Method of determining soil permeability
SUBSTANCE: when realising the method, a weight is placed on the top surface of the sample; the soil sample is converted to a pseudoliquid state; the beginning of sinking of the weight is recorded; further, the cross-section and length of the sample, pressure and volume of the stream of water over a defined period of time are measured; soil permeability is calculated from the measured values.
EFFECT: possibility of determining permeability of running soil in pseudo-liquid state by placing a weight on the top surface of the soil sample and recording the beginning of the sinking of the weight.
The present invention relates to the field of research of the parameters of soils, and more specifically to methods for determining permeability of quicksand ground.
There is a method of determining the permeability of soil layer in the field, including the drilling of vertical wells, the pumping of ground water, the measurement of the rate of recovery of water level in the well and well parameters, the calculation of the measured values of permeability is described in the book: Madunina A.F., Korchagina Z.A. research Methods physical properties of soils. - 3rd ed. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - S-236.
The known method does not allow to determine the permeability of the top layer of soil with a low water level of groundwater.
The closest in technical essence and purpose of the proposed technical solution is the method for determining the permeability of the soil, which is passed through a sample of ground water flow, measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample and the volume of water flow for a certain time interval, calculated using the measured parameters permeability coefficient of the soil described in the book: Madunina A.F., Korchagina Z.A. research Methods physical properties of soils. - 3rd ed. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - S-236.
The known method does not provide the possibility of determining adjusted the rate of filtration quicksand ground in pseudogigas condition, since it is not possible to fix the time of the loss of carrying capacity.
The aim of the invention is the determination of the permeability of quicksand ground in pseudogigas condition.
This goal is achieved by the fact that on the upper surface of the sample placed on the weight transfer the soil sample in pseudozyma condition, record the beginning of the dive sinker, and then measure the cross section, length of the sample, the pressure and volume of flow of water over a certain time interval, calculated using the measured values of permeability coefficient of the soil.
The method is implemented as follows. On the upper surface of the sample placed on the weight. In the soil sample creates a flow of water. Transfer the soil sample in pseudozyma condition, record the beginning of the dive sinker, which shows a sharp drop in load carrying capacity and transition ground in pseudozyma state. The weight of the sinker take more than 5, When the weight of a weight of less than 5 g surface tension forces prevent his dive. Next, measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample, the amount of water for a period of time, pressure and calculated by the well-known formula filtration coefficient quicksand ground
where W is the volume of water, F is the cross-sectional area of the sample, T is the time interval, h is the pressure, l is the length of the soil sample.
An example implementation of the FPIC of the BA. The soil sample is represented by fine-grained sand. On the upper surface of the sample place the sinker weight 7, Create the flow of water. Translate the sample in pseudozyma state. Record the beginning of the dive weight. The transition of the soil sample in pseudozyma condition and loss of bearing capacity is fixed at the beginning of the descent of the sinker weight 7, Measure the cross-sectional area F=14 cm2. For the time interval T=10 min measure the length of the soil sample is l=16 cm, head h=37 cm, the amount of water W=116 cm3. Calculate the coefficient of filtering by the well-known formula k=W·l/(F·T·h)=116·16/(14·10·37)=0.358 cm/min = 5.15 m/day.
The proposed method of measuring permeability in comparison with analogue provides the possibility of determining the permeability of quicksand ground in pseudogigas condition by placing on the upper surface of the soil sample weight and fixing the beginning of the dive.
The method for determining the permeability of the soil, which is passed through a sample of ground water flow, measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample and the volume of water flow for a certain time interval, calculated using the measured indicators of the permeability of the soil, characterized in that on the upper surface of the sample placed on the weight transfer the soil sample in pseudozyma condition, fix Acala dive weight, and then measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample, the pressure and volume of the upward flow of water.
SUBSTANCE: photographic images of the eroded soil are taken using a cord (belt) and/or graduated scale. The obtained image is then displayed on a computer screen, where the profile of the eroded part is selected on the horizontal level and contours of the surface of the eroded soil. Further, the area of the eroded part is determined and the volume of soil lost due to water erosion is then calculated.
EFFECT: method for rapid determination of soil loss after torrential rain or snow melt, where there is fast photographic capture of the profile of the eroded soil with high speed of measuring soil loss, with low cost and high accuracy compared to existing methods.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to determine parameters of pillars erected in soil by the jet grouting method including arrangement of a well for the entire length of a pillar with subsequent erosion under permanent flow rate and pressure of a working solution and speed of lifting and rotation of a hydraulic monitor until formation of a pillar and determination of pillar parameters in compliance with soil properties. In process of well arrangement a soil sample is taken with a coring device with a case, with length multiple to pillar diameter, afterwards the case with the soil sample is installed in the horizontal position and under the right angle with one end is rigidly connected to a cylindrical conductor, the cavity diameter of which complies with the well diameter, and the other end is closed with a cover equipped with a metering system. In the conductor cavity coaxially to the cartridge with a soil sample there is a hydraulic monitor installed, and sample soil is washed with a working solution under permanent pressure, afterwards using the time of soil sample washing, the speed of hydraulic monitor lift is determined, as well as the radius of the given pillar section, and afterwards values of technological parameters are set for generation of a pillar with specified parameters.
EFFECT: simplified method, reduced costs, higher accuracy to detect geometric parameters of cement soil pillars along the entire depth of pillar erection depending on soil properties.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises planting in the soil of seeds of sprouted grains, their germination at constant optimal environmental conditions and measurement of guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. In addition, the guttation intensity is measured in these seedlings at a later age, and the ratio of the guttation intensity amount is calculated measured in addition to the guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings. Thereat the assessment of the level of the soil phytotoxicity is carried out in accordance with the following gradation of the relative level of phytotoxicity of oil-polluted soil: the exponent IG2/IG1> 1 there is no toxicity; IG2/IG1 = 1 - a low level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 <1, a high level of toxicity, with IG2/IG1 = 0 - a very high level of toxicity, where IG1 - is guttation intensity of one-day-old seedlings; IG2 - is guttation intensity measured additionally. The guttation intensity is measured additionally at the age of 3-4 days of seedlings germination.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce complexity and maintain the high sensitivity of the assessment.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for determining moisture content includes non-conducting unit, power supply and measuring instrument. At the bottom of the unit there is a recess and at the top the block is covered with a lid with a recess coaxial to the recess of the unit bottom. In the recesses there are contacts which contact with the measuring rod. The container with soil is put on the measuring rod. At that the container from above and below is closed with lids with slits greater than the thickness of the measuring rod.
EFFECT: application of this device enables to determine the soil moisture under field conditions with minimal labor and resources costs and to choose the best version of cultivation technology of field crops.
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of aggregate composition of the soil consists of water tank with a drain hole, a base frame and an electric motor, where on the base frame a platform rotated with the electric motor is mounted, on which the water tank with sections different on volume is installed. The upper section is smaller than the lower section. The bottom of the lower section is removable and is fixed with snaps. At the bottom there are circular protrusions.
EFFECT: use of this device will enable to simplify the conducting of analysis of soil aggregate composition with minimal destruction of aggregates.
SUBSTANCE: shearing stand includes a ferrule with an extractor ring for holding a soil sample, a counterweight device, a drive mechanism and the surface of a tilting table placed under the ferrule. According to the invention, the drive mechanism for moving the ferrule is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod mounted on the surface of the tilting table, connected through a strain gauge dynamometer to the ferrule; the loading mechanism is in form of a swivelling two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, whose chamber is connected by hydraulic lines through an adjustable choke; the table tilting mechanism is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, having a manometer in the head end, wherein the traction hydraulic cylinder and the tilting hydraulic cylinder of the table are connected through hydraulic distribution valves by hydraulic lines to a power supply and drainage.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating the action of intensifiers on shearing stress of materials and soil on the shearing surface while varying the angle of interaction of the soil and the shearing surface.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining bioactivity of soil, water, wastes and preparations based on humic substances. To this end, seeds are pre-soaked for a day in a solution of the analysed substance. The seeds are then let to germinate at 25°C for 3 days on a substrate mounted on a vertical transparent plastic container. The container is a base and a rectangular cover of equal size, which are placed in parallel and joined to each other on the entire perimeter by "button" type fasteners. The container allows for installation of a removable central horizontal partition wall for holding the substrate. Before germination, the substrate is moistened, a filter is placed on the substrate and seeds are placed on said filter in a single row along the line of the central horizontal partition wall at a distance of 1 cm from it. After germination, the root length of the sprouts is determined relative control. If the root length in the test samples is shorter than that of control samples by 20% or more, the analysed substance has a toxic effect, if the root length exceeds the control length, the analysed substance has a stimulating effect, in the rest of the cases, the analysed substance has no bioactivity or is weakly toxic.
EFFECT: method enables to conduct serial investigations, is characterised by simplicity and rapidness, seeds are exposed in a short period of time and there is no mechanical damage when determining root length.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring relative shear resistance of an elementary layer inside granular material moving together with a bogie under the action of a falling weight. The granular material is divided into two parts by a horizontal plate on the level of said elementary layer. The top part is put into a box which is connected by a thread to the recording device of a dynamometer, and the bottom part is moved relative the top part on a bogie. The shear resistance force is measured and continuously recorded on paper in a function of the shear path, and the weight of the empty box is considered as additional height of the granular material.
EFFECT: ensuring high accuracy of measuring shear resistance force of granular material without violating its structure and conditions in which it lies.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare a monolith of mineral soils to identify a filtration coefficient includes picking of the monolith with a cutting sampling ring with subsequent filling of a filler between the inner wall of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. Prior to filling of the filler the diameter of the soil monolith is reduced by a value of doubled width of a cylindrical ring slot complying with thickness of a peripheral area of the monolith with soil properties damaged during picking of the monolith, but not less than 3 mm, by cutting of a cylindrical ring slot in the monolith between the inner surface of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. The filler used is a melted waterproof material with low melting temperature, for instance, mineral wax, besides, when identifying a filtration coefficient of mineral soils on monoliths the filtration area is accepted as complying with the soil monolith diameter D0 determined on the basis of the relation.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of filtration ratio identification, provision of accuracy of monolith preparation for filtration tests.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises hollow taped-cylinder tip arranged toward motion and closed by rubber plug at its rear to be adjusted relative to sleeve. Said tip is arranged inside said plug. Said sleeve is rigidly secured to case bottom and has horizontal slot to receive retainer of aforesaid tip. Note here that smoothly rounded stop is arranged behind said retainer to displace in support rigidly attached to device case. Dog is secured to said support whereto articulated is elastic string or steel wire connected, in its turn, to moving and spring-loaded support with writting rod. Table is arranged under the latter. Paper reeled on drive drum may move toward said table. Second drum is arranged rigidly on said table. Fixed support is secured to said table and is articulated with moving support that rests on two ball supports.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and adequacy of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring permeability for a gas sample through a container or a sealing element, having an outer face, a thickness and an inner face. Said thickness contains a measured starting concentration of the gas sample. The method involves a first step for exposing the outer face to a stream of said gas sample which is mixed with another gas with a defined and fixed concentration. At the second step, the inner face is exposed to a stream of a carrier gas with a defined and fixed concentration. At the third step, the inner face is brought into contact with said carrier gas while measuring the gas sample almost penetrating and carried by said carrier gas. The fourth step expects a stable state of the measured value of the almost penetrating gas, said measured value being considered as the value of permeability of the container or sealing element for the gas sample. Said measured and fixed concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face is selected such that the difference between concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face and said starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness is virtually equal to the difference between the starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness and the expected concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face. The starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness is calculated using solubility coefficient close to 1.
EFFECT: method of measuring gas permeability of a container or sealing elements which requires much shorter measuring time compared to conventional methods, and which also does not require use of very sensitive and expensive sensors.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring permeability of a gas sample through a thin film or a wall comprises several steps. A step for placing said thin film or wall as a membrane between a first chamber and a second chamber in a sealed way. Said membrane separates and seals said first and second chambers. A step for causing said gas sample to flow into said first chamber and causing a carrier gas to flow in and out of said second chamber. An amount of said gas sample permeates into said second chamber through said membrane and is conveyed away by said gaseous carrier. The rate at which said gas sample permeated into said second chamber and was present in the flow of said carrier exiting from said second chamber is then determined. Further, said steps for causing said gas sample and said carrier gas to flow are carried out at a total pressure of said gas sample and said carrier gas in said first and second chambers at a predetermined value which is considerably higher than ambient pressure. The total pressure difference between said first and second chambers remains virtually equal to zero. Said total pressure predetermined value of the gas is set between 2 and 15 bar, preferably between 3 and 7 bar. The disclosed method also comprises a step for reducing said total pressure in said first and second chambers to a value less than said predetermined value.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measurements owing to high output of scattered laser light.
14 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining the reaction surface of carbon materials involves conducting processes for adsorption from a stream of a mixture of helium and an adsorbate at different temperatures. The method also involves desorption of the formed reaction products into the stream of the mixture by heating and measuring concentration of reaction products in the stream of the mixture. The adsorbate used is oxygen. Adsorption is carried out at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 500°C and desorption is carried out by heating to temperature 900°C.
EFFECT: method for realising a dynamic technique for thermal desorption, which takes into account physical and chemical sorption of the adsorbate with respect to the test sample, which enables to determine the reaction surface of carbon materials.
3 dwg, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation of protective properties of packets of filter materials for skincare agents based on activated carbon-containing sorbents in dynamic conditions. The method is realised by using methyl salicylate which mimics the penetrating power of ypertite in an air stream at temperature 26±1°C, concentration of methyl salicylate vapour in air stream of 0.05±0.01 mg/l, relative humidity of 65±5% and pressure gradient on the thickness of the packet with surface area 22 cm2 equal to 49 Pa, with subsequent analytical determination of the minimum amount of methyl salicylate penetrating the packet and the minimum time for protective action, calculation of the external effective dose of DDS, which the packet of the filter protective material protects from based on the given relationship.
EFFECT: high safety, reliability and information content of the evaluation process.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for accurate determination of the displacement factor and relative permeability involves conducting field pressure transient tests and taking geophysical measurements. An injection well from which drilling has been stopped or was previously used for oil extraction, having a vertical or deviated hole which penetrates the formation from top to bottom is used for investigation. Before injection, geophysical investigations are conducted in the well in order to determine the initial distribution profile of the oil saturation factor. The working fluid is then injected into the well. Bottom-hole pressure, the injectivity profile of the working fluid through section of the formation, as well as the distribution profile of the water saturation factor are measured at different time instances. Measurements are then stopped at the n-th phase when the water saturation factor profile is the same as that measured at the (n-1)th phase. Results of said monitoring are then used to determine the oil displacement factor with the working fluid, as well as the relative permeability function for each characteristic interval of the section of the formation.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining the displacement factor and relative permeability not at one point but on the entire section of a formation.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises core holder and gage intake container arranged there below, high-permeability mixer arranged atop tested specimen and coupled with feed puncheon wherein two chambers are made to contain two diverse fluids. Note here said feed puncheon is made up of two tight chambers with preset fluid flow rate fitted one into another concentric about device axis. Note also that inner chamber space is provided with bottom shutoff valve to form circular clearance around its working lateral surface. Inner chamber bottom is provided with, at least, four radial channels with their outlets communicated with said circular clearance while their inlets are communicated with inner space of another chamber and furnished with needle restrictors threaded surface of which are coupled with appropriate surfaces of circular skirt made on outer cylindrical surface of inner chamber bottom part. Note here that high-permeability mixer represents small-height perforated sleeve. Two sector thrusts for mounting feed puncheon are arranged top said sleeve. Concentric about device axis. Besides, sleeve is fitted in case lateral surface to seal lateral surface of tested specimen. Note that vertical and radial intercommunicated channels are made in feed puncheon lateral wall and bottom to communicate spaces above upper boundaries of diverse fluids in puncheon and mixer.
EFFECT: higher homogeneity of filtered flow, simplified design, easier replacements.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for analysing an ophthalmic lens has a plug-in form and female form, where said plug-in form has a convex analysis surface, an outer plug-in surface, a plug-in support ridge passing from the perimetre of the convex analysis surface, and a hole passing from the outer plug-in surface to the convex analysis surface. The female form has an outer female surface, a concave analysis surface, a female support ridge passing from the perimetre of the concave analysis surface, and a hole passing from the concave analysis surface to the outer female surface. When the plug-in form and the female form are brought together, the plug-in support ridge rests on the female support ridge and creates an analysis region between the plug-in convex analysis surface and the female concave analysis surface.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating working characteristics of ophthalmic lenses under eye ambient environment conditions.
25 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the study of processes of multiphase filtering of liquids and gases in porous medium, particularly to water-oil displacement and can be used to calculate relative permeability and J-function. The method comprises displacement of the resident agent by the displacement agent from the sample porous medium with frontal and side surfaces. Then the porous medium saturation is measured after the permanent flow is achieved and relative permeability is calculated. During this the resident agent is fed into the porous medium through the side surface of the sample in addition to the displacement agent. The resident agent is randomly distributed with a given discharge rate per length unit. Furthermore, the displacement agent and the resident agent are in gaseous or liquid state. The time of permanent flow achievement is calculated with the following formula where ϕ is the pore content, V is the volume of the porous sample, Q2 is the resident agent flow rate through the side surface of the porous sample, n is the index of power.
EFFECT: reduced establishing time for permanent flow in two-phase medium (liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, gas-liquid) and simultaneous measurement of stationary distribution of the porous medium (in one experiment).
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design and experimental method of defining filtration properties of porous media produced by powder metallurgy. Protective and working properties of porous media produced by powder metallurgy processes are estimated to be forecast for various magnitudes of air speed, aerosol particle sizes depending upon pore sizes, fractional porosity, tortuosity and porous medium filtration layer thickness. Estimation of structural characteristics is performed with due allowance for transverse pores. Proposed is design formula for defining porous material filtration criterion.
EFFECT: higher validity of estimation, lower costs.
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of solid electrode surface fractal dimensionality involves electro-dissolution of a marginally soluble substance precipitated monolayer film on the surface used as a solid electrode. In the process of electro-dissolution one registers the quantity of the substance forming the monolayer. The elements of the multitude covering the electrode are represented by molecules of a marginally soluble non-organic substance. Then one calculates the quantity of the substance in the monolayer and the electrode surface area taken up by a single molecule of the substance precipitated on the electrode. Then one plots dependence of the quantity of the substance in the monolayer on the electrode surface area taken up by a single molecule of the substance precipitated on the electrode in logarithmic coordinates. By the tangent of the slope angle of the obtained dependence straight line approximation one concludes on the fractal dimensionality value.
EFFECT: development of a method providing for determination of fractal dimensionality of different surfaces.
2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: stand has device for pumping liquid and detachable shell, wherein model of filtering environment is placed. Detachable shell is connected to liquid forcing plant and has replaceable impenetrable elements for adjusting value of contact area of outer surface of filtering environment to liquid, made in form of inserts and ring isolators.
EFFECT: higher precision.