Method of producing polymer moulding composition
SUBSTANCE: polyacrylonitrile fibre is saturated with a mixture containing monomers of para-phenolsulphonic acid with formalin in dispersed graphite. Resin is then synthesised on the surface and in the structure of polyacrylonitrile fibre for 30 minutes and then moulded at pressure 0.1 MPa. The components are in the following ratio in pts.wt: polyacrylonitrile fibre: mixture of monomers: dispersed graphite = 1:15:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a polymer moulding material with ion-exchange properties and low electrical resistance.
2 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to methods for composite materials on the basis of chemical fibers and ion-exchange resins and can be used to obtain composite materials with ion exchange properties.
A method of obtaining a polymer composite materials, consisting of polycondensation of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of an alkaline catalyst on the surface and in the structure of chemical fibers. The polycondensation in doing so from the liquid phase at elevated temperatures with further heat treatment, copolycondensation and pressed at high pressure and temperature [Autospid. 1616930 the USSR, IPC 5 C08G 8/28, C08L 61/10. A method of obtaining a polymer press-composition / Searchamerica, M. Kardash, Tpiba, Vntura; Saratov Polytechnic Institute. No. 4286818; Statements. 20.07.1987; Publ. 30.12.1990].
The main disadvantage of this method is that the obtained materials have a high electrical resistance and does not have ion-exchange properties.
Closest to the invention is a method of obtaining a polymer composite material, including the application of cation-exchange resin impregnating composition consisting of a mixture of monomers) of the fibrous filler and pressing at elevated temperature, characterized in that the coating resin ASU is estlat in the process of its synthesis on the surface and in the structure of the fiber from a solution of monomers for 30 min with a ratio of the fibrous filler to the solution of the monomers of 1:15, and pressing is carried out at a pressure of 0.1 MPA [Patent - 2128195 of the Russian Federation, IPC 6 C08J 5/04. A method of obtaining a polymer press-composition / Searchamerica, M. Kardash, Oaioonoa, Saratov state technical University (Institute of Technology). No. 95118370/04; Statements. 24.10.1995; Publ. 27.03.1999.]
The main disadvantage is that these materials have a high electrical resistance and have a low exchange capacity.
Technical problem on which this invention is directed, are increasing exchange capacity of the obtained press material with ion exchange properties and lowering of electrical resistance.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the method of obtaining a polymer composite material including impregnation with a mixture of monomers - paraventricularis with formaldehyde, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber, the synthesis of resin on the surface and in the structure of PAN fiber for 30 min and pressing at a pressure of 0.1 MPa, previously injected into the mixture of monomers dispersed graphite in the following ratio of components 1:15:0,5÷1,5 (PAN fiber: a mixture of monomers: dispersed graphite).
The method is as follows:
1. The mixture of monomers and catalyst with continuous stirring and cooling.
2. Add in the mixture of monomers of disperse the th graphite.
3. Impregnation is obtained by composition of PAN fibers.
4. The synthesis is carried out at 45°C for 30 minutes
5. Drying is carried out at 60°C for 30 minutes
6. Curing is carried out at 100° C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa within 24 hours
a) preparation of a mixture of monomers is conducted by mixing paraventricularis with formalin under continuous stirring and cooling.
b) introducing the mixture of monomers 0.5 parts of dispersed graphite;
b) Impregnation of the 1st part of the PAN fiber 15 parts of a mixture of monomers introduced with 0.5 parts of dispersed graphite;
g) Synthesis of resin on the surface and in the structure of PAN fibers is carried out in a heat chamber at 45° for 30 min;
d) Drying is carried out at 60° for 30 min;
e) Curing is carried out at 100° C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa within 24 hours
The process is carried out under the conditions of example 1. The ratio of the components of the PAN fiber: a mixture of monomers: dispersed graphite 1:15:1.
The process is carried out under the conditions of example 1. The ratio of the components of the PAN fiber: a mixture of monomers: dispersed graphite 1:15:1,5.
Introduction less than 0.5 parts of dispersed graphite does not have a significant effect on the properties of the material, and the introduction of more than 1.5 parts worsens exchange capacity.
Properties of the obtained materials is given in table 1 Properties of press materials".
The main advantages of the proposed method is
1. The resulting polymer composite material is characterized by high ion-exchange properties, low electrical resistance.
2. Is achieved by chemical interaction of the polymer matrix with the reinforcing filler and dispersed graphite, resulting in a more heat-resistant monolithic structure. Table 2.
3. Reaching the necessary level of electrochemical performance of polymer ion-exchange membranes used in electrodialyzers.
|A method of obtaining a polymer moulding material|
|Performance specifications||The placeholder||Examples|
|Exchange capacity, mg·EQ/g||2,3||2,5||2,8||2,4|
|Surface resistivity, Ohm||6,0·106||6,0·106||5·105||3·105|
|Specific volume resistance, Ohm·m||12,1·105||8,5·105||8,1·105||6,6·105|
|A method of obtaining a polymer moulding material|
|ΔN, j/g||ΔN, j/g|
A method of obtaining a polymer of the press is of the material, including impregnated acrylic fiber with a mixture of monomers - paraventricularis with formalin, the synthesis of resin on the surface and in the structure of polyacrylonitrile fiber for 30 min and pressing at a pressure of 0.1 MPa, wherein the pre-injected into the mixture of monomers dispersed graphite in the following ratio of components, parts by weight: polyacrylonitrile fiber:a mixture of monomers:dispersed graphite 1:15:0,5÷1,5.
SUBSTANCE: membrane is a continuous belt made from a mixture of an ion-exchange polymer and hydrophobic thermoplastic polymer binder, on which a textile net based on polypropylene, polyether or polyamide is layered on one or two sides. The method of making the membrane involves extrusion of a film and subsequently moving said film, together with the reinforced textile net and protective separation layers lying on both sides of the sandwich, between two heated and mutually pressed cylinders revolving at the same speed on a circle. The ion-exchange membrane then undergoes natural or forced cooling at the output of the cylinders.
EFFECT: obtaining a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane which is virtually unbounded in the plane and design of an efficient method and device for making said membrane.
14 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of producing membranes involves the following steps: mixing molten polyethylene and a membrane-forming solvent, extrusion of the obtained melt and cooling the extrudate with formation of a gel form, biaxial stretching at crystallisation temperature ranging from crystallisation temperature of the polyethylene dispersion to melting point of polyethylene +10°C, removing the solvent, repeated stretching of the membrane in the transverse direction at temperature 100-120°C.
EFFECT: obtaining microporous polyolefin membranes having excellent compression strength.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in making membrane-electrode blocks used in different types of fuel cells, as well as in portable electronic devices etc. The membranes are obtained through coating from a 5-40% solution prepared from perfluorinated ion-exchange copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene with perfluorosulpho-containing vinyl ester and a tertiary modifying comonomer selected from a group comprising perfluoro-2-methylene-4-methyl-1,3-dioxalane and perfluoroalkylvinyl ester whose alkyl contains 1 or 3 carbon atoms, having equivalent weight of 700-900, number-average molecular weight of 1.0-4.0×105, density 1.79-1.83 kg/m3, degree of crystallinity equal to 1.0-4.5%, and one or more modifying perfluorinated ion-exchange copolymers whose structure is similar to the basic perfluorinated ion-exchange copolymer with equivalent weight of 950-1600, having number-average molecular weight of 4.5-9.0×105, density 1.84-1.91 kg/m3, degree of crystallinity 4.5-12.5%, structural formula: , M denotes H, Li, K, Na, a=23.57-10.53 mol %, b=74.43-81.65 mol %, c=2.0-8.0 mol % in the medium of an organic solvent at 70-120°C. The ratio of the basic perfluorinated and modifying perfluorinated ion-exchange copolymers is equal to 1.5-19. The membrane forms at 40-100°C after evaporation of the solvent.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of the membrane and simple process of making the membrane.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing gas-permeable membranes which can be used in fuel cells at high operating temperature (100°C and higher, methanol fuel cells, low- and high-pressure water electrolysis cells etc). The membrane is made from a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene with perfluorosulpho-containing vinyl ether and a tertiary modifying perfluorinated comonomer - perfluoro-2-methylene-4-methyl-1,3-dioxalane or perfluoroalkylvinyl ether containing 1 or 3 carbon atoms in the alkyl, and a polymeric or inorganic modifier. The method of making the membrane involves contacting a perfluorosulpho-cationite membrane with a liquid composition containing an ion-exchange perfluorosulpho-polymer, a polymeric or inorganic modifier and a solvent. The perfluorosulpho-polymer with functional sulpho-groups SO3M, where M is a hydrogen, ammonium or alkali metal ion, has equivalent mass of 800-900, and is similar on structure to the membrane polymer. Contacting is carried out at 18-80°C. Particles of the modifier are formed on the surface or inside the membrane at 18-120°C.
EFFECT: preserving proton conductivity, preventing cathode polarisation and water flooding, high energy density of fuel cells.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 41 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a sulphonated block-copolymer which is solid in water and contains at least two polymer terminal blocks A and at least one polymer inner block B, where: a) each block A is a polymer block which is resistant to sulphonation, and each block B is a polymer block which is susceptible to sulphonation, wherein said blocks A and B do not contain significant levels of olefinic unsaturation; b) each block A independently has number-average molecular weight between 1000 and 60000, and each block B independently has number-average molecular weight between 10000 and 300000; c) said blocks B are sulphonated in the range of 10-100 mol %; and d) where the said block-copolymer is insoluble in water and is moulded into an article having ultimate tensile stress greater than 100 pounds per square inch (689.5 kPa) in the presence of water according to ASTM D412; d) each block A is a polymer selected from polymerised para-substituted styrene or 1,3-butadiene monomers, having vinyl content less than 35 mol % before hydrogenation, each block B is a polymerised unsubstituted styrene, 1,1-diphenylethylene, a copolymer of unsubstituted styrene and 1,3-butadiene, a copolymer of unsubstituted styrene and alpha-methylstyrene, where any segments in blocks A and B, which contain polymerised 1,3-butadiene, are then hydrogenated, and where any block A, which contains polymerised hydrogenated polymers of conjugated acyclic diene, has melting point higher than 50°C. Described is a method of producing said sulphonated block-copolymer. The invention also describes a membrane formed at least partially from said sulphonated block-copolymer.
EFFECT: obtaining a polymer with good water transportation properties and sufficient strength in wet state.
30 cl, 4 dwg, 8 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of microporous polyolefin membranes used as separators in storage batteries and filters. Proposed method comprises the following stages: mixing in melting polyolefin and membrane forming solvent, extruding obtained solution and cooling extrudate to produce gel mould, first two-axis membrane expansion at temperature from polyolefin dispersion crystallisation temperature to dispersion crystallisation temperature of +30°C, thermosetting of expanded gel mould, removal of solvent, second one-axis membrane expansion at temperature of polyolefin dispersion crystallisation to of polyolefin dispersion crystallisation of +40°C.
EFFECT: larger pores, higher air permeability, mechanical strength and compression strength.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to methods of producing microporous polyolefin membranes used as separators in accumulator batteries and in various filters. The method of producing the membranes comprises the following steps: mixing molten polyolefin and a membrane-forming solvent, extrusion of the obtained melt and cooling the extruded article to a gel form, first biaxial stretching at temperature ranging from crystallisation point of the polyolefin dispersion of +15°C to crystallisation point of the dispersion of +40°C, removing the solvent, second monoaxial stretching of the membrane with removal of the solvent at temperature ranging from crystallisation point of the polyolefin dispersion to crystallisation point of the polyolefin dispersion of +40°C.
EFFECT: obtaining microporous polyolefin membranes having large pore diametre, excellent air-permeability, mechanical strength and compression strength.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to porous films used as filtration membranes. Proposed film comprise poly(vinylidene fluoride) as the main component and polyethylene glycol as hydrophilic component. Degree of crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer makes 50% or higher, but not exceeds 90%, while product of degree of crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer by specific area of film surface makes 300 (%·m2/g) or higher, but not exceeds 2000 (%·m2/g). Porous film is produced by extruding film-forming solution from injection orifice. Said solution comprises hydrophobic and hydrophilic components and common solvent. Film-forming solution is hardened.
EFFECT: improved water permeability and resistance to effects caused by porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) film reagents.
12 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of producing composite membranes with fullerene-containing polymer selective layer to extract ethers in alkyl acetate hybrid process. Proposed method consists in forming selective diffusion polymer layer on microporous substrate. Microporous substrate is represented by microfiltration membrane from copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with lavsan-based tetrafluoroethylene. Selective layer is the mix of poly(phenylene oxide) and fullerene C60. Selective layer is formed by applying 2%-solution of aforesaid mix onto surface of said microporous substrate and drying it.
EFFECT: composite membrane with improved transfer properties for extracting ethers.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of industrial rubber articles which are used in conditions with heavy mechanical loads, friction, aggressive media and severe climatic conditions and can be used to make sealing devices for flexible and fixed joints of the type of rings, cuffs and linings, as well as for making actuating devices for membrane converters of pressure changes into linear displacements and components of braking systems of railway vehicles. The polymer composition contains the following components in pts. wt: paraffin butadiene nitrile rubber 90-100, butadiene methylstyrene rubber 0-10, technical sulphur 0.5-1.5, tetramethylthiuram disulphide 1-2, N,N'-dithiodimorpholine 1.5-2.5, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzthiazolyl-sulphenamide 1.0-2.5; zinc oxide 4-8, phenyl-β-naphthylamine 0.5-2.5, technical carbon 100-150, dibutylphthalate 20-40, dibutyl sebacate 20-40 and stearic acid 0.5-2.5.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain articles which can work in aggressive media at temperature as low as minus 60°C, are stable under periodic dynamic loads and have high operational reliability and a guaranteed long useful life.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: article has a bearing rod and a reinforcing winding made from fibre filler saturated with polymer binder. The polymer binder contains the following (wt %): epoxy resin 8-14, isomethyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride 8-14, polymerisation accelerator 0.4-1.0 and a modifying additive - aromatic conjugated hydroxyphenylene 1.8-3.0. The fibre filler is made from mineral carbon fibre.
EFFECT: invention improves operational characteristics of the composite reinforcing article.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention may be used for protection against poison-gases and chemicals. Butyl rubber-based three-layer material comprises central reinforcing layer and outer cover layers arranged on its both sides. Said central layer is made up of fabric from polyester high-strength thread with liner density of 9-12 tex, specific breaking load of, at least, 610 mN/tex and number of turns of 180-220 t/m, or high-strength aramide thread with linear density of 6.3-14.3 tex, specific breaking load of 200 cN/tex, and number of turns of 90-130 t/m, or mix thereof. Said thread is two-component combine thread. First rod-shape component represents aramide and/or polyester complex thread or yarn, while second component represents rod shield with number of turns of 600-900 t/m made up of modified fire-resistant viscose thread or yarn with linear density of 10-30 tex. Said fabric represents calico, twill, momie or satin weave with identical thread base and weft characteristics and densities. Two outer cover layers are made from rubber composition based on chloroprene rubber containing magnesium oxide, cure accelerator, that, guianide F, that is 1,3-diphenylduanidine, zinc white and thiuram D, curing agent, that is, technical sulfur, filler, that is, technical carbon, plasticiser, that is, stearic acid and chlorinated paraffin wax, fire retardant, that is, antimony trioxide and chlorinated paraffin wax. Barrier film material is applied on both sides on aforesaid material. Said barrier material consists of five consecutive layers with total thickness of 18-36 mcm or with total thickness of (co) polyolefins 35-70 mcm. Adhesive layers are arranged on both sides of third barrier layer made form (co)polyolefins. Adhesive layers are arranged on both sides of third barrier layer made form copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol and maleic anhydride, or the like.
EFFECT: better protection, higher incombustibility and low surface density.
10 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves dissolving 15-20 pts.wt polyvinyl alcohol in an aqueous suspension of carbon fulleroid nanomodifier in amount of 0.01-1.0 pts.wt per 100 pts.wt water.
EFFECT: high adhesion strength of carbon rods to a carbon matrix in a carbon-carbon composite material.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: articles are obtained by preparing an initial mixture from 0.1-1.2 mm quartz granules and a polyether curable resin. The mixture is put onto a temporary substrate or a mould with dimensions of the end article. Further, the mixture undergoes vacuum compression with simultaneous vibration, after which the polyether resin is cured. The resin does not contain a reactive solvent and is formed from a reaction between at least one epoxidated triglyceride and at least one carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalytic initiator at 80-180°C.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain slabs or blocks using Bretonstone technology with good mechanical and physical characteristics and absence of yellowing under the effect of UV radiation for 500 hours.
8 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes spinning of electroconductive solution of organic and non-organic polymers and predecessor of organic polymer in presence of electric field between tip and earthing source till composite fiver is received. At that organic and non-organic phases of composite fibres are mixed and react with each other with production of -Si-O-M- links, where M is selected from the group consisting of Si, Ti, Al and Zr. The author offers composite fibre received by the above method and composite product including polymer matrix and composite fibres introduced to it.
EFFECT: improvement of method.
28 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: nanocomposite material contains polymer binder, filler and a nanoparticle fraction. The nanoparticle fraction contains multilayered carbon particles with a toroid shape with dimensions ranging from 15 to 150 nm, in which the ratio of the external diameter to the thickness of the toroid body is in the range of (10-3):1. The filler is selected from a group comprising glass, carbon and organic and boron fibre. The binder is selected from a group comprising epoxy resins, epoxy-novolak resins, epoxy-phenol resins, polyethers, polyimidazole or polyoxybenzimidazole. Use of the nanoparticle fraction in the nanocomposite material enables to achieve effective compaction and reinforcement near filler/binder interphase boundaries and increase average density, elasticity, hardness and strength thereof.
EFFECT: nanocomposite material can be used to make different components and articles for machine building and transport, including holders for tools for precision processing surfaces of components.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves saturating nonwoven polymer materials, polymer netting or glass fibre with 20-55% solution of OKM-2 or PN609-21A polyether acrylate carbonate oligomer or a solution of ED-20 epoxide oligomer in ethyl alcohol, polymerisation of the oligomer and evaporating the solvent. Polymerisation is carried out at high temperature but not higher than melting point of the polymer, and while adding dicumyl peroxide to the solution in amount of 10% of the weight of the oligomer as a chemical polymerisation initiator or polymerisation is carried out with exposure to UV radiation in the presence of a photoinitiator - azodinitrile in amount of 0.5-0.8% of the weight of the oligomer. The polymerised oligomer must not dissolve in the given solvent.
EFFECT: membranes based on cross-linked oligomers have high strength, heat resistance and chemical resistance.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 21 ex
SUBSTANCE: composite material contains a layer of fibres joined with a matrix. One of the component parts containing the matrix and fibre exhibits auxetic behaviour when loaded along a first direction, while the other does not exhibit auxetic behaviour when loaded along a first direction. Thermal expansion coefficients of each layer of the material, measured parallel and perpendicular the first direction, are essentially equal.
EFFECT: longer service life, low cost of construction and low weight of the composite.
18 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex