Highly inflammable fuel briquette

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: briquettes are designed for fireplaces, different domestic stoves, for cooking, heating of residential and domestic premises, to heat railway cars, temporary cabins, etc. A highly inflammable fuel briquette contains the main layer, including a coal-containing component and a binder, and an igniting layer containing nitrate and a binder. The coal-containing component is represented by coal slacks in amount of 30-60%, the binder is paper wastes in amount of 40-70%, and the igniting layer contains potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in amount of at least 80 wt % of the igniting layer. At the same time the briquette is made with a hole, the area of the cross section of which makes from 25 to 40% from the area of the briquette cross section. Availability of both a flammable component (paper wastes) and an oxidant (potassium or sodium nitrate) in the igniting layer makes it possible for it to easily ignite from low-energy sources of heat (for instance, matches). Availability of a central hole increases completeness of fuel briquette burning and reduces emissions of hazardous substances into atmosphere.

EFFECT: fuel briquette is formed on an extruder, which simplifies and cheapens its manufacturing process.

1 dwg, 1 tbl


The invention relates to a method of producing fuel briquettes from coal and waste paper intended for fireplaces, various household stoves for cooking, heating residential and commercial buildings, for heating railway cars, caravans, etc.

The famous "Fuel element" (patent No. 2375415, publ. 10.12.2009) to obtain thermal energy method for burning sawdust, characterized in that the crushed wood pulp is applied evenly on the paper tape, and the resulting "sandwich" is folded in a multi-layer coil with a Central channel along the centerline.

The main drawbacks of this invention are the need to use the new wrapping paper, need to wet sawdust, and then, then waste heat energy for evaporation of this moisture.

The famous "briquettes" (patent No. 2268914). The briquette contains and 47.5-52.5 per cent of the rubble, to 28.5-31.5% dropout coal and 19-21% sawdust.

The main disadvantages of such briquettes are in the impossibility of its low-energy ignition sources, heat, low combustion efficiency.

The famous "Moisture resistant fuel briquette and method thereof" (patent No. 2345124, publ. 27.01.2009). Briquette-based coke, anthracite fines and binder - molasses contains additional ermantraut when soo is wearing components in wt.%: 20-25 anthracite, 25-30 ermantraut, 5-16 molasses, the rest is coke breeze.

The main disadvantages of such briquettes lie in the complexity of its formation, the inability of low-energy ignition sources, heat, insufficient high combustion efficiency and consequently in the increase of emissions of harmful substances.

The famous "Flammable fuel briquettes (Patent No. 2208044, publ. 10.07.2003)adopted for the prototype. The main layer of the brick consists of coal, and incendiary layer contains hexamethylenetetramine in the amount of 25-50%, potassium nitrate 5-20%, coal to 100%; the binder used thermoplastic 3,4-polyisoprene or epoxy resin that is modified by introduction of low-molecular liquid butadiene rubber having carboxyl groups in a ratio of resin - rubber 1 mol of 0.08 to 0.1.

The major drawback of the briquette are its relatively high cost due to the use of a large number of expensive components and the complexity of forming a two-layer structure.

The technical result of the invention is to simplify the manufacture and composition of the fuel briquette while maintaining the possibility of ignition from the low-energy heat sources and the reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

The technical result is achieved that formed overlaminates fuel briquette, consisting of a base layer containing carbonaceous component and a binder, and incendiary layer containing nitrate and a binder, as a carbonaceous component use of coal slurries in the amount of 30-60%, as a binder used paper waste in the amount of 40-70%, and incendiary layer contains potassium nitrate or additionally, the sodium nitrate in the amount of 80-100%, while the briquette is made with a hole, the cross-sectional area which is from 25 to 40% of the cross-sectional area of the briquette.

The essence of the technical solution is illustrated by a drawing) which shows the appearance of the briquette. (1) - main layer of briquettes, (2) - incendiary layer (3) has a longitudinal hole.

Use as a carbonaceous component of the coal slurry and the use as a binder of waste paper gives you the opportunity to get simple to manufacture and composition of the fuel briquette and simultaneously utilize coal and waste paper. Coal slurries provide the calorific value of the fuel briquette. Paper waste is both a binder and a combustible component.

The presence in the main layer of waste paper allows the core layer, easily ignited by incendiary layer, firmly and steadily lit. When the content of coal slurries above 60% and containing the AI waste paper in the main layer is less than 40% decreases the strength of the briquette. When the content coal slime below 30% and waste paper more than 70% in the core layer substantially decreases the calorific value of the fuel briquette.

The presence of incendiary layer pellet of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate and paper waste as a fuel binder allows this layer can easily be ignited by a low-energy heat sources (e.g., matches).

When incendiary layer of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in the amount of less than 80 wt.%, incendiary layer poorly ignited by low-energy heat sources.

Potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in dry form presoviet in the base layer, and when this happens their partial dissolution in the waste paper base layer. As a result, in the finished briquette get incendiary layer, which contains as a fuel binder (paper waste)and an oxidant (potassium nitrate or sodium), which allows him to easily ignited by low-energy heat sources (e.g., matches).

The presence of a Central hole increases the combustion efficiency of fuel briquettes and reduces emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. In addition, this fuel briquette made on the extruder, which also simplifies and cheapens the process of making briquettes. Having a single Central aperture due to the technologist is she making fuel briquettes - getting multiple holes or off-center location of the holes on the extruder is very difficult.

The presence of the hole cross-sectional area less than 25% of the cross-sectional area of the briquettes reduces the completeness of combustion of the briquettes due to insufficient airflow. The presence of the hole cross-sectional area more than 40% does not increase the completeness of combustion, excessive increases in the volume of briquettes (without increasing caloric content)reduces the strength of the briquette.

Example. Made bricks from sludge (0.5 mm) long-flame coal with ash content of 12.4%, humidity - 45,2%, the moisture content of the paper is 4.4%. In the manufacture of briquettes of mixing wet coal slime with dry paper waste, the sludge is partially dehydrated, and paper, on the contrary, moistened. Humidity is necessary paper-coal charge is adjusted by changing the content of sludge, if necessary, the sludge is dewatered in advance.

Data on the composition of the briquettes are shown in table 2. When the amount of sludge in the primary layer 80% of this layer worse ignited, and was less strong than when the amount of sludge from 30%to 60%. When the amount of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate 70 wt.% round layer cake was ignited worse than when the number of one of the nitrates 80 wt.% and more. The briquette was formed in the form of a cylinder is emetrol 40 mm, the diameter of the inner hole 12 mm, the length of the briquettes from 180 to 220 mm Briquette formed by the extruder with zones of mixing and pressing. Potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate is served in the main layer in dry form, the external surface of the briquette by additional screw. In the pressing zone, the briquette is strengthened, and it emerges from the extruder having sufficient strength to transport it for drying. The pellets after drying, easily ignited, burned steadily and not actually allocated smoke.

Flammable fuel briquette consisting of a base layer containing carbonaceous component and a binder, and incendiary layer containing nitrate and a binder, characterized in that as the carbonaceous component use of coal slurries in the amount of 30-60%, as a binder used paper waste in the amount of 40-70%, and incendiary layer contains potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate in the amount of not less than 80 wt.% incendiary layer, and the briquette is equipped with a hole, the cross-sectional area which is from 25 to 40% of the cross-sectional area of the briquette.


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4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

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SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the production of non-toxic solid fuel briquettes from production wastes and can be used in various industries. The method allows for obtaining solid fuel briquettes, containing in mass.%: chips of clear wood - 25-30, tobacco dust wastes - 10-15, grain husk - 10-15, organic binding substance - 40-55, with uniform density in the whole volume and improves their calorific capacity. The method involves grinding the organic material to a fraction in the range of 0.1-5 mm, drying to moisture of 9-14%, mixing the components of the mixture with the molten organic binding substance and subsequent pressing into briquettes at specific pressure in the range of 30.0-40.0 MPa. The device consists of a case with a receiving funnel, transmission shaft, joined to a hub, with an angle hole, in which a spindle is freely fitted, on the lower part of which a former block is mounted inclined to the axis of the shaft, with a cone-shaped packing surface. The former block is made with grooves for supplying the reinforcement material under the packing surface of the working organ. In the lower part of the case there are cut plates and a matrix, with calibrated openings, the dimensions of which correspond to the cross sectional dimensions of the briquettes. On the cone-shaped surface of the forming block there are pressure clutches, with dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of the calibrated openings of the matrix, into which the enter during spherical motion of the forming block. The transmission shaft is fitted with provision for vertical displacement. The forming block is made with provision for pressing at specific pressure in the 30.0-40.0 MPa range.

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3 cl, 2 dwg

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EFFECT: simplification and cheapening of complex structure with provision of its high efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: while carriage 32 travel relative to the frame 24 guides 33 frames 24, required angle is regulated between racks 3, 4 and circuits 1 and 2. There are connected drives 5 and 6, sawdust 22 charging device 20 and liquid binder feeder 23. Sawdust and liquid binder are supplied continuously to the space 21 between circuits 1 and 2 wood sawdust and the liquid binding. Simultaneously there is connected crank drive 29 which by rod 28 makes the rack 4 and the second circuit 2 to vibrate in a vertical plane. In the intercircuit space 25, sawdust 22 and liquid binder are mixed, while formed mass is pressed by moving adjacent branches of circuits 1 and 2.

EFFECT: simplified and cheaper utilisation of equipment, higher performance reliability and quality of moulded fuel cells.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: wood industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of fuel elements from composite based production waste. A required angle α between posts 3 and 4, and cycles 1 and 2 is set by moving a carriage against guides 26 of frame 18. Drive units 5 and 6, loading device 14 for sawdust 16 supply and liquid binder feeding device 17 are activated. Sawdust 16 are mixed with the liquid binder in intercycle space and the mixture thus obtained is packed by means of downward movement of the adjacent sides of cycles 1 and 2. When the device is running, pressure of the mixture being compressed is taken up by convergent belt sides of both cycles 1 and 2 and by flat friction bearings 9 10 and 1 fixed to posts 3 and 4. Simultaneously with the downward movement of the mixture, the mixture is cut by sharp edges of transverse walls 13 while cycle side 2 is gradually approaching walls 13 of cycle 1.

EFFECT: invention allows to simplify the equipment being used and to make it cheaper, to increase performance reliability and quality of the fuel cells being formed.

4 cl, 4 dwg