middlings between the diaphragms.

The technical result of the proposed cell that increases the again of contact of the cathode with the anode, due to the perforated cylinder. Cathodic bath with attached two layers of the diaphragm of the quartz fabric allows you to immerse in the alloy anode her baths on the size of the perforation. This allows for a continuous process without shutdowns for lowering the cathode of the bath in the formulation of the anode metal. The electrolyzer equipped with a stirrer with a propeller at the level of the diaphragm, thereby reducing the transition electrophoretically impurities in the cathode metal in the Cup 8 at the cost of impoverishing priyaraman metal layer and thereby reduce the yield of concentrate. In the electrolytic cell inside the cathode of the bath to the bottom of the diaphragm inserted the Cup below the level of the perforation, mounted on the cathode busbar, which allows you to periodically relieve the cathode metal without stopping and restarting.

Thus, the proposed cell can reduce maintenance costs, improve reliability, and to increase the degree of extraction electronegative India with increasing degree of separation from electrophoretically metals (tin, lead).

Example: a sample of 1 kg of an alloy containing 1% India, is loaded into the anodic bath melt and maintain the temperature of 240 deg. On the surface DeGroat 3 g of the electrolyte, pre pereplavlenny mixture of salts of 70% zinc chloride, 18% of potassium chloride, 12% of sodium chloride. On the surface the motion of the molten spot lower electrolyte cathode cylinder with the bottom two layers of the diaphragm in the form of quartz fabric for CT-11 C8/3. In a heated cathode tub fill 3G electrolyte and immersed in the molten anode alloy 1-2 see Include DC power 0,7-2 And voltage 1-2 In and lead electrolysis within 3-4 .5 hours. The Cup 8 is lifted and drained cathode metal.

Separately drained middlings by removing the clamp tissue. The results are given in the table.

Table.
The results of the experiments of example options
no experience123
The depth of immersion of the cathode in the melt, cm1,91,51
Current And1,270,860,78
duration, h34,2the 3.8
The weight of the cathode, g10,910,38,7
Content In% in the cathodeto 92.1to 92.1 92,2
The weight of the concentrate, g3,663,492,87
Content In% middlings1,101,121,15
Content In% in the anode0,0170,0130,015
Removing %In from the anode98,498,798,5

The example shows that the proposed cell can reduce the yield of concentrate, increase the recovery of indium from the anode alloy and to improve the separation of indium and tin.

Sources of information

[1] Author. St. No. 1482248 - Dyakov V.E., Melekhin V.T., morukov US, Zarubitsky OG, Dugelny A.P., Yakovlev M.A. - Cell for refining low-melting metals. MCI SS 7/00 - publ. - 01.22.89.

[2] U.S. Pat. No. 2400548 - Dyakov VE - Way extraction of indium from waste alloys, an electrolyte to extract indium from waste alloys and apparatus for implementing the method. IPC SW 58/00, SS 3/34, SS 7/00.

1. Electrolysis to extract indium from the melt indiadelhi alloys containing a heated cathode and anode baths, section is by porous diaphragms, impregnated with the electrolyte, wherein the cathode cylinder baths perforated, and the aperture of the quartz fabric mounted thereon a clamp above the level of the perforation, the cathode tub vertically immersed in the melt of the source alloy anode bath equipped with a stirrer, and inside the cathode of the bath to the bottom of the diaphragm inserted Cup, mounted on the cathode busbar.

2. The electrolyzer according to claim 1, characterized in that the cylinder cathode immersed in the bath of the molten alloy in the anode tub on the height of the perforation.

3. The electrolyzer according to one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the bowl is mounted on the cathode busbar, installed below the level of the perforation cylinder.

4. The electrolyzer according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the cathode cylinder baths, attached two layer diaphragm made of quartz fabric.



 

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