Magnesium-containing high-silica aluminium alloys used as structural materials and method of their manufacturing

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: magnesium-containing high-silica aluminium alloys intended for use as structural materials, including shapes, bars, sheets and forged pieces, are manufactured with the help of a technological process containing the following operations: ingot casting from the alloy by method of casting into a chill mould, preliminary heating of the ingot in order to disperse particles of eutectic phase of silicon, treatment in thermoplastic condition and thermal treatment in order to produce an item of final shape and with modified microstructure. Aluminium alloys contain, wt %: 0.2-2 of magnesium and 8-18 of silicon and have homogeneous and fine-grained microstructure, at the same time the aluminium matrix is homaxonic with the average size of grain, not exceeding 6 mcm, and particles of silicon and secondary phase are dispersed at the average size of particles not exceeding 5 mcm. Without addition of any modifiers they are produced with low costs by combination of casting into a chill mould with treatment in thermoplastic condition and thermal treatment.

EFFECT: high plasticity and relatively high strength.

8 cl, 13 dwg, 10 tbl, 1 ex

 

Background of invention

The technical field

The invention relates to aluminum alloys and method of their manufacture, and more particularly to containing magnesium visokogradnja aluminum alloys used as structural materials, and the manufacture method.

Description of the prior art

Aluminum-silicon alloys (alloys Al-Si), in particular with a high content of silicon is widely used in automotive and aerospace industries due to their low density, high wear resistance, high corrosion-resistant property and low coefficient of thermal expansion. The traditional way of crystallization upon receipt of aluminum-silicon alloy are usually formed by large particles of silicon and eutectic battery plates, which leads to a sharp increase in the brittleness of the alloys. Therefore, it is difficult, if you want to improve the microstructure after curing and to get structural materials of various shapes with high technological and operational metrics by subsequent plastic deformation, which is a bottleneck for wider use of these alloys. Traditionally, aluminum-silicon alloys belong to the group of cast aluminum alloys. In order to overcome their plochu the ability to deform, studies have been conducted several new methods based on rapid solidification or powder metallurgy. However, the method of rapid solidification allows to make only a tiny ingots with diameter less than 10 mm If you want to get a large ingot of the aluminum-silicon alloy, it is necessary to use an additional process. As for the method of powder metallurgy, it can provide a relatively large workpiece, but its disadvantage is the complexity of the process, leading to high cost of production.

In existing methods of casting pure aluminum or aluminum alloys most commonly used gravity die casting. The focus is on how to reduce the segregation of chemical composition, to improve the microstructure during solidification and to improve the surface quality of the ingot. On the basis of route of casting in the mold by one of the authors of the present invention was developed efficient production method for producing large ingots of aluminum alloys with high silicon content without adding any modifiers like P, Na and Sr, which was received in China, the patent for invention number ZL200510119550.6. The authors of the present invention, furthermore, found that narrowing the interval of silicon (i.e. increasing the lower boundary is concentratie silicon to 8% by weight and reducing the lower limit to 18% by weight) and selection of the contents of Mg and other alloying elements allows you to combine the above method with processing in a thermoplastic condition and subsequent heat treatment in order to create containing Mg vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys having relatively high ductility and strength, including profiles, bars, plates and forgings that can be used as a new and advanced structural materials.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys that contain magnesium and possess good ductility and high strength and can be used as structural materials, and the method of their production. Without adding any modifiers aluminum-silicon alloys are produced at a low cost way of casting in the mold, followed by processing in a thermoplastic condition and heat treatment.

In order to accomplish the above objective, this invention is an aluminum alloy containing Mg and having a high silicon content, and it includes profiles, bars, sheets, forgings, in which aluminum alloys are manufactured according to the technical process, including the following:

(a) casting an ingot of the alloy by the method of casting in a metal mold;

(C) the preliminary heat treatment of the ingot with the aim of dispersing particles of eutectic silicon phase; and

(C) treatment is in thermal condition and heat treatment to obtain the alloy, with the final form and the modified microstructure, while the mechanism of hardening of the alloy refers to the hardening of the aluminum matrix by grinding the grain, hardening due to the dispersion of particles of silicon and hardening due to the precipitation of particles of the secondary phase.

Containing magnesium vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys are used as structural materials, containing 0.2 to 2.0 weight percent magnesium and 8-18 weight percent silicon, and they are uniformly fine-grained microstructure: a matrix of aluminum is just equiaxial with an average grain size less than 6 microns, and the silicon particles and the secondary particles of the dispersed phase with an average particle size less than 5 microns.

Containing magnesium vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys can contain at least one of the following elements: Cu, Zn, Ni, Ti and Fe, with the total weight percentage of Cu, Zn, Ni, Ti and Fe is less than 2 weight percent.

Operation (a) casting in the mold leads to the production of a cast ingot of this aluminum-silicon alloy at a relative temperature of the casting 150-300°C above the liquidus, the speed of the wheels 100-200 mm/min and the cooling water flow 5-15 g/mm·on the periphery of the solidified ingot, the alloy not added any modifier.

Operation (C) pre-heat treatment leads to obrazovanie dispersed particles of silicon eutectic phase in the ingot at a heating rate of 10-30°C/min, the heating temperature 450-520°C and holding time of 1-3 hours.

The ingot is subjected to a preliminary heat treatment, is processed in thermoplastic state during the operation (C) at a temperature of deformation in the hot condition 400-520°C with subsequent natural or forced cooling. The product is subjected to deformation when heated, and then subjected to heat treatment after processing in thermoplastic state.

For products processed in thermoplastic state at natural cooling, heat treatment during the operation (C) contains, in addition, the operation of solution formation and operation of artificial aging. Education solution is performed at a heating rate of 10-30°C/min, the temperature of the processing solution 500-540°C and the time of formation of a solution of 0.5-3 hours, followed by rapid cooling. The artificial aging is carried out at a temperature aging 160-200°C and time of aging 1-10 hours.

For products processed in thermoplastic state by forced cooling, heat treatment during the operation (C) contains, in addition, the operation of artificial or natural aging, artificial aging is carried out at a temperature aging 160-200°C and the duration of aging 1-10 hours.

The process on the mesh rolling can be carried out during the processing operation in a thermoplastic condition, when the ingot is subjected to deformation in the heated state with a total drawing ratio when rolling more than 40%.

The process of hot extrusion pressing can be carried out during the processing operation in thermoplastic state, and the ingot is subjected to deformation when heated with a rate of extrusion of more than 15.

The process of hot forging may be carried out during the processing operation in thermoplastic state, and the ingot is subjected to deformation in the heated state with a coefficient of okovki more than 40%.

This invention overcomes prejudice, traditionally existing in relation to aluminum-silicon alloys. Without adding any modifiers unexpected effect was achieved in containing magnesium vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys are made by combining the traditional method of casting in the mold processing in a thermoplastic condition and heat treatment. They are characterized by fine particles of silicon and a secondary phase in equiaxial matrix of aluminum defining a relatively high strength and good ductility, which allows to use them as structural materials.

On Fig is a comparison of the mechanical properties of aluminum-silicon alloys for extrusion pressing, according to the but to this invention, and alloy 6063 extrusion pressing, according to Chinese national standard, States T5 and T6, while the alloys according to this invention, are the following alloys: Al-8,5Si-1,8Mg-0,27Fe, Al-12,7Si-0.7Mg-1,5Cu-0,3Ni-0,3Ti-0,3Fe and Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe, respectively.

As can be seen, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength alloys for extrusion Al-8,5Si-1,8Mg-0,27Fe, Al-12,7Si-0.7Mg-1,5Cu-0,3Ni-0,3Ti-0,3Fe and Al-5,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe able T6 higher than the Chinese national standards for alloy 6063 in the T6 condition. The mechanical properties of these alloys in the state extrusion pressing (T1), in particular the coefficient of elongation, is also higher than the Chinese national standards for alloy 6063 able T5.

Being the most common aluminum alloys for extrusion, alloy 6063 widely used in architecture, vehicles, decorative items, etc. that determines their high demand in the existing market. As soon as alloys 6063 will be partially replaced by containing magnesium vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys according to this invention, it will bring huge economic benefits. In addition, using a larger number of silicon alloys may contribute significantly to the conservation of the stocks of aluminium.

These and other objectives, the distinctive features and benefits of this innovation is about invention will become more clear from the following detailed description, the accompanying drawings and the accompanying points of patent claims.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a perspective view of the device for casting in the mold, according to preferred variants of execution of this invention.

2 - microstructure of the ingot of the alloy (#3) Al-12,7Si-0,7Mg-0,3Fe in flowable condition during the process of casting in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the temperature of the casting is 730°C, the casting speed is 180 mm/min, the flow rate of cooling water 8 g/mm ° C.

Figure 3 is a greatly enlarged microstructure of the ingot of the alloy (#3) Al-12,7Si-0,7Mg-0,3Fe in flowable condition during the process of casting in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the temperature of the casting is 730°C, the casting speed is 180 mm/min, the flow rate of cooling water 8 g/mm ° C.

4 - microstructure of the alloy (#3) Al-12,7Si-0,7Mg-0,3Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for 2 hours, subjected to hot extrusion pressing at 470°C (with extrusion ratio equal to 15), according to the second preferred variant implementation of the invention.

5 - microstructure of state T6 alloy (#3) Al-12,7Si-0,7Mg-0,3Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for 2 hours, subjected to hot extrusion pre is the popping at 470°C (coefficient of extrusion, equal to 15), according to the third preferred variant implementation of the present invention, when the specified condition T6 is at a temperature of dissolution is equal to 540°C for one hour and at a temperature artificial aging, equal to 200°C. for three hours.

6 - microstructure of the alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe in flowable condition during the process of casting in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the temperature of the casting is 800°C, the casting speed of 140 mm/min, and the flow rate of cooling water to 10 g/mm ° C.

7 is a greatly enlarged microstructure of the ingot of the alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe in flowable condition during the process of casting in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the temperature of the casting is 800°C, the casting speed of 140 mm/min, and the flow rate of cooling water to 10 g/mm ° C.

Fig - the microstructure of the alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for two hours, subjected to hot extrusion pressing at 470°C (with extrusion ratio equal to 45), according to the second preferred variant implementation of the invention.

Fig.9 - the microstructure of the alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for one hour, hot-rolled is th at 500°C (compression ratio of 60%), according to the second preferred variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 10 - microstructure of the ingot in state T6 alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for two hours, subjected to hot extrusion pressing at 470°C (with extrusion ratio equal to 45), according to the third preferred variant implementation of the present invention, when the specified condition T6 is at a temperature of dissolution is equal to 520°C. for two hours and at a temperature artificial aging, equal to 180°C, for 4 hours.

11 - microstructure of a rectangular ingot able T6 alloy (#5) A1-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe after pre-heating to 500°C for one hour, hot rolling at 500°C (compression ratio of 60%), according to the third preferred variant implementation of the present invention, when the specified condition T6 is at a temperature of dissolution, 520°C for 3 hours and at a temperature artificial aging, equal to 200°C, for 4 hours.

Fig - high-quality microstructure of the alloy (#5) Al-15,5Si-0,7Mg-0,27Fe in the T6 condition after pre-heating to 500°C for two hours, subjected to hot extrusion pressing at 470°C (with extrusion ratio equal to 45), according to the third preferred variant the execution of the present invention, while the specified condition T6 is at a temperature of dissolution, 520°C for two hours and at a temperature artificial aging, equal to 180°C, for 4 hours.

Fig - microstructure of the ingot of the alloy (#7) Al-17,5Si-0,7Mg-0,lCu-0,27Fe in flowable condition during the process of casting in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the present invention, the temperature of the casting is 850°C, the casting speed is 120 mm/min and the flow rate of cooling water to 10 g/mm ° C.

Fig - table, which presents comparative mechanical properties of silicon-aluminum alloy, according to this invention, and extruded alloy 6063, according to the Chinese standard.

Fig - table, which presents the compositions of the alloys are made from an ingot by casting process.

Fig - table, which presents the settings of various alloys during casting.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the process pre-heating process and extrusion pressing for each of the alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the process of pre-heating and rolling process for each of the alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the process pre-heating and forging process of drakedog of alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the extrusion process extrusion for various alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the rolling process for various alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the parameters of the forging process for various alloys.

Fig - table, which presents the mechanical properties for different types of deformation and heat treatment.

A detailed description of the preferred option run

Figure 1 illustrates the operation of casting ingot casting method in the mold, according to the first preferred variant implementation of the invention.

A device designed to perform casting in the mold shown in figure 1, this device has an inlet 1 for water cooling, the mold 2, the insulated extension 4 of the mold and the graphite ring 5, whereby the source material 3 of the ingot and the molten metal 6 are received separately in the container of the device. A number of alloy compositions made from the ingot during the casting process, presented at Fig. The number of parameters of the casting process presented on Fig.

Fig, 18 and 19 illustrate the operation of pre-heating with subsequent hot extrusion pressing or hot rolling or hot forging the ingot according to the second preferred option done is of this invention.

During the process of pre-heating the ingot is heated in a furnace with a given heating rate. After you reached the desired temperature, the ingot can withstand a specified time. Then used the device for hot extrusion pressing, or device for hot rolling, or device for hot forging to complete processing in a thermoplastic condition. The number of parameters pre-heating and hot extrusion pressing for each of the alloys presented on Fig. The number of parameters pre-heating and hot rolling for each of the alloys presented on Fig. The number of parameters pre-heating and hot forging for each of the alloys presented on Fig.

Fig, 21, 22 and 23 illustrate the operation of the heat treatment after hot deformation of alloys, such as hot extrusion extrusion, hot rolling and hot forging, according to the third preferred variant implementation of the invention.

After hot extrusion pressing, hot forging the ingot product is subjected to heat treatment at a predetermined temperature. Some parameters of the process of hot extrusion pressing, hot rolling and hot forging presented on Fig, 21 and 22, respectively. Some mechanical properties of the alloys after Ter is of a presented on Fig.

The present invention is proposed industrial use containing magnesium vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys (alloy Al-Si) and the method of their manufacture. Without adding any modifiers aluminum-silicon alloys have good ductility and relatively high strength, the production method of casting in the mold, followed by processing in a thermoplastic condition and heat treatment requires low cost, and they can be used as structural materials.

The person skilled in the art will understand that the embodiment of the present invention represented in the drawings and described above is only an example and may not be considered as a constraint.

Thus, it is clear that the objectives of this invention have been fully accomplished. Embodiments of the have been shown and described in order to illustrate the functional and structural principles of this invention and they can be modified, without departing from these principles. Therefore, this invention includes all modifications enclosed within the essence and scope of the following patent claims.

1. Method for the production of products, including profiles, bars, sheets or forgings of vysokokremnievykh aluminum alloys containing magnesium, including follow what their operations:
(a) casting an ingot of the aluminum alloy containing 0.2-2 wt.% Mg and 8-18 wt.% Si in the mold when the temperature of the melt during casting at 150-300°C above the liquidus for the specified aluminum alloys, casting speed equal to 100-200 mm/min, and flow rate of cooling water at the periphery of the ingot, part of 5-15 g/mm·s;
(b) a preliminary heat treatment of the ingot with the aim of dispersing particles of eutectic phase silicon; and
(C) processing in a thermoplastic condition for obtaining a final product shape and heat treated to create a uniform fine-grained equiaxial structure with an average grain size of the aluminum matrix 6 μm and dispersed particles of eutectic phase silicon and secondary phases with an average size of eutectic phase silicon and secondary phases of less than 5 microns.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said alloy structural material contains at least one of the following elements: Cu, Zn, Ni, Ti and Fe, while the total percentage by weight specified Cu, Zn, Ni, Ti and Fe is equal to or less than two percent by weight.

3. The method according to claim 1, in which during the operation (b) specified ingot is heated for the purpose of dispersing particles of eutectic phase silicon with a heating rate of 10-30°C/min, when the temperature of the heating 450-520°C and time is 1-3 hours, at the specified aluminum alloy is cooled is naturally or forcibly, while specified aluminum alloy is subjected to heat treatment after processing in thermoplastic state.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the heat treatment in stage (C) includes the operation of formation of the solution and the processing operation for the purpose of artificial aging of these aluminum alloys after processing in a thermoplastic condition with natural cooling, with the operation of formation of the solution is carried out at a heating rate of 10-30°C/min, at a temperature of formation of the solution 500-540°C and the time of formation of a solution of 0.5-3 h, while treatment with the purpose of artificial aging is carried out at a temperature aging 160-200°C and time of aging 1-10 hours

5. The method according to claim 3, in which the heat treatment in stage (C) includes the operation of artificial or natural aging in a forced cooling of the specified aluminum alloy after the above processing in a thermoplastic condition, the artificial aging is carried out at a temperature aging 160-200°C and time of aging 1-10 hours

6. The method according to claim 3, in which the processing in thermoplastic condition includes hot rolling operation, with the full value of the coefficient of hoods during hot rolling exceeds 40%.

7. The method according to claim 3, in which the processing in thermoplastic condition includes the operation of a hot extrusion press is for, when this ratio during hot extrusion extrusion extrusion is greater than 15.

8. The method according to claim 3, in which the processing in thermoplastic condition includes hot forging operation, while the ratio of okovki during hot forging exceeds 40%.



 

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5 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in preparation of crushed crystal silicon and halogen containing flux. Also, crushed crystal silicon is preliminary dampened, further, halogen containing flux in a solid powder-like state is applied on dampened silicon, and silicon covered with flux is dried. In particular cases of implementation of the invention crystal silicon is preliminary dampened with organic substance, for example, water solution of carboxy-methyl-cellulose or non organic substance, for example, water or water solution of sodium silicate. Mixture of halogenide containing flux with starch and/or flour is applied on dampened silicon. As halogenide containing flux there is used one-component flux or multi-component flux, of complex halogenide of alloying and/or alloy modifying element.

EFFECT: efficient processing crystal silicon practically of any fraction at foundry; reduced energy expenditures and time for alloy production; reduced gas contents and contents of non-metallic inclusions in aluminium-silicon alloys; fine disperse homogenous structure of foundry products.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: powder of composite material is produced by mechanical alloying powder of matrix alloy Al-Si-Be with dispersed carbon, silicon, nickel in nitrogen mixture with 2-8% of oxygen. Upon mechanic alloying into powder of composite material there is added 2.5-25 wt % aluminium powder and there is performed degassing and compacting.

EFFECT: material possesses high process plasticity.

3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to aluminium alloy production and can be applied in aluminium-silicon alloy manufacturing with the use of crystalline silicon. Method involves simultaneous feed of silicon-containing component in the form of crystalline silicon and halogenide-containing flux to aluminium or aluminium alloy melt, where the surface of crystalline silicon is previously coated with halogenide-containing flux layer, and the reactant obtained is fed to aluminium or aluminium alloy melt. Melt temperature is maintained within the range defined by formula: TMe=Tmp Me+D×(Tmp. flux:Tmp. Me)5, where: TMe is aluminium or aluminium alloy melt temperature, °C; Tmp. Me is aluminium or aluminium alloy melting point, °C; Tmp. flux is flux melting point, °C; D=(53÷85) is a fitted coefficient for calculation of melt temperature range, with D=53 for bottom point of melt temperature range and D=85 for top point of melt temperature range.

EFFECT: possible processing of any crystalline silicon fractions in casting production, with reduced aluminium and silicon loss, reduced power and time consumption in alloy production, reduced gas and non-metallic inclusion content in alloy, obtainment of fine homogeneous structure in cast products, expanded range of fluxes used, reduced flux consumption and slag output.

6 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-ferrous metallurgy, namely to a technique of production of aluminium-silicon alloy containing 25% silicon minimum. The method involves obtaining an intermediate melt with the interval of crystallisation 30°C minimum by introduction into the aluminium melt heated by 60-80°C over the liquidus temperature of the lesser part of the crystalline silicon, mixing, holding ensuring a complete dissolution of the silicon and cooling the intermediate melt, obtaining the alloy melt of the required composition by introduction of the main part of the silicon as crystalline silicon powder clad with aluminium obtained by a combined grinding of the powders of the crystalline silicon and aluminium in the ball crusher to achieve silicon pieces of 3 mcm maximum and concentration 43% by mass maximum into the intermediate melt with the temperature of 20-50°C higher than the one of solidus, mixing, raising the temperature of the resulting alloy melt after dissolution of the mixture of the powders by 50-100°C higher than the one of liquidus and crystallisation of the alloy melt with the rate of 102-103°C/sec minimum.

EFFECT: resulting alloy is the base for preparing eutectic and hypereutectic silumins with highly dispersed structure and improved physical-mechanical properties.

2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy field, particularly to ligature composition for manufacturing of silumin. Ligature contains, wt %: boron 2.0-3.0; silicon 10.0-12.0; vanadium 1.0-1.5; titanium 1.0-1.5; aluminium is the rest.

EFFECT: invention provides reduction two times ligature consumption during alloying of alloys on the basis of aluminium.

1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly it relates to composite material on the basis of aluminium It can be used in the capacity of constructional material for precision instruments of control system and spacecraft navigation. Composite material contains, wt %: silicon 35.0-46.0, nickel 2.0-5.0%, beryllium 0.0001-0.049, alumina 0.1-3.0; carbon 0.5-2.0; aluminium - the rest. Material is received by means of preparation of melt, containing aluminium, silicon, nickel, beryllium, and its dispersion with receiving of alloyed powder. Then it is implemented mechanical alloying of powder by dispersed carbon and silicon with reduction of silicon content in material till 35-46 wt % in nitrogen-oxygenous mixture with content of the oxygen 2-8 vol. %. Received material allows homogeneous disperse structure, that provides high stability of precision properties of elasticity and serviceability of high-precision devices of control systems and navigation while working of proposed material in touch with steel during long operation term.

EFFECT: receiving of material which allows homogeneous disperse structure, that provides high stability of precision properties of elasticity and serviceability of high-precision devices of control systems and navigation while working of proposed material in touch with steel during long operation term.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: powder metallurgy; structural materials for precision mechanical engineering; production of command devices for flying vehicle control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aluminum-based powder composite mixture contains the following components, mass-%: silicon, 41-43; nickel, 4.1-5.2; phosphorus, 0.05-0.1; aluminum nitride, 0.01-0.05; the remainder being aluminum. Method proposed for production of such mixture includes preparation of melt containing aluminum, silicon and nickel, spraying of melt for obtaining powder and mixing of this powder with silicon powder; melt containing additionally phosphorus is also prepared at subsequent introduction of nitrogen; spraying of melt is performed by means of nitrogen at temperature and pressure ensuring forming of aluminum nitride. As a result, finely-dispersed homogeneous structure is obtained at technological plasticity ensuring satisfactory deformation treatment of material at linear expansion coefficient, vacuum tightness and dimensional stability at beryllium level.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability of articles at increased service life.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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